Premium Essay

Alzheimers Disease

In: Science

Submitted By geenjokie
Words 9399
Pages 38
Targeting Insulin Signaling in Treating Alzheimer’s Disease
Name
Institution Table of Contents
Abstract 3
Summary 4
Introduction 5
Present Therapeutic Regimens for Alzheimer’s disease 5
Methods 7
Search Strategy 7
Exclusion/ Inclusion Criteria 8
Relevant Information 8
Results 9
Discussion of Results 12
Epidemiological information linking type 2 diabetes to AD 16
Insulin-signaling abnormalities in Alzheimer disease affected brain 17
Diabetes drugs in treatment for AD 19
Treatments regimens for type 2 diabetes Mellitus and their potential in treating AD 23
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs). 23
Metformin. 23
Amylin and Leptin analogs. 24
Findings 26
Interpretation of Results 26
Limitations 28
Future Research 29
Conclusion 31
References 32

Abstract
Type 2 diabetic drugs could serve as potential in the treating Alzheimer’s disease. AD is a dementia defined by partial or total loss of memory. The risk of development of AD increases with age. Different therapeutic approaches have been employed when it comes to treatment of AD. Results of indicate that diabetic drugs are effective in treating Alzheimer ’s disease.
Despite efforts directed at treatment of the condition, the results have not been satisfactory. This could be attributed to the early or late onset of AD pathogenesis while at the same time being underpinned by various mechanisms. There is evidence suggesting the effectiveness of type 2 diabetic drugs in treatment of AD. Research has focused on understanding the possibility of using Type 2 diabetic drugs in the treatment of AD.
In this paper, a research review is conducted to expand on the potential use of T2DM diabetic drugs in treating AD. A literature review is being carried out on different papers written by authors. A systematic literature review is conducted where results they obtained and a discussion carried out on the same....

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Alzheimers Disease

...Alzheimer’s disease General Psychology Term Paper Assignment Monday Night Class Abstract In the society that we are living right now, we can find a lot of different kinds of illness and health problems. A large number of these diseases have a cure and they also have a happy end; but there is one that does not. Over the past 20 years, Alzheimer’s disease came from an unknown dark side. Once studied as a strange disorder; it is one of the most common health problems that affect a lot of people around the world and their families. More of a 90% of Alzheimer’s disease cases shows up in people around 60 years old. Even do we ignore how this treats starts; science people have found that the change inside the brain starts 10 to 20 years before we can observe the symptoms. Knowing a little more about this illness, will help us to understand these people that are in need of love, attention and comprehension. Alzheimer’s disease In the society that we are living right now, we can find a lot of different kinds of illness and health problems. A lot of these diseases have a cure and they also have a happy end; but there is one that does not. Alzheimer’s disease is a very ordinary illness that severely affects our society, specially the older population. It is a fact that we have to deal with. Unfortunately, there are a lot of people out there that......

Words: 2369 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Alzheimers Disease

...Alzheimer’s Disease We live in an advanced world of technology and medicine. As much as many things positively impact society, numerous may also have a negative effect. Throughout the years, we were able to create cures through medicine that have allowed the life expectancy of the older generation to outlast the previous ones. But for many seniors, new problems arise that still require an antidote with the help of research and development. Even though females have a higher rate in life expectancy, they also have a greater chance in degenerating diseases; but both have an equal chance in getting a specific disease. One of which is the most common form of Dementia called Alzheimer’s that is caused within old age. Alzheimer causes memory loss and it goes from losing a little portion to even forgetting your entire past. This paper will discuss what happens with Alzheimer’s, who it targets, what are the signs of detecting this disease, and if there is a way to cure it. Alzheimer’s was first discovered in the early 1900’s by a German physician, Alois Alzheimer. He discovered the disease while observing a patient, a 51 year old woman named Frau Auguste D., who developed symptoms of memory loss and had difficulty understandings and speaking. After a few years of observations, Dr. Alxheimer discovered a progression of the symptoms which inevitably led to the death of the patient. Upon autopsy, abnormal impairment of the brain was discovered, along with a......

Words: 2692 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Alzheimers Disease

...Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Research advances have enabled detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the hallmarks of the disease-ie, plaques, composed of amyloid β (Aβ), and tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, as our knowledge increases so does our appreciation for the pathogenic complexity of the disorder. Familial Alzheimer's disease is a very rare autosomal dominant disease with early onset, caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes, both linked to Aβ metabolism. By contrast with familial disease, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is very common with more than 15 million people affected worldwide. The cause of the sporadic form of the disease is unknown, probably because the disease is heterogeneous, caused by ageing in concert with a complex interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors. This seminar reviews the key aspects of the disease, including epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as recent developments and controversies. 100 years ago, Alois Alzheimer gave a lecture at a congress in Tubingen, Germany, on the first case of the disease that Kraepelin some years later named Alzheimer's disease.1 In this single case. Alzheimer described typical clinical characteristics with memory disturbances and instrumental signs, and the neuropathological picture with miliary bodies (plaques) and dense bundles of fibrils (tangles), which we......

Words: 7059 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Alzheimer Disease

...The documentation of a severe form of dementia by Alois Alzheimer in 1907 began a massive investigation of the cause of this disorder. Some of the common symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease consist of memory loss, impaired language ability, impaired judgement, and learning (M. Wong, et al. , 1997). Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is mainly a disease of the cerebral cortex. Alzheimer's is marked structurally by the senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and severe loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex. Alzheimer's is a neurodegenerative disorder ( Hof, Vogt, Bouras, and Morrison 1997). Recent attention has been focused on visual dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease (K. U. Loffler, D. P. Edward, & M. O. M. Tso 1995). Visual Problems During the clinical evaluation of patients with mild to moderate dementia of the AD type, visual difficulties such as : topographic agnosia, visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, and prosopagnosia are detected. AD patients have The problem of describing the individual components of a picture is consistent with the severity of cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) deficits in the association cortical areas. Other deficits experienced by AD patients were texture discrimination, blue-violet discrimination, and 4.72 deg/sec motion detection. When AD patients were compared to other age-matched controls, AD patients had shown specific deficits in contrast sensitivity. Deficits in color vision were only age-related (M. Wong-Riley, et al. , 1997). ...

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Alzheimer Disease

...Alzheimer Disease 2013 michaeltin [Type the company name] 4/30/2013 Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear after age 60. Estimates vary, but experts suggest that as many as 5.1 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia among older people. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person’s daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living. Alzheimer’s disease is named after Dr. Aloes Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptoms included memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloidal plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary tangles). Plaques and tangles in the brain are two of the main features of Alzheimer’s disease. The third is the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Alzheimer Disease

...Alzheimer’s Disease HCS245 11/14/2011 Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease, also known as dementia is a brain disorder that damages and destroys brain cells. Alzheimer’s is the sixth leading cause of death. Alzheimer’s disease causes loss of memory, thinking, and other functions of the brain to stop working correctly. Alzheimer’s is most often found in older adults over the age of 65 but this disease is not a normal part of aging. Alzheimer’s also can be found in people under the age of 40 (Alzheimer's Association, 2011). The brain consists of one hundred billion nerve cells or neurons. These nerve cells are grouped and each group has their own job. Some of these groups are for thinking, learning, remembering, seeing, hearing, and smelling. When brain cells are functioning correctly, they should receive information, process information, store the information, and communicate with other cells. Keeping everything running requires large amounts of fuel and oxygen for coordination. Alzheimer’s disease prevents the cells from working correctly. When there are problems in one area it in return causes problems in other areas. As damage in the brain spreads, the cells lose their ability to function correctly, do their jobs, and eventually die causing permanent changes in the brain (Alzheimer's Association, 2011). Alzheimer's disease is a growing health issue in the United States. This disease affects four million people, and 360,00 to 400,00 new cases......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Traumatic Brain Injury as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease. Comparison of Two Retrospective Autopsy Cohorts with Evaluation of Apoe Genotype

...biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/1/3 BMC Neurology (2001) 1:3 Research article Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Comparison of two retrospective autopsy cohorts with evaluation of ApoE genotype Address: 1L.Boltzmann Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Baumgartner Hoehe 1, B-Bldg., A-1140 Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Neuropathology, University of Munster School of Medicine, Munster, Germany and 3Cognitive Neuropharmacology Unit, H.M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Md, USA E-mail: Kurt A Jellinger* - kurt.jellinger@univie.ac.at; Werner Paulus - werner.paulus@uni-muenster.de; Christian Wrocklage - christian.wrocklage@uni-muenster.de; Irene Litvan - ilitvan@dvhip.org *Corresponding author Kurt A Jellinger*1, Werner Paulus2, Christian Wrocklage2 and Irene Litvan3 Published: 30 July 2001 BMC Neurology 2001, 1:3 This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/1/3 Received: 29 June 2001 Accepted: 30 July 2001 © 2001 Jellinger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in any medium for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. For commercial use, contact info@biomedcentral.com Abstract Background and Purpose: The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is still controversial. The aim of our retrospective autopsy study was to assess the impact of TBE and......

Words: 3590 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Case Study 1

...Clinical Applications Objectives In this chapter we will study • various approaches to the study of disease; • the role of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; • common causes of disease; • the distinction between signs and symptoms of disease; • terms used to describe the time course of a disease; and • common abbreviations for medical specialists and specialties. Homeostasis and Disease The body’s tendency to maintain internal stability is called homeostasis. Examples include the body’s relatively stable temperature, blood glucose concentration, hormone levels, acid-base balance, and electrolyte balance. When physiological variables deviate too much from their set point, the body activates negative feedback loops that tend to restore stability and maintain health. In some cases, such as the stoppage of bleeding, positive feedback loops are activated to bring about rapid change. If the attempt to regain homeostasis fails, disease results. There is a strong emphasis in medicine today on promoting wellness through prevention. However, this manual focuses on what happens when prevention fails, homeostasis is disrupted, and disease occurs. The Study of Disease Disease (illness) is any deviation from normal that interferes with correct, life-sustaining bodily function. Literally, the word means dis-ease, the opposite of ease (comfort and normal function). Disease may have underlying structural foundations, such as a broken bone, and its effects may be......

Words: 3427 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Leverage

...In the article clinical epidemipology of Alzheimer’s disease the author is trying to assess the sex and gender differences observed in the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. The author is also trying to research on the protective factors and gender-specific risk of Alzheimer disease. Both sex and gender play crucial roles in the development and progression of the Alzheimer disease. Researchers have a required to understand both sex and gender precise risk and Alzheimer protective factors in order for them to develop ways of the disease prevention and cure. The other uses the findings of David Barlow where he states that Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent type of dementia. Serge Gauthier previously found out that Alxheimer’s disease is characterized by loss of memory. This is a characteristic that distinguishes the disease from other cortical degenerative diseases. The author supports Hebert and Scherr findings that fourteen to sixteen million Americans will be diagnosed with the illness by 2050 unless research comes up with new treatment of the disease. The author supports a finding by Petersen RC that says the men have a higher threat of developing mild cognitive impairment. Knopman DC also supports that men have higher chances of being diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. These previous findings show that Alzheimer’s disease have incidence and prevalence differences between men and women. The author of the article main......

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Okayy

...Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.[1] Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age,[2] although the less-prevalentearly-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.[3] Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms.[4] Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress.[5] In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available.[6] As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability and aggression,mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss. As the sufferer declines they often withdraw from family and society.[5][7] Gradually, bodily functions are lost, ultimately leading to death.[8] Since the disease is different for each individual, predicting how it will affect the person is difficult. AD develops for an unknown and......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Alzheimer

...Can Alzheimer be reversed? Many experts suggest that 5.1 million Americans have Alzheimer disease (“About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”). I currently take care of my grandmother and she was diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease about three almost four years ago. I would have paid anything for her not have to suffer through this disease. Alzheimer Disease (also known as “AD”) is a disease that is growing within our population and has not found a cure. If they do not find a cure Alzheimer’s will have a risk to increases with age, and the U.S. population is aging. The number of people with Alzheimer’s doubles for every 5-year interval beyond age sixty five (4). Studies show, by 2050 over 13 million will have the Alzheimer disease (“Alzheimer's Facts and Figures”). Alzheimer is a disease that forms in your brain. Abnormal deposits of proteins form amyloid plaques and that tangles throughout the brain, and once-healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently.( “About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”) For a example it is the sign at a railroad crossing that the gates are no longer going back up. Alzheimer is one of the most common forms of dementia. (“About Alzheimer Disease: Alzheimer Basic”) Dementia has many causes besides loss of memory. It can have a effect on memory, language, attention and problem solving. Dementia can also have affect on their attitude and behavioral, where they might yell or hit you. Dementia can lead a person living completely dependent on someone...

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Business Proposal

...THE OUTCOME IN THE LATE STAGE OF ALZHEIMER DISEASE Name: Institution: A business plan describing evidence-based intervention to improve outcome in the late stage of Alzheimer disease Executive summary According to the “British Medical Journal (BMJ)” on the subject “Care plans for individuals with Alzheimer disease: Intuitively a good idea but hard to prove they are effective in practice.” It is seen that teaching based intervention for Alzheimer care are suggested by large professional organizations although it is not evident on who should undertake these models to the patients. Care plans replicas along with the guidelines usually do have the stated objectives of delaying an illness development and functional beg off (Schneider, 2016). Alzheimer is illustrated by momentous impairments in several cognitive areas, functioning as well as the behavioral burden. Premature revealing, as well as management, can avert overuse of expensive healthcare resources and permit the affected people and caregivers the time to prepare for the prospect financial, medical along with the emotional confronts. This planning proposal offers the right measures concerning the evidence-based intervention to improve outcome in the late stage of Alzheimer disease. Among the cited evidence-based intervention that the business proposes to employ in combating the new stage of the disease do include the use of......

Words: 2450 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hcs 341

...Professor Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that causes an individual to have trouble with thinking, memory, and certain behaviors. More than 50 to 80 of people in the U.S. who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Currently no cure is available. But over the last 15 years, much has been discovered about Alzheimer’s that has helped researchers to understand the affects it has on the brain. As a result of these findings there has been much progress with the approach and treatments that help prevent or minimize the effects of Alzheimer’s (alzheimer’s.org 2011). Since so many elderly Americans suffer from this disease, organizations like the Alzheimer Association were developed to provide those affected with support and education on the disease. The mission of the Alzheimer’s Association is “to eliminate Alzheimer disease through the advancement of research; to provide and enhance care and support for all affected; and to reduce the risk of dementia through the promotion of brain health” (alzheimer’s.org 2011). The Alzheimer Association is the largest private and not for profit funder of Alzheimer research with a vision of “A world without Alzheimer’s”. The mission and vision of the Alzheimer’s Association suggests that the organization follows ethical practices and has core values. The association is an advocate and is dedicated to serving the community and the many Americans who suffer from the disease by fighting for research,......

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Alzheimer's Disease Case Study

...Abstract Alzheimer's disease involves cognitive disorders and problems with abstract reasoning in older people mostly. Alzheimer's disease has many behavioural and emotional characteristics which affects the victims of Alzheimer, as well as their families and those who care for them. The exact cause of Alzheimer is still not clear to us, not even after all these years of research. Till now, all we know is that a small proportion of Alzheimer’s disease is inherited, many scientist believe that there is some connections between a person’s environment and genetic make-up. According to statistics, more than 44 million people in the world have Alzheimer disease. By the year 2030, there might be a rise in the number of Alzheimer victims, up to...

Words: 2451 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Alzheimer Unfinshed

...Hook Introduction to Alzheimer What is Alzheimer? Who have an Alzheimer? There are two main types of Alzheimer namely, early-onset Alzheimer and late-onset Alzheimer. Early-onset Alzheimer What is it? Who have it? What are the factors that influence this types of disease? What are the symptoms, signs of this disease? How can a doctor treat this disease? Late-onset Alzheimer In United Kingdom, 800000 people have a dementia, and the most common dementia is Alzheimer Dementia is a set of symptoms which comprises of “loss of memory, mood changes, problems with community and reasoning”. 60000 people in United Kingdom die per year attributed to dementia. One third of aged people over 95 years old have dementia. Two third of dementia patients are women (Alzheimer’s society, 2014.a). http://alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=341 Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist, first described Alzheimer as a physical disease affecting the brain. People with Alzheimer have a scarcity of certain vitals chemicals, which of these involve in the transmission of messages inside the brain. During the course of Alzheimer’s, protein called plaques and tangles develop inside the structure of the brain, leading to the death of brain cells. Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease, which means gradually more parts of the brain are damaged. As a result, the symptoms and impacts from Alzheimer ‘s are likely to become more severe over......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3