Free Essay

American English

In: English and Literature

Submitted By angebug
Words 1100
Pages 5
American English / British English * Jenny feels ill. She ate too much. * Jenny feels ill. She's eaten too much. * I can't find my keys. Did you see them anywhere? * I can't find my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
(ii) In sentences which contain the words already, just or yet:
American English / British English * A: Are they going to the show tonight? * B: No. They already saw it. * A: Are they going to the show tonight? * B: No. They've already seen it. * A: Is Samantha here? * B: No, she just left. * A: Is Samantha here? * B: No, she's just left. * A: Can I borrow your book? * B: No, I didn't read it yet. * A: Can I borrow your book? * B: No, I haven't read it yet.

1. Verb agreement with collective nouns
In British English collective nouns, (i.e. nouns referring to particular groups of people or things), (e.g. staff , government, class, team) can be followed by a singular or plural verb depending on whether the group is thought of as one idea, or as many individuals, e.g.:
My team is winning.
The other team are all sitting down.
In American English collective nouns are always followed by a singular verb, so an American would usually say:
Which team is losing? whereas in British English both plural and singular forms of the verb are possible, as in:
Which team is/are losing?

2. Use of delexical verbs have and take
In British English, the verb have frequently functions as what is technically referred to as a delexical verb, i.e. it is used in contexts where it has very little meaning in itself but occurs with an object noun which describes an action, e.g.:
I'd like to have a bath.
Have is frequently used in this way with nouns referring to common activities such as washing or resting, e.g.:
She's having a little nap.
I'll just have a quick shower before we go out.
In American English, the verb take, rather than have, is used in these contexts, e.g.:
Joe's taking a shower.
I'd like to take a bath.
Let's take a short vacation.
Why don't you take a rest now?

3. Use of auxiliaries and modals
In British English, the auxiliary do is often used as a substitute for a verb when replying to a question, e.g.: * A: Are you coming with us? * B: I might do.
In American English, do is not used in this way, e.g.: * A: Are you coming with us? * B: I might.
In British English needn't is often used instead of don't need to, e.g.:
They needn't come to school today.
They don't need to come to school today.
In American English needn't is very unusual and the usual form is don't need to, i.e.:
They don't need to come to school today.
In British English, shall is sometimes used as an alternative to will to talk about the future, e.g.:
I shall/will be there later.
In American English, shall is unusual and will is normally used.
In British English shall I / we is often used to ask for advice or an opinion, e.g.:
Shall we ask him to come with us?
In American English should is often used instead of shall, i.e.:
Should we ask him to come with us?

4. Use of prepositions
In British English, at is used with many time expressions, e.g.: at Christmas/five 'o' clock at the weekend
In American English, on is always used when talking about the weekend, not at, e.g.:
Will they still be there on the weekend?
She'll be coming home on weekends.
In British English, at is often used when talking about universities or other institutions, e.g.:
She studied chemistry at university.
In American English, in is often used, e.g.:
She studied French in high school.
In British English, to and from are used with the adjective different, e.g.:
This place is different from/to anything I've seen before.
In American English from and than are used with different, e.g.:
This place is different from/than anything I've seen before.
In British English to is always used after the verb write, e.g.:
I promised to write to her every day.
In American English, to can be omitted after write, i.e.:
I promised to write her every day. anti-clockwise | counter-clockwise | articulated lorry | trailer truck | autumn | autumn, fall | barrister | attorney | bill (restaurant) | bill, check | biscuit | cookie | block of flats | apartment building | bonnet (clothing) | hat | bonnet (car) | hood | boot | trunk | bumper (car) | bumper, fender | caravan | trailer | car park | parking lot | chemist's shop | drugstore, pharmacy | chest of drawers | dresser, chest of drawers, bureau | chips | fries, French fries | the cinema | the movies | clothes peg | clothespin | coffin | coffin, casket | crisps | potato chips | crossroads | intersection; crossroads (rural) | cupboard | cupboard (in kitchen); closet (for clothes etc) | diversion | detour | drawing-pin | thumbtack | drink-driving | drunk driving | driving licence | driver's license | dual carriageway | divided highway | dummy (for baby) | pacifier | dustbin | garbage can, trash can | dustman | garbage collector | engine | engine, motor | estate agent | real estate agent | estate car | station wagon | film | film, movie | flat | apartment, flat, studio | flat tyre | flat tire | flyover | overpass | gearbox (car) | transmission | gear-lever | gearshift | Girl Guide | Girl Scout | ground floor | ground/first floor | handbag | handbag, purse, shoulder bag | high street | main street | holiday | vacation | hood (car) | convertible top | jam | jam, preserves | jug | jug, pitcher | juggernaut | 18-wheeler | lift | elevator | lorry | truck, semi, tractor | mad | crazy, insane | main road | highway | maize | corn | maths | math | motorbike | motorcycle | motorway | freeway, expressway | motorway | highway, freeway, expressway, interstate highway, interstate | nappy | diaper | naughts and crosses | tic-tack-toe | pants, underpants | underpants, drawers | pavement | sidewalk | pet hate | pet peeve | petrol | gas, gasoline | The Plough | Big Dipper | pocket money | allowance | post | mail | postbox | mailbox | postcode | zip code | postman | mailman, mail carrier, letter carrier | pub | bar | public toilet | rest room, public bathroom | railway | railroad | return (ticket) | round-trip | reverse charge | collect call | ring road | beltway, freeway/highway loop | road surface | pavement, blacktop | roundabout | traffic circle, roundabout | rubber | eraser | rubbish | garbage, trash | rubbish-bin | garbage can, trashcan | saloon (car) | sedan | shop | shop, store | silencer (car) | muffler | single (ticket) | one-way | solicitor | lawyer, attorney | spanner | wrench | sweets | candy | taxi | taxi, taxi cab | tea towel | dish towel | telly (informal), TV | television, TV | third-party insurance | liability insurance | timetable | schedule | tin | can | toll motorway | toll road, turnpike | torch | flashlight | trousers | pants, trousers | tube (train) | subway | underground (train) | subway | vest | undershirt | waistcoat | vest | wallet | wallet, billfold | wellington boots | rubber boots, rain boots | whisky | whiskey, scotch | windscreen | windshield | zip | zipper |

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

English

...I Acknowledgement For many of us, the state of education in a country speaks volumes. Where English is spoken and taught as a second language, fluency is deemed a basic requirement for proper communication and propagation of ideas and connotes success. Does this fluency actually translate to a country's economic success and overall standing in the world of nations? The reason why we came up with this topic is to test the capability of a certain number of people when it comes to proficiency in English, not just to test but to give some idea what is the importance of being proficient in English and how can it help us. English language is and has always been one of the most popular languages spoken, written & followed all over the globe. No matter in which part of the world you choose to go, command over this language enables you to communicate with others regardless of what their national language would be. Therefore it becomes not only important but compulsory to master this art & implement it in the real life. This course is designed to clear concepts, renew basics and to professionally prepare you for real life communication at all levels. · Background of the study English has been considered as international language and also for studying use English as official language. Proficiency in English includes capability to read and understand the language and the way words are pronounced as well as the sense in which word are used (though variations in usage is......

Words: 2221 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

English Assignment - the American Dream

...1. Give an outline of how the American Dream is interpreted in texts 2, 3 and 4 Arnold Schwarzenegger recalls lessons from 25 years as a U.S. citizen – learn English, Participate in Politics and Give Back. Arnold Schwarzenegger’s text focuses on immigrants that came to America, to achieve ”The American Dream”. The American Dream from Arnold’s view is not about what you can acquire from America, as an immigrant, but what you can do to give something back. His suggestions for giving something back is to first learn the English language, then contribute to the political course and at last help the community by donating, volunteering, mentoring a child, participating in a program, helping the less fortunate, doing community service, etc. He rounds up by saying: “There is no second-tier citizenship. You are an American, period. With hard work, learning English and getting involved, there is no limit on what you can achieve” Whose American Dream is it, anyway? Anya Kamenetz’s article primarily emphasizes the economic side of the American Dream. The main problem she proposes is that the Americans are a lot more unenthusiastic about their lives now, then at any time in the past 50 years, probably because of the deteriorating economy and the high expenses for supply of essential resources. One question that was raised in the article is if there’s a link between wealth and happiness. Anya refers to researcher Daniel Gilbert who discovered that once an average person earns more......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

4a06 Dangthithaonguyen a Contrastive Analysis of Compliments in American English and Vietnamese

...HCMC University of Pedagogy – English department ( A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPLIMENTS IN AMERICAN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE Student: Dang Thi Thao Nguyen Class: 4A06 Instructor: Ph.D Nguyen Ngoc Vu (( December 2009 When a student gets a high score, his teacher usually says: “Good job!”. When a child automatically cleans up the room after playing, her parents are likely to say: “You are very good”. When you go to school wearing a new shirt, you probably hear from your friends: “That shirt looks nice on you”. Those utterances are called compliments which are used to show that someone likes someone else’s appearance, belongings, or work etc. Due to different cultural background and social values, English and Vietnamese native speakers have different norms of complimenting as well as responding to compliments. In this essay, I will discuss the notion of compliment made in American English and Vietnamese in terms of topics, formulas, and responses. First thing first, let have a look at the definition. Definition of compliment Cambridge dictionary defines a compliment as “a remark that expresses approval, admiration or respect”. In linguistics, Holmes (1986, p.446) wrote “A compliment is a speech act which explicitly or implicitly attributes credit to someone other than the speaker, usually the person addressed, for some ‘good’ (possession, characteristic, skill, etc.), which......

Words: 1627 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

English Colonial and Native American Relations

...Based on these documents, back in the seventeenth century the Native American Indians were treated like crap. Some colonists viewed the Indians as pushovers that owned a lot of land. Now there were also colonists some colonists that gelt that the colonists as a whole should set some land boundaries for the Indians to have so that there would not be any more wars or battle over land. “ I should think that it requisite that convenient tracts of land should be set out for them; otherwise I fear that as we increase and think that we want even more room, they will think that we will never leave until we have crowded them quite out of all of their lands” (Samuel Sewall, A Letter Regarding Relations with the Indians). What is really interesting is that even though the majority of colonists treated the Indians horribly, there were still a few Indians that performed acts of kindness towards the colonists. “ They took me upon the sled and carried me to the fire, and they then made much of me, pulled off my wet clothers and wrapped me in dry clothes, made me a good bed…. then I was able to get up and put on my clothes; one of the Indinans awakened and, seeing me go, shouted as rejoicing at it” ( Quitin Stockwell, A Captivity Narrative). To reinforce the idea that Indians were below English colonists, there were a series of laws passed in the Plomouth colony, these rules included such things as: “ No Indian shall dwell, or come into, our Juridiction. Or perform any outward worship......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

American English File

...American English File- Book 4 Answer key 7 stole / has stolen 8 the swimming pool opens (opened; will open) 9 are you meeting / will you meet 10 she lives / she lived 1A Q and A 1 GRAMMAR a 3 How long 4 Which 5 How often 6 How 7 What 8 Do 9 What kind (sort / type) 10 Whose 11 Have 12 Who 2 PRONUNCIATION a 1b 2a 3a 4b 5b 6a 7b 8a 3 SPEAKING b Answers will vary depending on the country and culture you are teaching in. In the US, questions 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 11, and 12 would be considered inappropriate questions to ask someone you don’t know well. a 1 What’s the most important lesson life has taught you? 2 What’s your earliest memory? 3 Where would you like to live? 4 What single thing would improve the quality of your life? d 1L 2N 3N 4L 5N 6L 7L 8N 5 If you could go back in time, where would you go? 6 What’s your most treasured possession? e 1 8 or 10 2 9 3 11 4 8 5 11 or 12 4 READING & VOCABULARY a f a 1 Do you ever send text messages? 2 When was the last time you went to a party? 3 Could you tell me if there is a bank near here? 4 Who usually cooks the dinner? 5 Who do you like going shopping with? 6 What don’t you like doing on weekends? 7 What kind of car would you like to buy? 8 Do you know what time the concert ends? b 1 do you 2 wrote 3 this book costs / this book cost 4 happens / happened 5 Did you enjoy 6 does Tim usually listen to 1 Copyright(c) Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Single men and women meet for an evening. The women sit at......

Words: 20773 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

English

...Ch r i s t i n e Ro e ll Intercultural Training with Films ilms are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different dialects, forms of address, customs, taboos, and other cultural elements influence interaction among different groups. Numerous films contain excellent examples of intercultural communication and are highly useful resources for teachers. Additional reasons for teachers to incorporate films in class and encourage their students to watch movies in English include: • Films combine pleasure and learning by telling a story in a way that captures and holds the viewer’s interest. • Films simultaneously address different senses and cognitive channels. For example, spoken language is supported by visual elements that make it easier for students to understand the dialogues and the plot. • Students are exposed to the way people actually speak. 2 2010 N u m b e r F • Films involve the viewers, appeal to their feelings, and help them empathize with the protagonists. • DVDs usually come with subtitles in English, which facilitates understanding and improves reading skills. After discussing the importance of teaching intercultural communication and suggesting films that match specific......

Words: 6086 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

African American Vernacular English Code Switching in School

...discuss the current bill that would like to ban using the method of “code-switching” from the “home language” of AAE (African American Vernacular English) speakers. I have read a study conducted by a Umass professor regarding this issue, and I have read the bill thoroughly. My recommendation to you is to vote against the bill, and I have some very good reasons for it. Banning the AAE instruction will do more harm then good. Although the bill proposes some good reasons for needing to speak mainstream English, it misses a few key points. They claim that linguistic skills like writing and reading are necessary to an individuals success. They don’t realize however, that AAE is a structured language following rules and patterns. The “code-switching” can actually be a useful technique in teaching AAE speakers how to communicate “properly” in mainstream English. Proponents of the bill state that the primary purpose of the education system is to prepare students for success in their careers and to participate equally in society. I think that by banning the teaching of AAE to mainstream English will actually prevent children who speak AAE at home from having an equal opportunity in the first place. It is not separate but equal, since these children are starting from a different version of a language altogether. Their foundation in AAE would make normal English instruction worthless. Since AAE follows rules, “code-switching” is a totally viable option. The proponents are saying that......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

English

...time of and on the subject of war. The term, which is applied especially to those in military service during World War I,[1] was documented as early as 1848 in reference to German revolutionary poet,[2] Georg Herwegh.[3] Contents   [hide]  * 1 World War I * 1.1 In England * 1.2 In other countries * 2 The Spanish Civil War * 3 World War II * 3.1 In England * 3.2 In America * 4 Later American war poets * 5 References * 6 Notes * 7 External links ------------------------------------------------- World War I[edit] See also category: World War I poets In England[edit] For the first time, a substantial number of important English poets were soldiers, writing about their experiences of war. A number of them died on the battlefield, most famously Edward Thomas,Isaac Rosenberg, Wilfred Owen, and Charles Sorley. Others including Robert Graves,[4] Ivor Gurney and Siegfried Sassoon survived but were scarred by their experiences, and this was reflected in their poetry. Robert H. Ross[5] characterised the English "war poets" as a subgroup of the Georgian Poetry writers. Many poems by British war poets were published in newspapers and then collected into anthologies. Several of these early anthologies were published during the war and were very popular, though the tone of the poetry changed as the war progressed. One of the wartime anthologies was The Muse in Arms, published in 1917. Several anthologies were also published in......

Words: 1734 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

American Colonists: English or American

...American Colonists: English or American? A Look Into American Life Before And After The French-Indian War During the time leading up to the French and Indian War, American colonists were decidedly more English in their lifestyle than they were American. Having recently emigrated from England, the peoples were still very culturally influenced by their “home” country. The colonists still practiced many of the same traditions and religions as they did before. The colonies, all except one, were planted, supported, and established by English companies. The majority of the people sent over were from England so they were doing what they knew already. Although the colonies were across the Atlantic Ocean from England, the British government was still in control over the colonies. At this time the Americans did not seem to mind this, as they had always followed and been under British rule. England was also believed to be “invincible” so why would the Americans try to break away from the largest empire to become a small, weak country? Before the French and Indian War there was no reason to break away from Britain, everything seemed to working out fine. For the most part, colonists lived as they would in England because that is how they lived before and since it continued to work there was no need for change. Lastly, the term “American” was not defined yet considering America was not fully established, was not its own country, and most of the people living there lived as they......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

English

...Assignment 1: The Story of English "A English Speaking World" English as a world language has developed through different periods of time and in different places. English was and is still spoken in great numbers in countries across the world. English has branched out into different dialects, with slang included especially in the American form of English. English also bears a sort of social class, where those who speak English have a certain upper class appearance. It also creates a common language which helps business, economies and people connect better. It has become a dominant language and serves as a lingua franca for the world. The popularity of English has allowed the world to communicate at a higher efficiency when compared to a world with no dominate language. But his plan did not work and India along with China has seen an ever increasing number of people learning and speaking English. The popularity and necessity of English is seen in India government systems and everyday life. India's civil system is predominantly in English rather than Hindi. Out of 137 typist at a civil court, only one types in Hindi while the rest in English. This is necessary for smooth transactions to occur in India's systems, which we have seen from examples in class. Without a lingua franca, communication between India's different regions would be very difficult. In India there are 14 different variations of Hindi, with English as a common language miscommunication is......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

English

...ourselves by only speaking English?” Will Hutton clarity how he think it´s important for the individual person and the English people to learn more than the language, which are their native language. He talk about how it´s important to speak a foreign language, especially to save the Britain´s future economic. By comparing England and America where he see same “xenophobia” culture, he indicate why American can have their attitude to foreign language while they can´t, like it´s saying in the text. In addition will Hutton see this as a lost interest in other countries from the youth, he discuss how that fact establish this unwillingness. The second text by David Hughes “Do we really need foreign language skills to flourish?” David Hughes thinks that the fluency in foreign language is a benefit for anyone, but he doesn´t see the importance in that, when the rest of the world is learning English. When David Hughes went to the Far East, he heard English spoken everywhere, and as he wrote it in the text. The third text by Susan Purcell “Saying Britons ´don’t do´ languages is a fallacy” explain why the discussion about the English language skills is far more nuances. Susan Purcell is comparing the text to the EU-countries with England. She is talking about how the other European Union countries compare their language and how English is the mandatory first foreign language in 13 of the EU´s member states. Over 90 % of children in European countries ‘schools learn English, like is......

Words: 419 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

American English

...There are many pieces of literature throughout the word. Some enlighten readers with history. Some offer specific relations to readers. Furthermore, we have discovered many of these texts throughout this class. Each text has offered us a better understanding of a particular culture. We have experienced the hardships and economic struggles of many Mexican Americans striving to assimilate towards the American culture. Both the movie and the text demonstrate the lives of the migrant worker communities through oral recollections, collectivism, and economic situations. In the book we are given an unnamed protagonist who represents the community through a single voice. Whereas in the movie the protagonist is given a name and the community is represented through the poems read aloud. The movie And the Earth Did Not Swallow Him and the book …And the Earth Did Not Devour Him depict oral recollections, and the collectivist nature of the migrant worker community while also documenting the economic situations of migrant workers. Oral recollections appear throughout the film And the Earth Did Not Swallow Him. A character such as Don Bartolo demonstrates a great example of this. In the movie, Bartolo is constantly singing the communities stories and poems aloud. Each story represents how individuals deal with struggles within a community. Another example of an oral recollection in the movie is the story of Juanita and Ramon. This poem is another one of Don Bartolo stories that he sings......

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

English

...English as Official Language of United States of America The English language is originated from the Germanic tribes language, which has its roots from England in the form of Old English also known as Anglo-Saxon and has evolved into todays Modern English as we know it. English has become one of the most spoken languages in world, and is ranked as the second most spoken language. English should be the official language of the United States of America. Considered as an international language, it is the most learned and studied language throughout the world. United States laws prohibit the use of any other languages other then English on military installation or in Department of Defense buildings when conducting official business. These are just two reason of why I believe English should be the official language of the United States. In the United States, there are approximately 300 languages other than English that are spoken at home. English should be made the official language of the United States because it will knock down the language barriers for immigrants and they will be more likely to prosper in this nation, even though this may be a difficult process to accomplish at first, for many poor immigrants. In New York City, New York there are approximately thirty-five household languages other then English. If each of these subcultures of New York City have no common language, then it would create over thirty-five separate cities unable to prosper as one. Being......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

English

...HISTORY OF ENGLISH General Bambas, Rudolph C. The English Language: Its Origin and History. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1980.* Barber, Charles. The Story of Language. _____. The English Language: A Historical Introduction. (Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Rpt. Cambridge UP-Canto, c. 2000.* (Rev. version of The Story of Language). Baugh, A. C. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951. 1952. 1954. 1956. 2nd ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959. 1960. 1962. 1963. 1965. 1968. 1971. 1974. 1976. Baugh, A. C., and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 3rd. ed: London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.* _____. A History of the English Language. 4th ed. London: Routledge, 1993. 1993. 1994. 996. 1997. 2000. 2001. 2002. _____. A History of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2002; London: Routledge, 2002.* _____. A History of the English Language. London: Taylor and Francis-Routledge, 2010. Bex, Tony. "2. A (Very Brief) History of English." In Bex, Variety in Written English: Texts in Society /Societies in Text. (Interface). London: Routledge, 1996. 30-50.* Blake, Norman F. A History of the English Language. London: Macmillan, 1996. Rpt. Palgrave.* Bloomfield, M. W., and L. Newmark. A Linguistic Introduction to the History of English. New York: Knopf, 1963. _____. A Linguistic Introduction to the History of English.. Connecticut:......

Words: 2220 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

English - the American Language

...Press 1 for English…. Press 2 for Spanish… Why English Should Be Declared the Official Language of the Unites States of America Declaring English as the official language of the United States is a very controversial issue. We have one flag, one government, however no official language. Making English the official language would unite all Americans, no matter the race, creed, culture, heritage or ancestry. In 1907, US President Theodore Roosevelt wrote, “We have room for but one language in this country, and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans, of American nationally and not dwellers in a polyglot boarding house” (English-only movement/Wikipedia). There were as many as twenty different languages that could be heard around the time of our founding fathers. Today, there are presently three hundred twenty nine languages in the United States (US Census 2010). Immigrants of many nationalities have built our nation. Just look our nations motto, E pluribus Unum, (Latin meaning – out of many, one) which was adapted by the committee of Congress on July 4, 1776 to design “a seal for the United States of America”, which is carried by the American eagle. The nation has but one flag which we “pledge our allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all” (MacAuthur). However, 236 years later......

Words: 2007 - Pages: 9