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American English File

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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
7 stole / has stolen 8 the swimming pool opens (opened; will open) 9 are you meeting / will you meet 10 she lives / she lived

1A Q and A
1 GRAMMAR a 3 How long 4 Which 5 How often 6 How 7 What 8 Do 9 What kind (sort / type) 10 Whose 11 Have 12 Who

2 PRONUNCIATION a 1b 2a 3a 4b 5b 6a 7b 8a

3 SPEAKING b Answers will vary depending on the country and culture you are teaching in. In the US, questions 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 11, and 12 would be considered inappropriate questions to ask someone you don’t know well. a 1 What’s the most important lesson life has taught you? 2 What’s your earliest memory? 3 Where would you like to live? 4 What single thing would improve the quality of your life? d 1L 2N 3N 4L 5N 6L 7L 8N 5 If you could go back in time, where would you go? 6 What’s your most treasured possession? e 1 8 or 10 2 9 3 11 4 8 5 11 or 12 4 READING & VOCABULARY a f a 1 Do you ever send text messages? 2 When was the last time you went to a party? 3 Could you tell me if there is a bank near here? 4 Who usually cooks the dinner? 5 Who do you like going shopping with? 6 What don’t you like doing on weekends? 7 What kind of car would you like to buy? 8 Do you know what time the concert ends? b 1 do you 2 wrote 3 this book costs / this book cost 4 happens / happened 5 Did you enjoy 6 does Tim usually listen to 1
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Single men and women meet for an evening. The women sit at tables and the men sit with each woman in turn. They have only three minutes to ask each other questions, and they then check a scorecard if they would like to see the person again. If both a man and a woman choose each other, there is a “match” and, in the next few days, they are given each other’s e-mail addresses.

c 1 In the Stone Age, a man used to bring food to a woman he was interested in; in Victorian times (the nineteenth century) a man and woman would meet for tea but always with someone else watching.

American English File- Book 4
2 For people who are single and too busy to spend a long time getting to know other people. 3 Because she thinks you can get an idea of what someone is like in three minutes, and you can eliminate them if they’re not your type. 4 Because she didn’t want people to know she was a journalist, so they would behave naturally with her. b

Answer key
It was successful for Alex – he married his second date, but Emily didn’t have any successful dates.

1B 2B 3E 4A 5E 6E 7A 8A 9B

d 1 They got twice the number of dates that they normally had in a year from just one night of speed dating. Going speed dating means they don’t have to try to talk to people they don’t know in bars. You meet 20 or 30 single people in one night. It’s safe, and like being at a party. 2 She seems to think it is a good idea because she got four new dates in 66 minutes.

f 1 tag 2 grimace 3 giggle 4 raise (your) eyebrows 5 small talk 6 chat

g 1 Because she was wearing jeans and other women were wearing fashionable dresses and stylish suits. 2 Mostly professional men with good jobs. 3 She raised an eyebrow if she thought the man she was talking to was a possibility and made a grimace if she thought he was boring. 4 More interesting and imaginative questions like If you could be an animal, what would you be and why?

5 LISTENING a 2
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
8 stubborn 9 assertive 10 cheerful 11 self-confident 12 insecure 20 impulsive 21 irritable 22 arrogant 23 optimistic 24 funny

1B Do you believe it?
1 READING & SPEAKING a A Mahatma Gandhi D Jack Nicholson B Orlando Bloom C Albert Einstein E Tom Hanks F Victoria Beckham

b –ble sensible

–able reliable –ous

–ful forgetful –al

–y moody –ic

c 1B 2A 3F 4D 5E 6C

-ive

sensitive adventurous critical pessimistic

d assertive = expressing his / her opinion with confidence optimistic = having a positive attitude to life ambitious = wanting to be successful lack self-confidence = being uncertain about his / her ability to be successful stable = calm and reasonable well-balanced = being emotionally in control of his / her own life, not moody self-confident = believing in his / her ability to be successful arrogant = believing that he / she is better than other people insecure = unsure of himself / herself have low self-esteem = not feel happy with his / her own character and abilities

c sensible = able to make good judgments reliable = can be trusted to do something well forgetful = often forgetting things moody = having moods that change quickly and often sensitive = able to understand other people’s feelings adventurous = willing to take risks and try new ideas critical = expressing disapproval pessimistic = expecting bad things to happen

Extra challenge 1C 2B 3D 4A

c 2 talkative 6 imaginative 7 dishonest 8 inconsiderate 3 unreliable 4 cheerful

2 VOCABULARY b 1 vain 2 conscientious 3 open-minded 4 insincere 5 eccentric 6 easygoing 7 well-balance 13 ambitious 14 loyal 15 wise 16 calm 17 possessive 18 reserved 19 immature 3

5 insincere

MINI GRAMMAR 1 The more you study, the more you learn. 2 The sooner we leave, the earlier we’ll get there. 3 The more sociable you are, the more friends you have.

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American English File- Book 4
4 The happier you are, the nice you are to other people. 6 LISTENING & READING b 1.6 1 Positive – Sally’s office was more normal than she expected, and Sally looked kind and sincere. 2 Are you married? And Do you have any children? 3 Because she mentions two things that don’t mean anything to Jane, i.e., the name Caroline and Australia. d a 1 isn’t 2 did b 1 am 2 isn’t 3 is 1.7 1 T (She grew up there.) 2 F (He is someone she already knows.) 3 T (She’s 5 feet 10 inches.) 4 F (It is his brain that will attract her.) 5 F (she can’t think of anyone who fits the description.) 2 didn’t 4 would 4 don’t 5 Have 6 haven’t 5 does 6 did 7 have 8 don’t 9 do 7 GRAMMAR b

Answer key

1 is 2 does 3 doesn’t 4 does 5 will c A4 B2 C3 D1 E5

7 won’t 8can’t 10 don’t 11 do 12 would

1.8 1a 2b 3b

c 1C 2D 3A 4B

d In part 1 she gets information from the client (Are you married?, etc.) and uses name. In part 3 she identifies a common medical problem (headaches).

e She thinks Sally is good at judging people’s character but doesn’t have any special abilities. However, since she saw Sally, she started seeing a professor who invited her go to Australia – two things that Sally predicted.

4
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

1C You’re the doctor!
2 PRONUNCIATION 1 SPEAKING & VOCABULARY a nosebleed = blood is coming out of your nose blood pressure = the pressure of blood as it travels around your body; it can be high or low pinch = take something between your thumb and first finger and squeeze hard burns = injures by fire or heat hurts = causes physical pain blisters = swellings on the surface of the skin that are filled with liquid, e.g., which you can get on your feet if your shoes are too tight antiseptic cream = cream that helps prevent infection 2 Peter started coughing after his mother managed to touch the tomato with her fingers, and the tomato came out. His mother did the right thing by hitting him on the back, but she should not have put her fingers down his throat. c a 1 a blister. 2 a rash. 3 a cough. 5 a headache. 6 a temperature. b1B/D 2F 3A 4C 5D/B 6E 7 Her back hurts / aches. 8 She’s sneezing a lot. 9 His ankle is swollen. 11 her finger is bleeding. 4 SPEAKING a If the sting is on the body, put ice on it for about ten minutes. If the person has been stung on the mouth or throat, give him / her an ice cube to suck. If the person starts to show an allergic reaction, call an ambulance or go to the ER. b Call an ambulance or go to the ER. While you are waiting for help, cover the person with a coat Extra challenge 1I 2E 3H 4G 5A 6B 7C 8D 9K 10 J 11 F 1 medicine 2 rest 3 specialist 4 X-ray 5 stitches 6 injection 7 bandage 8 operation 5
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e See Vocabulary Bank page 147

3 READING & LISTENING d 1 When the presenter put her arms around Mrs. Johnson’s waist and pulled hard inward and upward, the piece of steak came out. She did exactly the right thing.

4 a pain (in his chest). 10 He’s throwing up.

of blanket. Open the person’s mouth and check breathing. c If the person is conscious, help them into a comfortable position and ask what he / she has taken. Call an ambulance or go to the ER. Do not try to make the person vomit. Look for any empty medicine bottles or containers and give them to the doctors or ambulance crew.

5 GRAMMAR a 1A B I broke …

American English File- Book 4
2 3 4A 5 6 B … I went … They have been married … I’ve known … How long has …

Answer key
4 Do you walk to school / work? How far have you walked today? 5 Do you smoke? How long have you been smoking? How many cigarettes have you had today? 6 Are you taking any vitamins right now? How long have you been taking them? 7 How many hours do you sleep a night? Have you been sleeping well recently? 8 Are you allergic to anything? Have you ever had a serious allergic reaction?

b See bold verbs in audioscript

c a1 2 has called 3 they’ve been playing 4 He hasn’t seen 5 I’ve never met 6 7 I’ve been cleaning up 8 We’ve already had 9 have you had 10 has left b 1 ’ve known 2 Have you been running? 3 hasn’t done 4 they’ve moved 5 have Laura and Adam been going out / have Laura and Adam gone out 6 haven’t had 7 ’ve been driving 8 Have you been eating

6 READING c SS Should have put a check next to Being stuck in a traffic jam … and Taking care of a family member with a chronic illness. They are examples of “good stress.”

d 1b 2c 3b 4a

f 1 cut down 2 chronic /’krɑnɪk/ 3 beneficial /bεnə’fɪʃl/ 4 strengthen /’strεŋkθən/ 5 cells /sεlz/ 6 damage /’dæmɪʤ/ 7 disease /dɪ’zɪz/ 8 harmful /’hɑrmfl/ 9 muscles /’mʌsls/

d 1 Do you drink enough water? How many glasses have you drunk today? 2 Do you get any physical exercise? What kind? How long have you been doing it (playing tennis, going to a gym, etc.)? 3 Do you eat a lot of fruits and vegetables? How many servings have you had today? 6

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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
6 can’t help it (= can’t stop or control doing something)

1 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH
WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
THE INTERVIEW a A woman (Joyce Levine) and a (birth) chart.

ON THE STREET a Aquarius Leo 1 2 4 5 star signs definitely influence

b 1 How they affect human nature. 2 You have to be good with people, have compassion, counseling skills, and business skills. 3 Go over the person’s birth chart. 4 The person’s family temperament, background, personality, work life, character,

Sagittarius 3 Cancer Taurus Curt

believes

someone’s personality.

b 1 Curt 2 Tiffany 3 Duey 4 Dennis 5 Fern

relationships, and aspirations. 5 To some extent (within a range). Life cycles are predictable but humans also have a choice what to do with them.

c c 1 They want to know how to overcome a problem or obstacle, e.g., they lost a job, they’re having relationship problems, etc. 2 A wide range of people come to see her, e.g., individuals, couples, families, businesses, etc. 3 She can tell them if they will make money and help them with employee problems and hiring. 4 She tries not to frighten them. 5 She can’t help it. She always knows where the planets are and how they affect her. 1 read into (= a phrasal verb that means believe or interpret that something has a particular meaning) 2 every once in a while (= occasionally) 3 turn out (= a phrasal verb that means become; end up becoming) 4 go out of my way (= make special plans or inconvenience yourself) 5 as well (= too; also)

d 1 in terms of (= the way in which) 2 basically (= in general) 3 a wide range (= many different kinds) 4 something like (= similar to) 5 get the message (= understand) 7
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

1 WRITING: AN INFORMAL E-MAIL / LETTER
Lesson plan a havent (punctuation) haven’t temprature (spelling) temperature since (grammar) for Luckly (spelling) Luckily Anything exciting? are (grammar) is music-company (punctuation) music company a good news (grammar) some good news or good news may (punctuation) May recomend (spelling) recommend siteseeing (spelling) sightseeing you’ll can show (grammar) you’ll be able to show or you can show exciting (punctuation) Anything

I’ve been sick. My brother Ian Just started his new job … I have some good news.

b I haven’t been in touch. I’ve been catching up on my e-mails. Please give my regards to your family.

d 1 for 2 to 3 not 5 to 6 to 7 with / in 9 for 10 forward 12 care 13 Best

11 Give / Send 14 PS

4 hope 8 are / get / feel

WRITE How are you? What have you been doing? Anything exciting? How is your family? Could you recommend a hotel? Do you think you’ll be able to show me around? 8
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key random = chosen without deciding in advance, or without any regular pattern on the spot = at that exact moment, immediately

1 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR a 1 about 2 did 3 does b1a 2b 3c 4a 5b 4 have 5 been

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a1b 2a 3c 4b 5a b 1 Because she was having a lot of problems with her fiancé. 2 That the problems would be resolved.

VOCABULARY a 1 wise – the others describe negative characteristics 2 insincere – the others describe positive characteristics 3 blister – it’s symptom but the others are illnesses 4 ER – it’s part of a hospital but the others are people b 1 to 2 at 3 in 4 to 5 for c 1 forgetful 2 ambitious 2 reliable 4 moody 5 sensitive d 1 bleed 2 swollen 3 bandage 4 irritable 5 bossy 6 arrogant

3 No, it wasn’t. 4 That the psychic wasn’t very professional. 5 Because Alice believes that psychics can really see into the future. 6 She told Alice she would have a new job. 7 She didn’t get depressed when she lost her job. 8 Not to depend too much on psychics.

PRONUNCIATION a 1 headache (it’s /k/) 2 bossy (it’s /s/) 3 flu (it’s /u/) 4 cough (it’s /ɔ/) 5 earache (it’s /ɪr/) b arrogant, immature, injection, allergic, specialist

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1c 2b 3a 4a 5b b correspondence = the letters / e-mails you send and receive genres = particular styles or types of something family ties = strong connections between members of a family 9
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key pervious generations of your family 3 a multiethnic = including people of many different races, religions, and languages b unwillingness = not wanting to 4 a customs = the way people from one country of culture do things b hugging = putting your arms around someone to show you like them

2A National stereotypes: truth or myth?
1 LISTENING & SPEAKING b Canadian 4 English 3 Australian 1 American 2

c Speaker 1 (Australian) (+) down-to-earth, friendly, hospitable (–) critical of people who stand out He is typical but not as outgoing. Speaker 2 (American) (+) individualistic, hardworking, optimistic (–) materialistic, very interested in things She is fairly typical (optimistic and individualistic and has drive = energy and ambition) but is not materialistic. Speaker 3 (English) (+) tolerant, open to new ideas (–) self-satisfied, arrogant toward foreigners, lazy, careless in the way they dress, drink too much He is not very typical but admits to having one of the weaknesses. Speaker 4 (Canadian) (+) polite, nice, friendly, tolerant (–) reserved She is typical (polite and reserved) but is not a hockey lover. c 1 the Czechs and the Argentineans 2 the Italians, the Russians, and the Spanish 3 the Spanish 4 the Poles 5 the English 6 the Brazilians 2 GRAMMAR b 1 They used to personality tests to get shared characteristics of a particular nationality group (the reality). Then they interviewed people from the same nationality groups and asked them to describe the typical characteristics of people from their country (the stereotypical image). They then compared the two pieces of research. 2 The research showed that there was often a big difference between the reality and the stereotype. This shows us that national stereotypes are inaccurate and unproductive.

d 1 a hospitable = making people feel welcome b leisure = free, not working 2 a achieve = manage to do, succeed in reaching a goal b inherited = received qualities or characteristics – or possessions – from 10

e 2 3 4 5 6 a Polish man / a Polish person / a Pole The Spanish Chinese and Japanese people / the Chinese and Japanese

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American English File- Book 4 f a 1 The Dutch 2 The injured 3 the blind 4 The Chinese 5 the sick 6 the Swiss 7 the homeless 8 the unemployed b a 1 loose 2 tight 3 long-sleeved 4 sleeveless 3 READING c 1T 2T 3T 4T 5F 6T 7F 5 V-neck 6 hooded b 1 a velvet bow 2 nylon stockings d Kate Fox spoke to a Goth because she wanted to find out if the Goths could laugh at themselves. She discovered that they had a sense of humor and didn’t take their way of dressing too seriously. 4 a linen suit 5 leather sandals c 1 trendy e dysfunctional /dɪs’fʌŋkʃənl/ = not working properly innovative /’ɪnəveɪtɪv/ = introducing new ideas or ways of doing something outrageous /aʊt’reɪʤəs/ = shocking macabre /mə’kɑbrə/ = unpleasant and strange, connected with death conspicuous /kən’spɪkyuəs/ = easy to see or notice 6 SPEAKING a dress 2 wear 1C 2D 3A 4B 2 stylish 3 scruffy 3 a silk scarf 7 striped 8 polka-dot 9 checked 10 solid 11 patterned

Answer key black and white striped socks. The man is wearing a purple suit, a green shirt, and a purple tie. The two judges are wearing wigs and robes with purple hoods. The couple is wearing plastic ponchos.

7 a fur collar 8 suede slippers 9 a spandex swimsuit/ bathing suit 10 a cotton undershirt 11 a denim backpack 4 flattering 5 old-fashioned

6 a wool cardigan / sweater

1C 2A 3F 4H 5G 6B 7E 8D

f A

7 GRAMMAR a 1 spiky black hair 3 big black leather bag 2 beige linen suit 4 white nylon running shorts

4 VOCABULARY a The queen is wearing a matching green hat and dress; she is wearing a necklace and earrings. The woman is wearing a black top, red shorts, and long 11

b b 1 an attractive young man 2 dirty old shoes

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American English File- Book 4
3 a stylish purple leather jacket 4 a tall thin woman 5 a long sandy beach 6 a beautiful new wooden floor 7 a stylish Italian suit 8 a romantic little French cafe 9 a friendly old black dog 1 READING b

Answer key

2B Air travel: the inside story

They are sending e-mail messages to each other about passengers. The cabin crew members like to run the heat up to get the passengers to go to sleep. (The way they have less work to do, and everything is very quiet.) Most airports lose 2 per 1,000, but at Heathrow Airport, 80 per 1,000 bags or suitcases are lost. Because people who don’t really need them ask for them. Because sometimes a small bird crashes into the plane and is burned up in the engine.

c 1D 2F 3E 4A 5B

2 VOCABULARY a 2 Arrivals 3 luggage / baggage 4 check-in 5 passport control 6 pick up (or get) 7 customs 8 porter 9 airlines 10 crew 11 passengers 12 flight attendant 13 seat 14 flight 15 taking off 16 landing

b 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13

MINI GRAMMAR 1 so 2 such a 3 such a 4 so 12
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5 so 6 such 7 so 8 such

American English File- Book 4
6 ran 3 GRAMMAR a One of the flight attendants panicked and started screaming when the plane hit some turbulence. 7 went 8 was filling out 9 hurried 10 caught

Answer key

b simple past: regular simple past: irregular past continuous past perfect past perfect continuous screamed hit was going had been ’d been reading

e 1 … had a broken headlight. … was driving too fast. … had gone through a red traffic light. … had been using his cell phone. 2 … it was very hot … I was feeling stressed. … I had drunk too much coffee after dinner. … I had been watching scary movies. and then the passengers screamed)

c 1 screamed (because first the plane hit turbulence 2 were relaxing (because the passengers were in the middle of relaxing) 3 had finished (because they had their lunch before the plane hit turbulence) 4 had been flying (because the flight started two hors previously and had continued up to that moment)

4 PRONUNCIATION b 1C 2B 3E 4A 5G 6F 7D 8H Extra idea /t/ checked missed crashed /d/ arrived traveled stayed /ɪd/ needed landed started

d a 1 we’d been standing 2 had stolen 3 had been raining (had rained) 4 ’d had 5 ’d been sunbathing (’d sunbathed); hadn’t put on 7 had been arguing (had argued) 8 ’d fallen b 1 were checking in 2 had won 3 had been looking forward to 4 had forgotten 5 had arrived 13

5 LISTENING c 1 Sudden changes of wind direction, especially during thunderstorms and typhoons. But most turbulence isn’t dangerous because pilots are prepared. 2 Both are dangerous, but takeoff is a little more dangerous than landing, especially if there is a problem just before the plane goes into the air. 3 Yes, because if the plane moves suddenly, e.g., in turbulence or when the plane brakes on the ground, you can be thrown out of your seat.

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American English File- Book 4
4 Yes, because if there’s a fire, it might be dark and knowing where the nearest exit is could save you. 5 Yes, especially ones with mountains or in countries with older more basic equipment. Only very experienced pilots are allowed to land at these airports. 6 Very important because it’s the official language of the air. 1 GRAMMAR a d 1 Have you ever had a problem with a famous person as a passenger? 2 What’s your most frightening experience as a pilot? 3 Have you ever become ill during a flight? b A In the cards B Generation gap Lesson plan Optional lead-in

Answer key

2C Incredibly short stories

unfortunately, carefully, angrily, fast, slowly, well, badly

C meeting the boss D Good intentions

A A woman has a relationship with a man. She goes to see a Gypsy who says the relationship has no future. The man goes to the US, and she doesn’t see him for five years and is very lonely. Suddenly she gets a letter from hi, inviting her to come and join him. The twist is that she gets a ticket to go to new York on the Titanic (which sinks). So the Gypsy was right. B A man, whose wife has died, lives with his teenage daughter. He thinks she is being difficult because he likes going out at night, but she gets worried when he comes back late. This time he stayed out really late and when he got home, his daughter was very angry. The twist is that the reader imagines that the situation is the other way around, i.e., that the man is waiting for his daughter to come home. C A new maid, who knows nothing about the master of the house, has been employed. She is given instructions about what she will have to do for her master, and then asks who the master is. She discovers that she will be taking care of the dog that she has just tripped over – not a person. D A woman who is disorganized and messy decides to become more organized and buys a 14
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American English File- Book 4 book to help her. She starts cleaning up her house. The twist is that when she is cleaning the bookcase, she finds exactly the same book, which she had bought last year but that has obviously had no effect! week. 9 always, healthily 10 apparently 8 luckily

Answer key
Luckily we had taken an umbrella. Apparently he’s been fired from his job. b 1 The building was badly damaged in the fire last

c Types of adverbs Time: immediately, early, five minutes later, last year Manner: angrily Frequency: always Degree: unbelievably, increasingly, so Comment: unfortunately

2 Obviously we need to do something quickly. 3 Ben is often at his friend’s house in the evening. 4 She just walked and didn’t even say good-bye 5 He always drives extremely fast. 6 She danced beautifully at the ballet last night. 7 Luckily she wasn’t seriously injured when she fell. 8 Apparently he nearly broke his leg when he was skiing. 9 My father usually sleeps a little in the afternoon.

d 1 He speaks three languages fluently. 2 I hardly ever have breakfast during the week. 3 My brother was in a car crash, but fortunately he wasn’t hurt. 4 It’s often extremely hot in New York in July and August. 6 When I know the date, I’ll call you right away. f

2 … suddenly, the lights went out / there was suddenly a power outage / the lights suddenly went out, etc. 3 … luckily he found it in his pocket. 4 … they hardly know / knew each other. 5 … it was raining (so) hard, etc. She like the theater very much. 6 … he talked / was talking incredibly fast / quickly.

e a 1 very much 2 late, yesterday 3 Immediately 4 usually, after work 5 extremely, last night 6 easily, so well They won the game easily because they played so well. 7 almost I almost forgot your birthday 15 The ambulance arrived immediately. The usually go jogging after work.

2 VOCABULARY a especially / specially ever / even hard/ hardly in the end / at the end late /lately near / nearly still / yet 4 8 1 3 2 6 7

b

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American English File- Book 4
1 a hardly, b hard 2 a late, b lately 3 a at the end, b in the end 4 a especially, b specially 5 a actually, b right now 6 a nearly, b near 7 a yet b still 8 a ever, b even 2.14

Answer key

10 Because she saw that Little Brother™ was on the floor and had been turned off. 11 Because even when he is turned off, he can still see, hear, and feel. 12 Because she hadn’t noticed his tower and that he had already picked up the wrapping paper once. 13 Accept all possible answers here, but don’t tell

6 READING & LISTENING a 2.11 1 Little Brother™ is a robot doll. TM stands for trademark, which means a name or a symbol that a company uses for its products, e.g., Kleenex™, Lycra™. 2 Talking like a baby, before he/she can say actual words. 3 He pressed a button that turned Little Brother™ off. c

SS what is going to happen. 1 He turned him off. 2 She was very angry with Peter. 3 He threatened to turn Little Brother™ off and hide him someplace dark. 4 She turned Peter off!

2.12 4 She bounced him on her knee and told him what a good boy he was. 5 with the skin of the face in lines / folds, e.g., when you are going to cry. 6 It makes you think that later Peter will change his mind and decide Little Brother™ was not such a good present.

2.13 7 He took the torn wrapping paper out of the wagon and threw it on the floor. He hurned the pages of Peter’s book too fast. 8 Suddenly took and held hard. 9 Accept all possible answers there, but don’t tell SS what is going to happen.

16
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
4 pretty much (=basically) 5 at that point (= at that particular moment in time) 6 that was that (= that is how is ended)

2 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH FLYING HIGH
THE INTERVIEW a A light attendant (Heidi Evans) and a plane safety card.

ON THE STREET a landing turbulence waiting in long lines feeling bored being one looked really exciting. 3 4 1 2

b 1 She saw a movie about a flight attendant, and 2 She learned what to do in emergency situations, e.g., CPR, use a defibrillator, etc. She also learned to deal wit people who are afraid to fly, who don’t want to be on the plane anymore, or who are sick. 3 Someone who is happy, energetic, and loves to fly. Someone with good customer skills. 4 You travel for free, you can visit the country, there’s no office – it always changes. 5 Delays, red-eye flights.

Tiffany and Juan are afraid of flying.

b 1 Tiffany 2 Juan 3 Sophie 4 Shelly

c 1 otherwise (= except for what has just been said) 2 off the top of my head (= an idiom that means

c 1 Get plenty of sleep, drink a lot of water, and exercise. 2 Walk through the aisle, stretch your legs and calves, and drink lots of water. 3 She asks the passengers if they are OK and answers their questions. 4 You can see them clench their fists, close their eyes, and make a scared face. 5 The plane made an emergency landing and everyone got off safely.

without thinking long about it) 3 offhand (=right now; without thinking about it) 4 crying my eyes out (=an idiom that means crying openly and a lot)

d 1 deal with (=doing what needs to be done) 2 willing to (=wants to) 3 get to (=have a chance to) 17
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

2 WRITING A SHORT STORY
Lesson plan a He wrote an e-mail, which had a negative comment about his boss’s wife in it, and accidentally sent it to his boss. He was fired.

2 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR 1 a 2 c 3 c 4 b 5 a 6 c 7 b 8 a 9 c 10 b

VOCABULARY a 1 hooded – the others describe the design of a material 2 stylish – the others are materials 3 station – the others are about air travel

b 1 family-run 2 fairly 3 well 4 aggressive 5 frequently 6 new 7 extremely 8 quick 9 immediately 10 An hour later

4 backpack – the others are clothes 5 match – the others describe what people do with clothes 6 friendly – the others are adverbs b 1 off 2 out 3 behind 4 up c 1 lately 2 fit 3 even 5 luggage 6 especially 7 changing clothes 5 in 6 like 7 at

c “Sit down,” Mr. Simpson said coldly. “I want to talk to you about an e-mail you sent.”

d 1 At that moment 2 As soon as 3 Ten minutes later 4 One morning in September 5 just in time

4 hard

PRONUNCIATION a 1 linen (it’s /ɪ/) 4 took (it’s /ʊ/)

2 nearly (it’s /ɪr/) 5 changed (it’s /d/) 3 weren’t (it’s /ər/) b stylish, undressed, arrivals, passenger, actually

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1E 2A 3B 4D 5C b bullets = small metal objects that are fired from a gun allayed my fears = calmed me down, stopped me from being afraid rotten = that has gone ad and can’t be eaten overhead compartment = small container above your head on a plane where you can 18
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American English File- Book 4 leave your clothes, small bags, etc. flipped the plane over = turned the plane upside town fellow = used to describe someone who is the same as you in some way c CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a1b 2c 3c 4a 5b b 1 Cold, reserved, often depressed, and maybe suicidal. 2 Somewhat true, but not the suicide rate. 3 Because it hasn’t fought in a war for 200 years and to show that the Swedes like to avoid conflict. 4 They avoid conflict, are very patriotic, and are passionate about protecting the environment. 5 They are very good in the house. d 1 SPEAKING & LISTENING

Answer key

3A The one place a burglar won’t look

The old man (Fagin) is teaching the boys to become pickpockets (steal money / wallets from people on the street).

1 They get people to look at something else, so that they are concentrating on that and not on their money, watch, etc. 2 Because pickpockets know that tourists are going to look at monuments, sights, etc., and will be easy to steal from at that moment.

e 1 The director needed someone to train the boy actors so that they would look like professional pickpockets. 2 The director asked him to come to Prague, where they were shooting the movie, for an interview. 3 Instead of asking him questions, the director asked him to steal his watch without him noticing, which he did successfully. 4 He was such a good teacher that soon the boys were successfully stealing form everybody on the movie set without them noticing, and this made him feel like the character Fagin. 5 “Misdirection” is what some magicians call directing people to what you want them to see and away from what you don’t want them to see. 6 He asked what the journalist had in his jeans pocket, and he said some keys. 7 He managed to steal the journalist’s wallet and 19
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American English File- Book 4 pen, which were in his jacket pocket, because he had directed his attention to his keys, which were in his jeans pocket. 8 If someone comes to you with a map and asks for help, you will look at the map, and then they might steal from you. 9 When tourists come out of a New York subway station, they immediately look up at tall buildings and pickpockets often steal from them then. 10 When men see his sign, they immediately put their hand on the pocket that their wallet is in, which tells the pickpockets where it is. 4 GRAMMAR a World Cup thief’s own goal 1 stole f a Hide your valuables in child’s bedroom. Have a dog if possible. Have strong doors and windows, etc. b Be careful if someone comes up to you on the street (e.g., with a map) and asks for help. If you see a sign saying beware of pickpockets, don’t immediately touch your purse / wallet. Be especially careful with your bag, wallet, etc., when you are looking at or taking photos of a famous monument or sight. 2 was caught 3 was mugged 4 discovered 5 took 6 was met 7 found 8 were informed 9 was arrested Parrot held in prison 1 being interrogated 2 ordered 3 is called 2 VOCABULARY b See audioscript below 4 to be held 5 belonged 6 be sent 7 support c 1I 2L 3E 4F 5D 6K 7C 8A 9 O 10 B 11 J 12 G 13 M 14 N 15 H 1 committed 2 investigated 3 caught 4 arrested 5 questioned 9 jury, evidence 10 verdict 11 guilty 12 judge, punishment 13 sentenced 20
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Answer key
6 charged 7 court 8 Witnesses 14 not guilty 15 proof 16 acquitted

3 PRONUNCIATION b See audioscript. The u in guilty is silent (as in, e.g., build).

b He hypnotizes cashiers and gets them to had over money.

c They only suspect it. After it is said (thought / believed), etc., you use that + a clause

American English File- Book 4
After it is said (thought / believed), etc., you use the infinitive. NB: After I / you / we / they, you also use the infinitive

Answer key suspended for less time and working for a day as a school crossing guard. 3 He had to go to a morgue to view dead bodies. 4 They had to organize a picnic for elementary school children. 5 They had to spend a day of silence in the woods or listen to classical music instead of rock.

d a 1 The street was closed off after the accident. 2 My handbag has been stolen. 3 my house is being painted. 4 A meeting will be held tomorrow. 5 They were fined (for traveling without a ticket). 6 You can be arrested for drunk driving. 7 Miranda thinks she was being followed last night. 8 The house had been sold five years earlier. b 1 it is believed that the burglar is a local man. The burglar is believed to be a local man. 2 It is said that the muggers are very dangerous. The muggers are said to be very dangerous. 3 It is thought that the robber entered through an open window. The robber is thought to have entered through an open window. 4 It is said that the murderer has disappeared. The murderer is said to have disappeared. 5 It is expected that the trial will last three weeks. The trial is expected to last three weeks.

c 1 Hard. He was from a poor family and the oldest of nine children. He has been very successful (president of the American Judges Association). 2 Spending a night in the forest, viewing bodies at a morgue, and spending a silent day in the woods or listening to classical music get the offenders to learn from personal experiences. Being a crossing guard and organizing a picnic get them to do something for other people. 3 His background. He thinks he understands why some people commit crimes. He thinks his punishments are better than conventional ones, and people don’t reoffend. The evidence that he is right is that only two people have reoffended.

e 1 is believed to be 2 is said to be 3 is thought that he (has) robbed 4 is reported to be

5 READING b 1 She had to spend the night in the same forest. 2 They have to choose between having their license suspended for 90 days or having it 21
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key a a 1 cool 8 damp 9 drizzling 10 showers 11 pouring (rain) 12 breeze 13 gale-force 2 chilly 3 freezing 4 below zero 5 mild 6 warm 7 scorching b 1 Mist

3B Stormy weather
1 READING a 1 Amsterdam, Holland (bikes, canals) 2 London, UK (underground, pub) 3 California, US (cranberries, Interstate 5)

b 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 2 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 2 3 2 3 3 3

2 Fog 3 Smog 1 heat wave 2 drought 3 hailstorm 4 lightning 5 thunder 1 strong 6 blizzard 7 flood 8 hurricane 9 typhoon 10 monsoon 6 bright 7 changeable 8 sunny 9 stable

c storm = very bad weather with strong winds and rain hurricane-force winds = very strong winds blown = past participle of blow (blow, blew, blown) = what the wind does scorching = extremely hot heat = the noun form of hot melting = becoming liquid because of the heat sweat = to lose water through your skin when you are hot, sick, of afraid fan = a machine with blades that go round to create a current of air, or a thing you move in your had to create (coo) air frozen = past participle of freeze = to become hard and often turn to ice thaws = (of snow and ice) becomes water again

2 heavy 3 thick 4 icy 5 clear

1F 2E 3G 4D 5B 6A 7C slippery = difficult to stand or walk on because it is wet or icy. shivering = shaking a little because you are cold sweating = losing water through your skin when you are hot, sick, or afraid got soaked = got very, very set humid = warm and damp melt = (of snow) become water get sunburned = have red skin after spending too long in the sun b 22
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2 VOCABULARY

American English File- Book 4
1 a good: sunny, warm, not scorching; bad: wet, cold windy b good: cool, bright, not too hot; bad” mist, fog, heavy rain, strong winds c good: dry, cool, not windy; bad: not, wet, windy d good: a strong breeze; bad: no wind, galeforce winds e good: bright, cool, dry; bad: heavy rain, scorching heat, fog, mist 2 a Japan, Korea, the Philippines, China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and other countries in Asia b Los Angeles, Mexico City, Beijing, etc. c Moscow, Canada, etc. d Bangladesh, China, etc. e the Caribbean islands, the US, etc. 7 GRAMMAR a 1 ’ll close / ’m closing 2 ’ll be / ’s going to be 3 A it’ll rain / it’s going to rain B ’m going to take / ’m taking 3 PRONUNCIATION b 1 showers 2 heat 3 mild 4 warm 5 flood 6 drought 7 humid 8 world b 1 become 4 LISTENING a 1F 2F 3T 4F 5F 6T 7T 8T 9F 10 F 2 melted 3 closed down 4 risen 5 doubled 6 having 7 risen 8 risen 9 suffering 10 having 4 B Will … be / Is … going to be A ’ll be, ’ll set 5 SPEAKING & WRITING a 1 It’s very cold! / It’s very freezing! 2

Answer key

3 It’s really boiling today. / It’s incredibly boiling today. 4 I was absolutely frightened! / I was absolutely terrified.

5 A are .. leaving / are … going to leave B ’ll drive, won’t be / isn’t going to be

b 1 He was in danger both at his office and at his apartment. 2 He took them to her parents’ house. 4 He watched from inside his apartment on TV. 5 he was that it was almost empty. 9 The engine made a funny noise, but it didn’t break down. 10 Only the first floor apartments were badly damaged. 23

d A2 B3 C1

e a 1 ’ll / will be flying 2 ’ll / will have saved 3 ’ll / will be driving 4 ’ll / will be having 5 ’ll / will have paid 6 ’ll / will have finished

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American English File- Book 4 b 1 won’t be / will not be lying 2 ’ll / will be working 3 will have disappeared 4 will have doubled 5 will be moving / will have moved 6 will have grown 7 will have run out 8 will have invented 9 ’ll / will be driving c 8 LISTENING & SPEAKING a She traveled from the UK to Australia over land and sea because she didn’t want to fly and produce a lot of carbon emissions. d 1 However 2 According to 3 although b 1 To fly or not to fly. She wanted to go to Australia, but on the other hand, she didn’t want to cause a lot of Co2 emissions. 2 She has stopped driving, has started buying organic food form local stores, and uses a wood fire to heat her house. 3 She traveled by train, bus, and boat through Russia, China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Singapore. 4 Because she works for the Center for Alternative Technology, and they allowed her to take a long vacation. MINI GRAMMAR c Cost $900 Distance Time Co2 $4,000 14,004 miles 51 days 1.65 metric tons 10,273 miles 25 days 2.7 metric tons 4 GRAMMAR a 1 I like 2 won’t go 3 gets 24
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Answer key

3C Taking a risk
1 READING b drowning for children bacteria in the kitchen flying and driving carry a very similar risk heart disease

1b 2b 3a 4a 5b

5 whereas 6 Since 7 instead

4 in fact

2 LISTENING b 1a 2c 3b 4b 5c 6a 7c

3 VOCABULARY a 1 risks 2 credit 4 after 5 easy 6 notice 8 time 9 advantage 10 part 11 up 12 place

3 seriously 7 care

1 likely 2 probably

3 likely 4 probably

4 won’t have to 5 I have 6 I hear

American English File- Book 4 towel b 1F 2 J 3 I 4 B 5 G 6 C 7 A 8 D 9 E 10 H 5 PRONUNCIATION a See audioscript c 12 2 In the main clause: any future form, e.g., will, going to, present continuous (with future meaning), future perfect, future continuous, or an imperative. In the other clause after if, in case, when, etc., any present tense, i.e., simple present, present continuous, or present perfect. 3 in case = because this might happen b d a 1 I’m not feeling 2 won’t be going 3 she will be giving 4 aren’t wearing 5 we’ll have sold 6 die b 1 before 2 incase 3 unless 4 when 5 after 6 If 7 in case 8 until e 1 … they can swim / … there is an adult watching them 2 … it’s a hot day / … you are going to be away for a long time 3 … someone has an accident / … someone cuts himself/herself 4 … they are at least 12 years old / … they are old enough 5 … you have finished using them 6 … a child or a baby tries to eat or drink it 7 … they show you identification / … you are sure who they are 8 … don’t throw water on it / … cover it with a 25
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Answer key

6 LISTENING a The main safety measures are providing proof of identification, making people take their shoes off, disinfecting wheels of baby carriages, security cameras, not allowing pets, sterilized sand, and inflatable toys to avoid injury.

She thinks that children today are overprotected and that they need to be allowed to take risks.

c 1 village 2 outside, winter 3 doing things 4 freedom 5 take risks 6 have an accident 7 extremely positive

7 SPEAKING 1 must / had to 2 3 used to / use to; 4 5 go / to go

American English File- Book 4

Answer key to do it, just a pair of sneakers (trainers). 3 These are the normal kinds of injuries that people get doing free running. 4 He once fell out of a tree and had to go to the hospital.

3 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH HIGH RISK?
Lesson plan Optional lead-in white-water rafting bungee jumping rock climbing rappelling horse riding snowboarding parachuting potholing / caving skateboarding surfing skiing sliding / paragliding/ hang-gliding

5 It’s a sport that can help you with free running.

d 1 kind of (= to some extent) 2 leading the way (= going in front and showing the others where to go) 3 all of a sudden (=an idiom that means suddenly) 4 To a degree (= to a certain extent) 5 pick it up (= a phrasal verb that means learn something by doing it) 6 As long as (= on the condition that, e.g., You can go out as long as you are home by 10:00.)

THE INTERVIEW b 1 Yes, but people usually do it in one particular place. 2 He usually does it in a group of about ten people. 3 He practiced boxing and martial arts. 4 Because his life changed (he got married and had a child). He tried martial arts but didn’t like it, and then he found out about free running. 5 There are 20 athletes. They work in commercials (=advertisements) and movies, teach in schools and teach the army and the police. 6 It helps youth offenders stop doing bad things. They think it’s a cool thing to do. in schools, where a lot of kids don’t do any PE and maybe have an obesity problem, they also like free running because it’s cool and, as a result, they get some exercise.

ON THE STREET b bungee jumping jet skiing race car driving scuba diving skydiving 2 3 1 2 2, 4

The speakers haven’t tried parachuting, rock climbing, or white-water rafting

c 1 Christina 2 Duey 3 Josh 4 Tim

d c 1 They are very safety conscious whey they work in movies or commercials. They don’t’ take risks. They practice and do things again and again. 2 The sense of freedom is what attracted EZ to free running. You don’t need anything to be able 26
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1 followed up on (= a phrasal verb that means continued planning something) 2 see myself (= imagine yourself) 3 isn’t for (= is not something a person likes or wants to do) 4 get into (= become involved in)

American English File- Book 4

Answer key

3 WRITING: EXPRESSING YOUR OPINION
Lesson plan b 2 in most cases 3 First 4 whereas 5 Second 6 In addition 7 Finally 8 so 9 In conclusion

3 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR a 1 was being 2 probably never be 3 to be a 4 said that 5 won’t come b 1 ’ll be lying / will be lying 2 will … have started / will have … started 3 has landed / lands 4 drink / have drunk / have been drinking 5 finish / have finished

VOCABULARY a 1 kidnapper – the others all steal 2 smuggler – the others are crimes 3 evidence – the others are people 4 scorching – the others refer to cold weather 5 mist – the others are extreme weather b 1 committed 2 caught 3 sentenced 4 kidnapped 5 murdered c 1 with 2 up 3 after 6 blew 7 sweated 8 poured 9 melted 10 took 4 out 5 in

PRONUNCIATION a 1 weather (it’s /ð/) 2 jury (it’s /ʊr/) 3 guilty (it’s /g/) b accuse, blackmail, community, typhoon, seriously 4 slip (it’s /ɪ/) 5 sweat (it’s /ε/)

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1b 2c 3a 4a 5b 6a 27
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a A5 B- C2 D1 E4 F3 b 1N 2D 3N 4M 5D 6M 7N 8M

4A Would you get out alive?
Lesson plan Optional lead-in Natural earthquake flood volcanic eruption tsunami (tidal wave) hurricane Man-made fire(set on purpose) terrorist attack major accident, e.g., plane crash, train crash, etc.

1 SPEAKING READING b Answer to question 1 in questionnaire 1 c (Most people “freeze” and can’t do anything) Answer to 1b 1 Because in a crisis our minds take longer to process information. People can’t make a decision about what to do People also often refuse to believe that the disaster is happening to them. 2 No, because people’s normal personality is not a good guide to how they will react in a crisis.

d 1 F (She didn’t run. She waited for someone to tell her everything was all right.) 2T 3 F (She was looking for things to take with her.) 4T 5T 6 F (They had very little time. The plane caught fire after 60 seconds.) 7T 8 F (Because they think it’s not “cool” to do so.)

e 28
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American English File- Book 4 evacuation = moving people from a place of danger to a safer place explosion = the noun of explode, the action caused by something such as a bomb in a trance = a state in which you are thinking so much about something that you are doing that you don’t notice what is happening around you shook = past tense of shake = to move from side to side or up and down made it = succeeded in doing something, such as reaching a place in time, e.g., We made it to the station just in time to catch the train. collided with = crashed into while moving survivors = people who survive, do not die in a natural or man-made disaster caught fire = started burning paralyzed = unable to move your body at all b 3 GRAMMAR a 1 fed up, sick and tired

Answer key

2 astonished, couldn’t believe her eyes 3 delighted, jumping for joy 4 miserable, feeling down 5 exhausted, worn out 6 terrified, scared to death

1 refers to a hypothetical situation in the present or future 2 refers to a hypothetical situation in the past

1 would + base form in the main clause, simple past in the if clause 2 would have + past participle in the main clause, past perfect in the if clause

2 VOCABULARY a 1 confused 2 calm 3 shocked 4 stunned c 1 were 2 would have gotten out 3 had gotten off 4 wouldn’t pay

b a 3 grateful 4 relieved 5 disappointed 6 homesick b 2 devastated 3 delighted 4 exhausted 5 trilled 6 terrified 1C 2D 3F 4E 5A 6B 7 lonely 8 nervous 9 glad 10 offended 7 furious 8 astonished 9 desperate 10 miserable

d a 1 would have bought 2 had gone 3 would lend 4 found 5 hadn’t been driving (hadn’t driven) 6 lived 7 wouldn’t have died 8 would have heard 9 had known 10 were b 1 … he wouldn’t have been late for the interview. 2 … she would sleep well at night. 3 … we would have reached the top of the mountain. 29
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c

American English File- Book 4
4 … she had had enough money. 5 … there weren’t so much traffic. 6 … he would get the job. c 4.3

Answer key

1 The river went faster and faster; they got into rapids and then hit the rock. Kevin swam to shore, but Yossi was swept away. 2 He found their backpack with a lot of important and useful things in it, especially the map.

4 PRONUNCIATION b 1E 2F 3D 4C 5A 6B

d 1 … I wouldn’t have gone to the party. If I hadn’t gone to the party, I wouldn’t have met the love of my life. 2 … I wouldn’t have missed the train. If I hadn’t missed the train, I wouldn’t have been late for work. 3 … I wouldn’t have gotten the message. If I’d gotten the message, I would have known the dinner was canceled. 4 … I wouldn’t have studied. If I’d studied, I would have passed the test.

4.4 3 Kevin – desperate, responsible for what had happened to Yossi. Yossi – optimistic, sure he would find Kevin. 4 Yossi woke up and found a jaguar looking at him, but he managed to scare it away (by setting fire to insect repellent with a cigarette lighter).

4.5 5 Because he was exhausted and starving. Then he found a footprint that he thought was Kevin’s, but eventually he realized it was his own. He had been walking around in circles.

5 READING & LISTENING b 1 To go into the rainforest and visit an undiscovered indigenous (= native) village, then raft (= travel on pieces of wood tied together and used as a boat) down the river, and then fly to La Paz. This changed when there was no sign of the village and tensions began to appear within the group. 2 a Karl (the guide) didn’t seem to know where the village was. b Marcus was complaining about everything, especially his feet. 3 Kevin wanted to continue the trip and raft down the river, as they had originally planned, but didn’t want Marcus to come. 4.8 11 For nearly three weeks. 12 He thought it was a bee, but in fact it was the 30
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4.6 6 He had been looking for Yossi. He had floated down the river on a log and had been rescued by two Bolivian hunters. 7 Because the hunters only went to that part of the rainforest once a year.

4.7 8 He asked the Bolivian Army to look for Yossi. 9 The forest was too dense, and they had to fly too high. 10 He paid a local man to take him up the river.

American English File- Book 4 engine of the boat Kevin was in.

Answer key

4B How I trained my husband
1 GRAMMAR a 1 It can’t be 2:00 p.m. because they’re having breakfast. it might be 8:00 a.m. or 6:00 a.m., but I think it must be 8:00 a.m. because that’s when people usually go to work. 2 It can’t be Sunday because people don’t usually go to work then. It might be Friday or Saturday, but I think it must be Friday because he looks like a businessman, and they don’t usually work on Saturdays. 3 It can’t be soda because she’s drinking it out of a mug. It might be coffee or tea. It must be coffee because the pot looks more like a coffee pot than a tea pot. 4 He can’t be looking for his glasses because he’s wearing them. I think he must be looking for his car keys because his briefcase is on the chair.

b 1 b 8:00 a.m. 2 b Saturday 3 b coffee 4 b his car keys

The man had lost his car keys.

c Conversation 2 The man and woman are trying to find the way to a club, but they keep getting lost. The woman is driving, and she blames the man for giving her the wrong directions (saying “right” instead of “left”). The man thinks the woman should know the way since she has been to the club before. Conversation 3 The man cooked sweet and sour chicken following a recipe, and the woman says he used too much sugar. The man is offended and says that next time 31
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American English File- Book 4 they will get takeout from the Chinese restaurant. 4 You shouldn’t have eaten so much.

Answer key

5 You must have made a mistake. / The meeting d Conversation 1 Conversation 2 Conversation 3 1 may have 3 must have 4 must have 6 might have 7 should have 8 couldn’t have 2 couldn’t have 5 should have couldn’t have been today. 6 You couldn’t have studied very hard. / You should have studied more. 7 You must have said something she didn’t like. / She might have seen someone she wanted to avoid. e Conversation 1 Conversation 2 Conversation 3 1B 2C 3A 4A 5D 6B 3 READING f a 1 Ben must have gotten my e-mail. 2 she might have had an argument with her boyfriend. 3 Sam and Ginny couldn’t have gotten lost. 4 You couldn’t have seen Ellie. 5 John might not have heard you. 6 Lucy must have bought a new car. 7 Alex couldn’t have been very sick. 8 They might hot have received the invitation. b 1 should have learned 2 should have written 3 shouldn’t have gone 4 shouldn’t have invited 5 shouldn’t have bought 6 should have gone 4 He wanted to stop the birds from lading on his 2 PRONUNCIATION a See audioscript head and shoulders. He trained them to land somewhere else (on mats). She stopped him from getting in her way in the kitchen when she was cooking by giving him a job to do, e.g., c 2 You couldn’t have looked everywhere. 3 He may have gotten lost. 32
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8 She might have been sick. / She should have come – it was fantastic. 9 We should have left earlier. / We shouldn’t have driven. 7D 8C

b 1 She used to stop what she was doing and help him. Now she doesn’t pay any attention to him. 2 Because she was writing a book about exotic animal trainers, who spent a lot of time watching them training animals. It occurred to her that she could use the same techniques to “train” her husband. The principle is that you reward good behavior and ignore bad behavior. 3 Teaching someone new behavior by rewarding each small step they take. she began to praise him ever time he did something she wanted him to do, like putting dirty clothes in the hamper, etc.

grating cheese, at the other end of the kitchen island.

American English File- Book 4
5 She learned a technique called L.R.S., which means not responding at all when someone does something wrong. The idea is that if you don’t respond to it, the bad behavior will disappear. When her husband was looking for his keys, she just said nothing and continued with what she was doing. 6 They start to use the same technique on their trainer. he used the L.R.S. technique – he ignored her when she was complaining about her braces. salaries. 3 a discuss, b argue

Answer key

discuss = have a

conversation about something; argue = talk, often angrily, to someone because you disagree about something 4 a prevent, b avoid prevent = stop something from happening; avoid = stop yourself from being in a situation, e.g., Jane’s parents prevented her from seeing David; John avoids seeing his exgirlfriend. 5 a remember, b Remind remember = to bring to mind or think about again; remind = make someone remember, e.g., This some reminds me

4 LISTENING a 1 3 5 6 7 9

of last summer. 6 a hope, b expecting hope = want something to happen; expect = think something is going to happen, e.g., I hope it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

e 1 than done 2 in the 3 keep … under 4 lose 5 take 6 stick 7 reach 8 Dealing with

We’re having a barbecue; I expect her to be late. She always is. 7 a mind, b matter not mind = not be concerned about (so always needs a person as a subject); matter = be important, often used with it, e.g., Does your teacher mind if you don’t go to all the classes? Does it matter if you don’t go to all the classes? 8 a stole, b robbing steal = take something that is not yours. The object of steal must be a thing; rob = to take something that is not yours from a person or place. The object must be a person or a place, not a thing, e.g., He stole money from the bank; He robbed the bank. 9 a heard, b listened to hear = receive sounds with your ears; listen to = pay special attention to hear something, e.g., I heard what you were saying. I was outside the door; You never listen to what I tell you. 10 a looks, b seemed look = give an impression from what you can see; seem = give a general 33
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6 VOCABULARY b 1 a realized, b notices realize = to understand or become aware of a particular fact or situation; notice = to see, hear, or become aware of something, e.g., After a week at my new job, I realized I had made a mistake in accepting it; I noticed that she had changed her hairstyle. 2 a rising, b raise rise = to go up (can’t have an objet); raise = to make something go up (needs an object), e.g., the sun rises; a company raises

American English File- Book 4 impression, e.g., Mario looks sick. He’s very pale; Maria seems unhappy, but I don’t know why. 1 GRAMMAR c 1 notice 2 raise 3 argue 4 avoid 5 remembering 6 expecting 7 matters 8 stolen 9 listening 10 look b

Answer key

4C Let your body do the talking

1 The man is the actor Christopher Lloyd. 2 He is pretending to be a violin teacher listening to a student massacre a Mozart piece, i.e., playing it very badly.

MINI GRAMMAR a We’d better = should (’d = had) I’d rather = would prefer to (’d = would)

c a 1 look as if 2 smells 3 sounds like 4 taste like 5 sound as if 6 feels 7 look 8 feels like 9 tastes 10 smells as if b2G 3A 4B 5K 6J 7C 8E 9D 10 I 11 H

c 1 … I’d better go now … 2 I’d rather go out … 3 You’d better not walk home … 4 … she’d rather meet … 5 … had better be careful … 6 Would you rather not go to the party …? 7 You’d better not leave your bag there … 8 My wife would rather not fly … e

1D 2A

3C 4B

5H 6G

7F 8E

g hard – soft how something feels (e.g., a table – a pillow) loose – tight how something feels (e.g., pajamas – cycling shorts) rough – smooth how something feels (e.g., the how something tastes / skin on your elbow / heel – glass) sour / bitter – sweet smells (e.g., lemon / dark chocolate – sugar) strong – weak how something tastes (e.g., tea)

h It feels smooth and silky. 34
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American English File- Book 4
They smell wonderful. It tastes burnt. It smells very strong. It smells disgusting. It feels smooth and cold. It feels soft and cold. It tastes sour. He / She smells nice and clean / feels soft and smooth. It feels rough. It tastes bitter. It feels rough It tastes hot / spicy. They feel tight. 2 more 3 hair/ teeth 4 hands 5 hair 6 arms 7 hand 2 LISTENING b Mystery drink It smells fruity. it smells a little like orange juice. Mystery food It tastes a little bit like chicken. It tastes fairly light. Mystery object It feels like a coin. It definitely feels metallic. Mystery sound It sounds like thunder. It sounds very distant. 1 give me a hand = help 2 teeth 3 arms 4 nails 6 knees 7 forehead 8 eyes 9 mouth, arms / legs 8 head 9 head 10 eyebrow 11 hands 12 shoulders 1 brain 2 heart 3 liver 4 nails 5 chest 6 waist 7 hip 8 thigh 9 lungs 10 kidneys 11 wrist 12 palm 13 elbow 14 calf 15 ankle 16 heel

Answer key

5 hand (arm) 10 finger

2 put your foot in your mouth = said of did something stupid that upset, offended, or embarrassed 3 pulling my leg = joking 4 on the tip of my tongue = I can almost remember it but not quite 5 get cold feet = become worried about something and think you might change your mind 6 have butterflies in my stomach = feel nervous, usually before an important event, e.g., an exam, giving a speech in public 7 broke his heart = made him feel very unhappy 8 I can’t get … out of my head = can’t stop thinking about it 9 learn … by heart = memorize 35
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3 VOCABULARY a 1 forehead 2 eyebrow 3 cheek 4 lips 5 eyelashes 6 wrinkles 7 chin 8 neck

b

American English File- Book 4
10 get it off my chest = talk about something that has been worrying you so that you feel less anxious c A 1 wrist 2 waist, hips 3 ankle 4 cheeks 5 lungs 6 chest ears

Answer key

lock = a few hairs that hang or lie together on your head tuck their hair behind their ears = to push their hair so that it is held in place behind their ears rubbing (your eyes) = moving your had back and forth over something while pressing firmly

B 1 I have butterflies in my stomach. 2 It’s on the tip of my tongue. 3 I can’t get it out of my head. 4 You’re pulling my leg. 5 I’ve learned it by heart. 6 I put my foot in my mouth.

4 PRONUNCIATION b ca[l]f [w]rist pa[l]ms [w]rinkles com[b] [k]neel thum[b]

d as[th]ma cas[t]le dou[b]t ha[l]f [h]onest i[s]land [k]nock [p]sychologist recei[p]t si[g]n [w]hole wou[l]d

5 READING c A8 B7 C6 D3 E4 F2 G1 H5

d fidgeting = keep moving, e.g., your hands and feet, because you are nervous or bored tapping = hitting someone / something quickly and lightly clasped = hold something tightly in your had index finger = the finger next to your thumb strokes = moves had gently over a surface, usually several times ear lobes = the soft parts at the bottom of your 36
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

4 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH STAGE AND SCREEN
THE INTERVIEW a A man (Trevor White); some people acting.

d 1 as far as (= related to) 2 show up (= a phrasal verb that means arrive somewhere where you are expected to be / do something, synonym: turn up) 3 that’s it (= informal way of saying that’s all there

b 1 Theater, film work, radio work, commercials, voice-over work. 2 He always enjoyed acting as a child, but didn’t think he could do it as a career. He studied economics at university but didn’t enjoy it. Then he took acting classes and started to work as an actor. 3 Learning the lines. 4 He records other people’s lines into a Dictaphone, then plays it back, pauses, and says his lines. 5 Lines that are badly written.

is, it’s finished) 4 the difference it makes (= there is a big difference between good and bad writing) 5 at one point (= at a particular moment) 6 over and over again (= informal way of saying many times one after another, synonym: again and again)

ON THE STREET a commercials movies musicals 2 2 3, 4

c 1 he was in this Shakespeare play, and he really enjoyed it. But the role he played was very demanding. 2 He had to do one in Coriolanus and found it very difficult. He injured the other actor, who had to have three stitches on his fingers. 3 You get to act again and again in front of live audience in theater acting, but it pays less than film acting. 4 Good side: can be fun, you can work with famous people, you can shoot guns, be in car chases. Bad side: most of the time you are just waiting, not doing anything. 5 He thinks being on a red carpet (i.e., getting an award or being invited to an award ceremony) is probably glamorous, but he hasn’t been on one so he doesn’t know. 37

school / college plays 1, 3, 4, 5 Two of them (Shelly and Juan) mention feeling nervous.

b 1 Shelly 2 Rachel 3 Kerrie 4 Josh 5 Juan

c 1 wasn’t meant to (= didn’t have the qualities to) 2 as well as (= also) 3 growing up (= a phrasal verb that means becoming an adult, from childhood to adulthood) 4 at first (= in the beginning)

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American English File- Book 4
5 made up (= a phrasal verb that means created from an original idea)

Answer key

4 WRITING AN ARTICLE
Lesson plan a They should have put the cleaning liquids in a cabinet that was out of reach for children. They shouldn’t have left medicines where children could find them. They shouldn’t have put the child’s bed under the window.

b New paragraphs begin with Next month … We started … Next was the bathroom … Finally, the kitchen … So we have three weeks

38
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key flipped through = looked through quickly within the grasp of = accessible to, within reach of

4 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR a 1 hadn’t found 4 had more time 2 must have 5 couldn’t / can’t have gotten

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a 1c 2b 3b 4b 5c b 1B 2N 3B 4C 5N

3 should have told b1c 2a 3c 4b 5c

VOCABULARY a 1 relieved – the others are negative feelings 2 anxious – the others mean surprised 3 calf – the others are part of the hand 4 hip – the others are organs 5 nod – the others are gestures you do with your hand(s) b 1 remind 2 matter 3 stole c 1 for 2 up 3 in d 1 chew 2 yawn 3 scratch 4 frown 5 stare 4 down 5 down 4 raise 5 argue

PRONUNCIATION a 1 notice (it’s /s/) 3 frown (it’s /aʊ/) b exhausted, prevent, expect, kidney, elbow 4 comb (it’s /oʊ/)

2 delighted (it’s /ɪ/) 5 chew (it’s /ʧ/)

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1B 2E 3F 4C 5D b squeezes = usually, to press hard with your fingers, e.g., to get the juice out of a lemon. Here it means makes smaller. trimmed off = cut a little bit off doctored = changed in order to trick someone 39
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
1 Listening (gerund used as the subject of a sentence) 2 to feel (infinitive used after certain verbs, e.g., want, promise, would like, etc.) 3 using (gerund used after a preposition), to create (infinitive used to express reason or purpose) 4 playing (gerund used after certain verbs, e.g., feel like, enjoy, practice, etc.) 5 to concentrate (infinitive used after adjectives)

5A The psychology of music
1 LISTENING & SPEAKING b 1 to make us remember important moments in the past, e.g., when we met someone for the first time. 2 to help use change activities, e.g., we play a certain kind of music to prepare us to go out in the evening and another kind to relax use when we get home from work. 3 to intensify the emotion that we’re feeling, e.g., if we’re sad, we play sad music to make us even sadder; if we’re feeling angry, we play angry music to make us angrier; we play romantic music to make a romantic dinner more romantic.

b 1 hearing, to buy 2 to listen, going 3 to exchange, changing 4 plugging, to hear

c a 1 going out 2 talking 3 do 4 seeing 5 to get 6 wear 7 not come 8 to go 9 working 10 to know b 1 seeing 2 to call 3 reading 4 locking 5 to turn 6 painting 7 to send 8 to fix

c Three important human emotions: 2 sadness 3 anger How we feel affects the way we speak, e.g.: 2 sad- speak more slowly / lower 3 angry – raise voice / shout Music copies this, e.g.: 2 slow music with falling pitches sounds sad. 3 loud music with irregular rhythms sounds angry. Examples: 1 happy, e.g.: Seventh Symphony (Beethoven) 2 angry, e.g.: Mars (Holst) 3 sad, e.g., Adagio for strings (Albinoni) This is especially exploited in movie soundtracks, e.g., the shower scene in Psycho (the woman is just taking a shower, but the music makes it terrifying).

3 VOCABULARY b a 1 bass guitar 2 trumpet 3 piano 4 keyboard 5 drams b bass guitarist, cellist, drummer, flutist, keyboard player, pianist . pianist, saxophonist, trumpeter, violinist 6 violin 7 saxophone 8 cello 9 flute

2 GRAMMAR a 40
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c 1 tenor

7 rapper

American English File- Book 4
2 bass 3 soprano 4 orchestra 5 choir 6 singer-songwriter 8 soloist 9 lead singer 10 conductor 11 composer 12 DJ (disc jockey) 1 GRAMMAR c 1D 2A 3B 4C

Answer key

5B Counting sheep

1D 2E 3F 4A 5B 6C 1C 2E 3A 4B 5D

d a 1 2 usually go / ’m used to going / ’m getting used to going get used to eating 3 4 5 6 7 used to have I’m used to it Did you use to wear 5 ’s used to working 6 get used to wearing 7 used to have 8 isn’t used to sharing

4 PRONUNCIATION b /ʧ/ research /k/ character /ʃ/ chef

d /ʧ/ change, cheerful, choose /k/ choir, chorus, orchestra, psychologist /ʃ/ machine, mustache

b 1 get used to getting up 2 get used to eating 3 ’m not used to having 4 used to spend

f /aɪ/ apply, lifestyle, psychiatrist, qualify, shy, try, type /ɪ/ lyrics, physical, rhythm, symphony, typical /i/ country, heavy 3 READING & SPEAKING a The test involves going to bed holding a spoon in your hand. When you fall asleep the spoon falls onto a plate and wakes you up. If you are already 6 READING d 1B 2D 3B 4C 5A 6A 7D 8C sleeping so deeply that the spoon doesn’t wake you up, then you are sleep deprived. The last sentence means that we need to give as much importance to sleeping as we do to exercising (because both are crucial for good health).

b A 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12 B 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11

e 1 Before the invention of electric light, people slept during the hours of darkness. 41
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American English File- Book 4
2 Because doctors who are on “night call” are more sleep deprived than doctors working during the day. 3 Yes. They are very effective in restoring our energy levels and making us feel happier, etc. 4 6.2 hours a night (during the week). Yes. 5 Because they often have to make important decisions when they are too tired. 6 The hours of sleep that we owe our body (i.e., the extra hours we need to sleep to feel our best). 7 Caffeine. 8 Driving when you are very tired isn’t against the law (but is as just as dangerous). 9 They sleep less because they have more reasons not to sleep (work, the Internet, TV, 24/7 society). 10 it shouldn’t be hot, used as an office, or used for watching TV. 11 Tired engineers made very serious mistakes with catastrophic consequences. 12 8-8.5 hours. c 1 a 130-foot-high crane (not 30) 2 in the early morning (not evening) 6 LISTENING b

Answer key

The girl had been sleepwalking and had walked from her house to the building site. A firefighter rescued her from the top of a crane.

3 The man called the police (not the fire department). 4 The firefighter realized the girl was asleep (not drunk). 5 The firefighter called the girl’s parents (not the girl herself). 6 The rescue took two and a half hours (not two). 7 The security guard wasn’t asleep (he was watching TV). 8 The girl had never left the house before when she had sleepwalked.

4 VOCABULARY b 2 yawn 3 set, alarm 4 pillow 5 comforter, sheets, blankets 6 fall 7 snore 8 dreams, nightmares 9 oversleep 10 keep you awake 11 insomnia 12 sleeping pills 13 siesta, nap 14 log 15 jet-lagged 42

e 1T 2 F (Sleepwalkers usually have their eyes open so they look awake.) 3 F (It’s fairly common. Eighteen percent of the population has a tendency to sleepwalk.) 4T 5T 6 F (You can wake up a sleepwalker without any problem, although they may be confused and not know where they are.) 7 F (The can trip over chairs, fall down stairs, even fall out of a window.) 8T 9T 10 F (A man in Canada was recently found not

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American English File- Book 4 guilty of killing his mother-in-law because he had been asleep at the time.) 1 GRAMMAR b 1 if he was, he was 2 were he was, them … he was 3 hadn’t noticed 4 would have

Answer key

5C Breaking news

Extra support I told you not to talk. She asked him to give her a pen.

c Locked out of her life is an invented story.

d 1 F has threatened to sue a neighbor 2 B refused to give back their balls 3 E had reminded her husband … to make reservations 4 H promised not to forget 5 D persuaded them to come right over 6 G warned … not to try a trick like that again 7 C asked negotiators to talk to the man 8 A tried to convince him not to jump

e a 1 paying 2 to go out 3 not to walk 4 stealing 5 to give up 6 not to leave 7 taking 8 not remembering b 1 suggested going 2 refused to eat 43
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American English File- Book 4
3 threatened to call 4 denied writing 5 invited me to have 6 reminded Jack to go

Answer key
Articles and auxiliary verbs are often left out, e.g., A man was run over by a bus becomes Man run over by bus. The future is expressed by an infinitive, e.g., Torre to go, and passives by a past participle, e.g., Man stabbed in subway.

2 PRONUNCIATION b See audioscript 4 READING & LISTENING c 1 c 2 a 3 c 4 c 5 a 6 b 7 b 8 c 9 a 10 a c 2 refused 3 agreed 4 promised 5 reminded 6 advised 7 invited 8 denied 9 admitted 10 regretted 11 suggested 12 accused 4T 3 VOCABULARY a 1 The news on TV is always depressing. 2 I have some / a piece of really exciting news for you! 3 It’s 9:00. Let’s watch the news. The war reporter 1 F (They usually chose to be war reporters because they wouldn’t be happy with regular b 1 paparazzi 2 critic 5 reporter 1 review 2 crossword puzzle 3 cartoon 4 advertisement 4 editor 6 news anchor 8 press photographer 5 classified ads 6 horoscope 7 weather forecast 8 front page Restaurant critic Good side: can go to the best restaurants, it’s free, can take a friend 1D 2E 3B 4A 5C 1A 2D 3B 4G 5E C 7H 8F 44
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e The restaurant critic 1T 2 F (She can order them without worrying about what they cost.) 3 F (She can take a friend with her.) 5 F (It’s difficult for her to go back because the owner might recognize her.) 6T

hours.) 2T 3 F (You work as part of a team.) 4T 5T 6 F (Two colleagues were kidnapped and a very good friend was killed.)

3 sports commentator 7 freelance journalist

Bad side: has to eat even when not hungry, weight problem can’t go back to places where the review was bad, eating out on weekends isn’t appealing

American English File- Book 4 anymore War reporter Good side: odd hours, going to difficult places, working as part of a team Bad side: seeing a lot of horrific things, contrast between war zones and home, risk of being killed / kidnapped THE INTERVIEW a

Answer key

5 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH MUSIC RESTIVALS

A man (Sir Nicholas Kenyon), a bassoon, a circular building (the Royal Albert Hall), and a conductor (Sir Simon Rattle)

MINI GRAMMAR A1 B2 C4 D3 E3 F2 b 1 Use the Queen’s hall for a series of popular concerts (to bring classical music to a wider audience) 2 Taking away the seats on the floor of the hall so that people could stand and walk around. 3 Because it is an abbreviation of Promenade concerts (people are able to walk around and stand during the music). 4 Two months. 5 They have to stand in line during the day. 6 They dress and behave in an informal way, but they really listen to the music. There is an amazing level of concentration.

c 1 They changed the concert program for that day and put in the Fauré requiem. 2 He was going to conduct the Verdi requiem later that season. He had been a friend of Princess Diana’s and wanted to dedicate the piece to her memory, but a week later he also died. 3 After Solti’s death, Colin Davies conducted the Verdi requiem and dedicated it to the memory of Princess Diana and Solti. 4 The tile of a piece of music by John Adams that had been programmed for the last night of the Proms and that they had to change (because princess Diana had been killed after a short ride 45
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American English File- Book 4 in a fast car). 5 He was conducting this piece and in a very quiet moment at the beginning, a cell phone started ringing. He stopped the piece, looked angrily at the person, and then started from the beginning again. 6 Sir Nicholas Kenyon was interviewed on the BBC the next day about this incident and in the middle of the interview, his phone rang. 1 laid-back (= casual and relaxed) 2 a lot of fun (= very fun)

Answer key

3 hang out (= informal way of saying stay in one place and not do anything in particular) 4 a ton of (= informal way of saying a lot of or many)

d 1 way back (= informal way of saying a long time ago) 2 walk around (= a phrasal verb that means walk here and there) 3 except me (= I am the only one) 4 turned out (= a phrasal verb that means happened in the end) 5 took over (= a phrasal verb that means took control of a situation) 6 I mean (= I want to say – often used when speaking to give yourself time when you want to rephrase something or before you explain something)

ON THE STREET a Austin City Limits EarthFest Kerrville Folk Festival Lollapalooza 1 3 1 2

Sounds of the Underground 4

b 1 Curt 3 Tim 2 Christina 4 Savanna

c 46
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

5 WRITING A FORMAL LETTER
Lesson plan a 1 The Guest Relations Representative of the Cafe Royale chain of restaurants. 2 Because he wants to complain about an unsatisfactory experience he and his family had at a Cafe Royale restaurant. 3 He wants an explanation and an apology.

5 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR a 1 used to driving 2 to have 3 us to talk b 1 meeting 2 washing 4 killing her husband 5 apologized for being 6 as a waiter 3 to get 4 to be

VOCABULARY a 1 conductor 2 violinist 3 drummer 4 editor 5 composer b 1 weather forecast 2 review 3 biased 4 catchy 5 tune 6 journalist 7 soloist 8 reporter 9 photographer 10 rapper 6 censored 7 pillow 8 snore 9 nap 10 insomnia

b 2 on many occasions 3 pleasant 4 on this particular evening 5 an extremely rude 6 refused to 7 will not do so again 8 unacceptable treatment 9 Sincerely

PRONUNCIATION a 1 whole (it’s /h/) 2 convince (it’s /s/) 3 crossword (it’s /ər/) b guitarist, orchestra, biased, sensational, critic 4 accurate (it’s /æ/) 5 cartoon (it’s /u /)

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1b 2a 3b 4b 5c 6a 7b 8c

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a A not mentioned E 1 B5 C2 D not mentioned b 1c 2b 3a 4b 5c F4 G3

47
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key
Buzz Aldrin was the second man to step on the moon. First Man is the name of one of Armstrong’s biographies. James Hansen is the author of First man. Peter Shann Ford is the computer expert who discovered through sound analysis that Armstrong really did say the a.

6A Speaking to the world
Lesson plan Optional lead-in NASA = National Aeronautic and Space Administration (the agency in charge of the US space program). Apollo = the name of the program organized by NASA to put people on the moon, and also the name of the spacecraft used. liftoff (noun) = the moment when a spacecraft leaves the ground. A spacecraft lifts off (it doesn’t take off). Mission Control = the people at NASA who manage the flight. countdown = the counting backwards (10, 9, 8, etc.) that is done before liftoff.

d 2 mankind (noun) = all humans, humanity 3 momentous (adj) = very important or serious 4 meaningful (adj) = having a clear meaning 5 memorable (adj) = worth remembering 6 inaudible (adj) = can’t be heard

2 GRAMMAR a 1 in the US 2 a shy boy , the books and the music , a the moon

1 READING b a1c 2b 3c b The controversy was about what Neil Armstrong say “One small step for man …” or “One small step for a man …”? The a is important because the sentence makes sense with it. (“One small step for an individual man, but a giant leap for all humans.”) Without the article a, the sentence doesn’t make sense a sit means “One small step for all humans, one giant leap for all humans.”

3 in the college 4 the first man 5 by people all over the world 6 a an astronaut, the US navy 7 to give the autographs 8 some of the Armstrong’s hair

b a1– 2 The 3– 2 the, – 3 –, the 4– 5a 6– 5– 6 the 7 the 8– 9a 7 The 8 the 9 the 10 – 10 –

b 1 The, the 4 –, – c July 20, 1969 was the date of the first moon landing. Six hours and 50 minutes is the time the astronauts spent in the spacecraft between landing on the moon and stepping out of the capsule. Five hundred million people watched or listened to the moon landing live. 48
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d Churchill 1 the 2 – 3 the 4 an 5 the 6 the 7 the 8 – 9 the 10 the

American English File- Book 4
Martine Luther King 1 a 2 – 3 a 4 the 5 the Al Gore 1 the 2 a 3 a 4 the 5 – 6 the 7 the e d See audioscript

Answer key

1B 2G 3D 4H 5C 6A 7E 8F 3 PRONUNCIATION b The vowel sound of a / an / the in 1-5 is /ə/. The is pronounced /ði/ in 6 because the words that follow the article, Indian and east, begin with a vowel sound. f 1 now and then 2 now or never 3 safe and sound 4 peace and quiet 5 Sooner or later 5 LISTENING b The speaker should have remembered to get to know, as much as possible, his / her audience beforehand (tip 6). 7 SPEAKING a d A5 B1 C4 D2 E3 b e A speaker 2 He had given exactly the same presentation the year before. B speaker 5 He hadn’t realized that Montreal was one hour ahead of Chicago and arrived late for his presentation – which was about how to manage your time better. C speaker 1 A bat was flying around the room, and she was scared of bats. D speaker 4 She touched the wrong button on the computer and deleted the presentation. E speaker 3 He didn’t realize that the zipper on his pants was open. See audioscript See audioscript 6 law and order 7 sick and tired 8 thunder and lightning

6 VOCABULARY 49
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key up and down different floors in a building art gallery = a building or room full of paintings or sculptures sidewalk cafe = a café that has tables outside on the sidewalk run-down neighborhood = part of a town that used to be nice but is now dirty, poor, etc. beggar = a person who asks for money on the street

6B Bright lights, big city
Lesson plan Optional lead-in 1 /’ɑmɪʃ/; they are a religious community. 2 Yes, very. 3 Mainly in Pennsylvania in the US. 4 Switzerland and Germany. Today they still speak a dialect of German. 5 use electricity or phones, drive cars, wear modern clothes, etc.

b places of worship other landmarks and sights chapel masque synagogue temple other buildings baseball stadium concert hall courthouse skyscraper tower 1E 2A 3B 4F 5D 6C harbor hill square statue getting around bicycle lane cable car pedestrian mall taxi stand

1 READING & SPEAKING b 1 Rumspringa is a time when teenage Amish have to decide whether they want to stay in the community or leave.

c 1T 2T 3 F (Ruth has never seen art before. They don’t take art in school.) 4T 5 F (The people who are really learning something are the city kids.) 6 F (He ignored him.) 7 F (The majority choose to stay.) 8T 9T 10 F (The reviewer says it depends on your point of view.)

1 traffic jams 2 slums 3 vandalism 4 overcrowding

5 pollution 6 homeless people 7 Beggars 8 poverty

1C 2F 3G 4A 5D 6B 7E

c 2 VOCABULARY a parking meters = machines you put money into when you park your car on the street elevators = machines that carry people or goods 50
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1 entertainment 2 homelessness 3 accommodations 4 community 5 violence

6 sights 7 admission 8 height 9 performance 10 exhibition

American English File- Book 4 known for. 3 PRONUNCIATION b See audioscript

Answer key

2 Go to the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry. 3 The Cloud Gate sculpture reflects the skyline, like a mirror. 4 Its graceful, bold design. 5 The skyscrapers, like the Sears Tower.

4 GRAMMAR a 1 long hair 2 behavior 4 advice 5 some bad weather 6 hard work 8 some interesting news

6 Chicago is the only big US city with a beach right in the middle of it. 7 Their fans are extremely loyal. 8 Apes, monkeys, and other primates. 9 The travel writer’s husband proposed during a carriage ride.

3 terrible traffic 7 too much luggage

b a1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 b 1 is 2 3 look 4 works 5 The homeworks were was 6 glass 7 some 8 some 9 progress 10 pair of glasses a some new pants / a new pair of pants two luggages pieces of luggage a beautiful weather some beautiful furnitures c

1 cruise (= a boat tour) 2 breathtaking (= magnificent, beautiful) 3 ashamed (= feel very embarrassed about something) 4 unique (= the only one of its kind) 5 proposed (= asked someone to get married)

MINI GRAMMAR 1 ’re going to have/ ’re having … painted 2 had … cut 3 have … cleaned 4 have … serviced 5 have … repaired 6 have … renewed 7 C (Wrigley Field)

5 LISTENING a 1 D (architectural boat tour) 6 G (Lake Michigan) 2 I (Millennium Park) 3 F (Cloud Gate) 5 B (Navy Pier) 8 H (Lincoln Park Zoo)

4 E (John Hancock Building) 9 A(carriage ride)

b 1 On the architectural boat tour, you can see the famous buildings and bridges that Chicago is 51
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key was trying to make a strong glue, but when the glue he made was not strong enough, he didn’t throw it out but simply thought of a good use for the weak glue. IKEA sells inexpensive furniture that is also well designed, something that people thought was not possible, and JetBlue is an example of a discount airline, which people also thought was an impossible concept. 3 To do the opposite of what they ordinarily do, i.e., try to think of articles that nobody will find interesting. Maybe this will actually give them an idea for something really interesting. 4 A book containing the first chapter of 15 other books, and a book voucher with which you can buy the book you like best.

6C Eureka!
Lesson plan Optional lead-in 1 Archimedes /,ɑrkə’midiz/ (a Greek mathematician) 2 He was getting into the bath. The bath was completely full and the water overflowed. 3 That the volume of an object can be calculated by the amount of water it displaces.

1 LISTENING & SPEAKING b Archimedes /,ɑrkə’midiz/ said it when he was having a bath. He realized that the volume of an object can be calculated by the amount of water it displaces. People who are “creative thinkers.” Most people don’t have them because they have psychological “blind spots” that prevent them from seeing the obvious solution to a problem.

2 GRAMMAR a 1 every year 2 All living things 3 Both 4 all 5 Everything 6 nor

c 1 Because they concentrate too hard on the small job they are working on and don’t see the bigger picture. 2 Volunteers were asked to watch a short clip of a basketball game and count the number of passes made by one team. In the middle of the game, somebody dressed as a gorilla walked in, but half of the volunteers didn’t notice because they were just concentrating on counting the passes. 3 None of them saw the gorilla. b a 1 Most of 2 no 3 Everything 4 Most 2 Neither of us 3 either May 6th or May 7th 4 Both (of) my children could read / My children could both read 5 Neither my brothers nor my sisters 5 every 6 any 7 None 8 Anybody

b 1 to either Hawaii or Thailand

d 1 That we usually focus only on what we’re looking for, and we don’t see anything else. 2 Post-it™ notes were invented by someone who 52

d 1 c – figures vary, but it’s about 97% 2 a – together they make up just under 79% of air 3 c – we only absorb a part of the oxygen in the air,

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American English File- Book 4 so we can breathe some out again 4 b – about 90-120 minutes in total 5a 6a explosion

Answer key

comets = masses of ice and dust that move around the sun and look like bright stars with a tail

4 VOCABULARY & PRONUNCIATION 3 READING a 1C 2A 3B 4D Two (Karl Scheele and Marie Curie) died as a result of their research. a 1 a physicist 2 a biologist 3 a chemist 4 a geneticist 5 a geologist b 1B 2A 3C 4D 5A 6D 7B 8C c 1 scientist scientific science c lenses = curved pieces of glass or plastic that make things larger, smaller, or clearer phosphorus = a chemical (element) elements = simple chemicals that consist of atoms of only one type, e.g., oxygen chlorine = a chemical (element) often used to keep swimming pool water clean substance = a type of solid, liquid, or gas that has particular properties, e.g., a chemical substance mercury = a poisonous chemical (element) that used to be used in thermometers cyanide = another highly poisonous chemical toxic = containing poison radium = a chemical (element) often used in the treatment of cancer radioactivity = the energy produced by powerful and dangerous rays radioactive = sending out radiation lead /lεd/= a chemical element that is a heavy soft gray metal used especially in the past for water pipes. craters = large holes on the top of a volcano or holes in the ground caused by, e.g., a bomb 53
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2 chemist chemical chemistry 3 biologist biological biology 4 physicist physical physics 5 geneticist genetic genetics 6 geologist geological geology

e 1 discovered radium 2 do experiments, laboratory 3 made, discovery 6 proved, theory 5 invented 6 Pharmaceutical, develop 7 do, research, side effects 8 do, trials 9 volunteer, guinea pigs

American English File- Book 4

Answer key one place to another without problems) 4 would guess (= think but am not sure) 5 to make a long story short (= an idiom that means the whole story is long, but you will tell only the most important part)

6 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH GREAT CITIES
THE INTERVIEW a Graham Bull, a Duck vehicle, Faneuil Hall

ON THE STREET b 1 It’s amphibious. There is levity and a sense of humor involved. 2 Beacon Hill and Faneuil Hall. 3 The friendliness of the city. it is also a very safe city. 4 Driving a car. Almost all the streets are one way and people get badly lost if they don’t know their way around. b 1 Rachel 2 Christina c 1 People are sometimes not aware that the tour is amphibious (that it will go on the river). 2 A family arranged a surprise birthday for their mother and went on the tour. 3 She was freaking out (= very distressed). 4 It was built to replace the old Boston Garden, which was in the same location. 5 The janitors would find trash every morning on the floor and after some years, they think it’s a ghost. 6 They found the remains of a monkey who had escaped from the circus. It had lived undetected in the rafters for years. c 1 all the time (= seemingly always) 2 would have to be (= definitely is) 3 pretty neat (= informal way of saying something was pleasurable or enjoyable) 4 get a chance (= have an poortunity) 5 at all (= never; not in any way) 3 Tim 4 Juan 5 Sophie a Athens Dublin Miami New York 3 1 2 5 Paris Prague Rio Rome Tokyo 4 1 5 2 4 Cambridge 3

d 1 works out (= a phrasal verb that means proves effective and successful) 2 without question (= it cannot be any other thing) 3 know your way around (= know how to get from 54
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

6 WRITING A REPORT
Lesson plan a 1 When you want to eat out cheaply / When you don’t want to spend much money 3 When you are celebrating something / When it’s a special occasion 4 Some general advice / Things to remember about eating out in Chicago

6 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR 1 b 2 a 3 b 4 b 5 a 6 c 7 c 8 a 9 c 10 c

VOCABULARY a 1 historic 2 poverty 3 government b 1 quiet 2 sound 3 white c 1 do 2 made 3 do d 1 harbor – the others are places of worship 2 cable car – it’s a form of transportation the others are places where you can get a taxi / bus / plane 3 landmark – the others describe areas of a town / city 4 square – the others are buildings 5 genetics – it is the subject and the others are people 4 twice 5 ends 4 made 5 do 4 genetics 5 scientific

b Most / The majority of In general / Generally speaking are likely to be / tend to be Almost always / nearly always Usually / commonly

PRONUNCIATION a 1 neighborhood (it’s /eɪ/) 4 both (it’s /θ/) 2 prove (it’s /u/) 5 synagogue (it’s /g/) 3 research (it’s /ər/) b biologist, physicist, cosmopolitan, outskirts, industrial

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1B 2F 3D 4E 5C 6A b about to = going to, very soon devastating = extremely harmful overuse = use too much counteract = do something to reduce or prevent 55
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American English File- Book 4 the bad effects of something else podium = a small platform that a person stands on when giving a speech or conducting an orchestra 2 GRAMMAR a 1F CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a 1c 2c 3b 4b 5a b 1F 2T 3T 4F 5F 2J 3K 4D

Answer key

7A I wish you wouldn’t …!

b 1 you wouldn’t do 2 I had 3 I knew 4 they would ride

c speakers 1 and 4

d a 1 had 2 lived 3 would drive 4 would stop 5 would buy 6 could 7 had 8 would turn

3 VOCABULARY a 1 frustrated 2 embarrassing 3 irritates 4 depressing 5 terrified 6 tiring 7 worries 8 amused 9 disappointed 10 thrilling 11 shocked 12 exhausting

b 2 scary 3 impressive 4 stressful 5 offensive

4 READING a In the first photo, she is in her fifties and in the 56
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American English File- Book 4 second she is 19. Her hair is lighter and thinner now, and she has wrinkles. better … (3)

Answer key

I wish I had been more gentle with people in that situation … (4) I wish I’d spent more time on my piano lessons. (5) I wish I had always said yes to challenges. (6) The tense is the past perfect. The wishes refer to the past.

b A4 B2 C1 D6 E3 F5

c 1 reminds me 2 gorgeous 3 a waste 4 starring 5 witty 6 the life and soul (of the party) 7 gentle 8 challenges

b b 1 I wish I hadn’t left my camera in the car. 2 I wish I had set my alarm clock. 3 I wish I hadn’t bought a house in the country. 4 I wish I hadn’t dropped my cell phone in the bathtub. 5 I wish I had studied for the test. 6 I wish I had taken a vacation last year.

d 1 Be happy with the way you look when you are young. 2 If you become successful, enjoy it – don’t be embarrassed by it. 3 Be a good listener, not just a good talker. 4 Try to understand why someone is treating you badly. It’s probably because they are unhappy. 5 Make the most of your time when you are young enough to learn things. 6 If you are offered the chance to do something new, go for it! c

1 I wish I had some money. / I wish I hadn’t spent so much. 2 I wish I hadn’t had my hair cut so short. / I wish I hadn’t changed the color. 3 I wish I had learned more English in school. / I wish I had taken extra classes. 4 I wish I hadn’t left me. / I wish I hadn’t gotten so angry.

6 PRONUNCIATION 5 GRAMMAR a Here she talks about things she wishes she had known then .. (intro) I wish I’d known what I was going to look like 30 years later … (para 1) I wish I’d known that it’s possible to enjoy the good things about fame … (2) I wish I had learned sooner how to listen to people 57
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b 1 I wish I hadn’t eaten all the candy. 2 I wish you wouldn’t drive so fast. 3 I wish it weren’t my turn to cook tonight. 4 I wish it would stop raining. 5 I wish we didn’t have to go to the party. 6 I wish I’d bought that jacket I saw yesterday.

c

American English File- Book 4
A4 B2 C4 D1 E6 F3 a going on = happening 7 LISTENING & SPEAKING a A5 B4 C1 D3 E2 b b 1 Mercedes and Bosch – He was working for Mercedes (the German car company) when a man from Bosch (the German engineering company) offered him a job. It would have opened doors for me. – Taking the job would probably have given him better work opportunities when he went back to Spain. 2 The top and the skirt I wore were really skimpy. – Her clothes didn’t cover much of her body, so everyone could see how burned she was. 3 The Russian Revolution – Her (Polish) grandmother was in Russia during the revolution and met many interesting people (painters, writers). Her granddaughter wishes she could have talked to her about this time. Old letters – By reading her old letters, the granddaughter is discovering about her life. 4 I really like him. – She was attracted to the man. Now it’s too late – It’s too late because the man she was too afraid to talk to is now engaged to be married. 5 I just did the bare minimum. – He studied as little as possible, just doing enough to pass his exams but not more. This was a unique opportunity. – Being a student was a once-in-a-lifetime chance to learn about literature from people who really knew about the subject, and it was a chance to read a lot of novels. 1 go over = look at again, review

Answer key

go for it = take the opportunity (that is being offered to you)

2 goes wrong = stops working correctly 3 gone back on = not kept a promise or your word 4 go without = live without having 5 go with = match, complement 6 go to sleep = fall asleep 7 go far = be successful 8 went off = made a sudden loud noise 9 go for it (see a) 10 going on (see a)

8 VOCABULARY 58
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key e 1 c 2 a 3 b 4 c 5c

7B A test of honesty
1 REAINDG & LISTENING b 1 He worked in Washington analyzing weapons expenditures for the US Navy. / He held senior level jobs. / He earned good money. / He was the head of the public research group. 2 At office parties, his coworkers introduce him as “the guy who brings in the bagels” (instead of “the head of the public research group”). 3 It started as a way of rewarding his employees when they won a contract. Then it became a habit. Every Friday he bought in bagels and cream cheese. 4 People from other departments wanted bagels too. Finally he was bringing in so many bagels that he needed to charge to cover his costs. Ninety0five percent of people said. 5 They thought he was crazy (“had lost his mind”). 6 Within a few years, he was delivering thousands of bagels (8,400) a week to many companies (140). 7 he discovered how honest his customers were and what kind of people and companies stole more or less.

2 VOCABULARY a 1 the head 2 boss 3 employees 4 customers

b 1 set up 2 manufacture 3 market 4 import 5 export 6 expand 7 become 8 take over 9 launch 10 merge

do business (with), a job, market research make a deal, a decision, an investment, money, a profit a 1 a chain 2 a business / company / firm 3 a multinational (company) 4 the headquarters 5 a branch b 1 the staff 2 an employee 3 an employer 4 a customer 5 a client 6 a coworker 7 the chief executive officer (CEO) 8 the owner 9 the head of the department 10 a manager 1 logo 59 4 slogan

d 1 b (80-90%) 2 Smaller offices were more honest. 3 The cash basket has hardly ever been stolen. 4 They cheated more during bad weather. 5 They cheated more before Christmas because many people often feel anxious and stressed before this holiday and don’t look forward it. 6 Executives cheated more than lower-level employees.

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American English File- Book 4
2 commercial 3 advertisement / ad 5 junk mail 6 cold-calling

Answer key
SS will probably say they wouldn’t try the product as it seems very unlikely that it would work.

c 1 An employer is the person or organization that employs other people to work for him / her / them. An employee is a person who is fired to work for someone else. 2 A customer is someone who buys a product (e.g., goods in a store) or service (e.g., a haircut at a salon). A client is someone who pays a professional for service (e.g., a lawyer for legal advice). 3 The boss is the person in charge of a group of people. The staff is a group of people who work for a business / company. 4 Set up company = start a company; take over a company = when one company takes control of another 5 Export a product = sell a product to another country, import a product = buy a product from another country

b Buy now while supplies last! The camera never lies, or does it? Trust me, I’m a doctor (or a celebrity)

c 1H 2G 3A 4D 5C 6E 7F 8B

d A contrast: In spite of Even though Although A purpose: for so as to In order to so that to

e a 1 despite 2 even 3 to 4 as 5 order 6 spite 7 that 8 Although 9 for 10 Despite

3 PRONUNCIATION c 1 progress 2 progressing 3 recorded 4 record 5 rejected 6 rejects 7 produce 8 produced 9 objects 10 object

b 1 … we wouldn’t arrive late. 2 … she earns a fortune … 3 … the terrible reviews / the reviews being terrible / the fact that the reviews were terrible. 4 … the fog was very thick. 5 … not to offend her. 6 … to explain the new policy.

MINI GRAMMAR 1 wherever 2 whoever 3 Whenever 4 however 5 What ever 6 whichever f

1 … exchange them. 2 … didn’t say anything to me. 3 … she could be closer to her family. 4 … his unsatisfactory job performance. 60

4 GRAMMAR a

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American English File- Book 4
5 … personally I think she’s very nice. 6 … get a better job. 7 … he was never promoted. 8 … the new product didn’t well very well. 9 … a meeting. 10 … encourage young people to smoke and drink. Lesson plan Optional lead-in

Answer key

7C Tingo

kindergarten – German; chef – French; siesta – Spanish; pasta – Italian; karaoke – Japanese

5 SPEAKING product production producer

1 GRAMMAR a 1C 2F 3D 4E 5A 5B 7I 8H 9G 10 J

b 2 igloo, whose 3 robot, that 4 tycoon, who 5 chauffeur, whose 6 graffiti, that

d shampoo – a liquid soap that you use to wash your hair algebra – a type of mathematics that uses letters and symbols to represent quantities macho – an adjective that describes a man (or his behavior) that is very masculine in an aggressive way yogurt – a food made from milk that people sometimes eat with fruit

f 1 who 2 which 3 who 4 that 5 that 6 whose 7 that 8 who 9 whom 10 who 11 that 12 who 13 who 14 whose

g 61
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American English File- Book 4
1 The first two sentences in the introduction. The commas around the relative clauses show they are non-defining. 2 3, 8, 10, 12, and 13, i.e., instead of who in defining relative clauses 3 3, 4, 5, and 8. You can leave out who or that when the subject of the relative clause is a different person / thing. Compare: A woman (who) you think is pretty … and a man who spends a lot of time… 4 If the preposition comes at the end of the relative clause, after the verb, the relative pronoun is who or that. If the preposition comes at the beginning of the relative clause and the relative pronoun comes directly after it, you must use whom for people or which for things. 3 READING & LISTENING b 1 husband 2 cab 3 alarm 4 jeans 5 escape 6 hooligan 7 broke 8 genuine 9 tip 10 addict

Answer key working at the reception desk. / The police officer to whom I spoke … 6 Our computer, which we bought two months ago, keeps on crashing. 7 The things (that / which) I left on the table aren’t there anymore. 8 It’s too hot in my room, which makes it impossible to sleep.

h a1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b 1 His girlfriend, who is an architect, is very intelligent. / His girlfriend, who is very intelligent, is an architect. 2 They gave us a present, which was a complete surprise. 3 He was saying something that / which I didn’t’ understand. 4 The car that / which crashed into mine was a convertible. 5 The police officer (who / that) I spoke to was 62 who whose suitcase whom who is talking that it goes that which was absolutely true that who is very tall to who whom which who is a chef

e 1 orange 2 ketchup 3 tennis

f 1 the Chinese 2 fish and spices 3 18th 4 Americans 5 tomatoes 6 Spanish 7 Italian 8 Latin 9 “poison for elephants” 10 elephant 11 died 12 stomach 13 France 14 originally 15 “Here you are” 16 popularity 17 England

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American English File- Book 4
18 English accent

Answer key

7 COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH WORDS
Lesson plan

4 VOCAUBLARY & PRONUNCIATION a 1 post 2 re 3 anti 4 mis 5 pre 6 ex 7 semi 8 multi 9 under 10 auto 11 mono 12 micro 13 over 14 bi

Optional lead-in carbon footprint = the total amount of carbon dioxide that a person produces, e.g., by driving, flying, using energy at home, i.e., it is a measure of the impact a person’s activities have on the environment drama queen = a man or woman who often has overly emotional reactions to situations; a person who thrives on drama road rage = a situation in which a driver becomes extremely angry or violent with the driver of another car because of the way they are driving

c 1 undercooked 2 oversleep 3 autobiography 4 Postimpressionists 5 misunderstand 6 semicircle

THE INTERVIEW a A man (Jesse Sheidlower) and the Oxford English Dictionary

b 1 About one thousand 2 If it’s a term for something very important, the word will go in the dictionary faster. 3 It became ubiquitous (i.e., used everywhere) very quickly, and there was no other word for what it described. 4 google (as a verb)

c 1 They are examples of “compounding.” Hang time is a recent term in sports. it refers to how long a ball or a person stays in the air. Time-shift refers to a recorded TV show that you watch at a later time. 2 They are examples of new words from foreign 63
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American English File- Book 4 languages. Hawala is an Arabic term that refers to people paying debts on behalf of other people. Ki is a Japanese term for life force or force of nature, same as the Chinese word chi. 3 Originally, they were left out of the OED because they were thought to be too technical. Then King Edward of England had appendicitis, and they became words everyone knew. People wondered why it wasn’t included in the OED. c 1 worldwide (= all over the world) and hot dog.

Answer key

2 make sense (= have a meaning that you can easily understand) 3 to do with (= a phrasal verb that means related to something) 4 go with (= a phrasal verb that means accept, choose to use) 5 stuff like (= informal way of saying things like)

d 1 pays attention to (= listens to or looks at carefully) 2 right away (= immediately; now) 3 a number of (= an unspecified amount of something) 4 at the time (= during that particular time period) 5 keep them out (= a phrasal verb that means stop from going into a place) 6 wrong with (= informal way of saying matter with)

ON THE STREET a Most positive: Victoria (speaker 2) – she says it brings nations and people closer Most negative Volke (speaker 4) he thinks you should keep your own culture

b 1 Matandra (speaker 3) – he says Italian is dominant in the field of music. 2 Volke (speaker 4) – he says Spanish has its own words for computer and skateboard. 3 Victoria (speaker 2) – she explains that the French say parking meaning car park or parking lot. 4 Mateusz (speaker 1) – he mentions hamburger 64
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

7 WRITING: “FOR AND AGAINST”
Lesson plan a 1 The main advantage 2 such as 3 Another advantage 4 also 5 on the other hand 6 for example 7 Although 8 because of 9 To sum up

7 REVIEW & CHECK
GRAMMAR a 1 I had 2 you would 3 had spoken b1c 2c 3a 4b 5a 4 not having 5 to work for

VOCABULARY a 1 exhausting 2 shocked 3 employees b 1 profit 2 slogan 3 multinational c 1 up 2 over 3 up d 1 mispronounce 2 postgraduate 3 rebuilt 4 underpaid 5 autobiography 4 launch 5 branches 4 as 5 for 4 do 5 clients

b To list advantages / disadvantages Another advantage The main advantage To add more points to the same argument In addition Furthermore To introduce an example For instance For example Such as To make contrasting points However In spite of (the fact that) Although On the other hand To give a reason Because (+ clause) Because of (+ noun) To introduce the conclusion In conclusion To sum up

PRONUNCIATION a 1 misunderstand (it’s /s/) 4 irritate (it’s /ɪ/) 2 scary (it’s /εr/) 3 profit (it’s /ɑ/) b disappointed, record, produce, expand, manufacture 5 shocked (it’s /ɑ/)

CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THIS TEXT? a1b 2a 3c 4b 5b b mainly = more than anything else restricted = limited in size or amount To the untrained ear = to someone who is not used to hearing it humming = low continuous sound Their culture is similarly constrained = their culture is also very limited 65
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American English File- Book 4 eager to learn = wanting to, enthusiastic to learn beyond them = too difficult for them disprove = prove that something is wrong enables = permits, allows File 1 1 up CAN YOU UNDERSTAND THESE PEOPLE? a1b 2c 3c 4c 5c b 1 A tale of murder, insanity, and the making or the Oxford English Dictionary 2 An American army surgeon and a millionaire 3 The oxford English Dictionary 4 He found that Minor was living in a hospital for mentally ill criminals. 5 He had shot a man. File 2 1 burst 2 turn 3 leave 4 broke 5 put 2 back 3 up 4 down 5 up 6 down

Answer key

PHRASAL VERBS IN CONTEXT ANSWERS

File 3 1D 2E 3B 4A 5C

File 4 1 out 2 out 3 down 4 on 5 off

File 5 1 lie 2 fall 3 fill 4 catch 5 put, eat 66
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American English File- Book 4

Answer key

File 6 1D 2E 3C 4B 5A

File 7 1 going 2 ended 3 pick 4 take

67
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...Sarah Anastasia Freddino English 280 Dr. Holmes December 4th, 2014 Short Paper Assignment Assignment 5: Presidential Speech President John F. Kennedy – “City Upon a Hill” Speech (January 9, 1961) I have welcomed this opportunity to address this historic body and through you the people of Massachusetts to whom I am so deeply indebted for a lifetime of friendship and trust. For fourteen years I have placed my confidence in the citizens of Massachusetts — and they have generously responded by placing their confidence in me. Now, on the Friday after next, I am to assume new and broader responsibilities. But I am not here to bid farewell to Massachusetts. For forty-three years — whether I was in London, Washington, the South Pacific, or elsewhere — this has been my home; and, God willing, wherever I serve this shall remain my home. It was here my grandparents were born — it is here I hope my grandchildren will be born. I speak neither from false provincial pride nor artful political flattery. For no man about to enter high office in this country can ever be unmindful of the contribution this state has made to our national greatness. Its leaders...

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