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American Insurance Group Scandals

In: Business and Management

Submitted By yuganeswaran
Words 1710
Pages 7
Introduction
GP Ocean Food Sdn Bhd, which was founded in 1980, is Malaysia’s first and biggest fully integrated seafood producer which includes activities encompass trawling, aquaculture of fish and prawns and seafood processing. It is also an investment holding company. This company advantageously located in the Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia in order to provide easy access to deliver the products. In addition, more than 70% of the sales are exported to US, EU countries, Japan and others.
Scandle 1
Problem
Malaysia, just like other developing countries, is unable to run away from the corporate scandals that have been emphasized by the media. After all the recommendation and efforts contributed by the various parties to eliminate these scandals, however it is still happening and there is no sign of stopping or reduction of the fraud in the future.

Though GP Ocean Food Sdn Bhd is a well-known company, but the former company directors of seafood exporter have been acquitted of charges of submitting misleading information to the Securities Commission (SC) in 2006. Some even were charged with bribing case in order for their company to get listed in Bursa Malaysia. The company was highly involved with various allegations of corruption and irregularities.

Besides, GP Ocean was scheduled to be listed in July 2006, but the company announced a rescheduling of that event in early June which was two weeks before its pamphlet was to be launched. After the approval of the list by the Securities Commission (SC) in early April 2006, the Securities Commission began to receive lots of complaints regards the company’s possible irregularities in the firm’s financial statements. The Securities Commission started to investigate the complaints and further their research by raiding the offices of GP Ocean.

Causes
Corporate governance is designed to monitor and control the management of corporation to ensure there is no misconduct and that shareholder value is enhanced. Good corporate governance is where responsible investors and boards cultivating long term sustainable economic growth. It has several main aspects, which includes transparency, responsibility, fairness and accountability. However, for now the corporate governance mechanisms have proved to be inadequate. The government and public interest group are failing to keep track on the corporations.

One of the major factors that contributed to the fraud includes the poor internal control. Usually when corporate fraud occurs, it is inside dirty job where it is made easy because the company had an insufficient prevention program. At most of the time, it is the ‘human element’ remains at the root of most fraud occurrences. The poor management in the company will eventually lead to corruption and make the stakeholders to lose trust on the company. The weakness in the governance of the company is that too much power is given to a single person in managing the company and poor effort of the directors.

Besides that, another factor that contributed to the fraud is the collusion with external parties. This is where one person will request for a cheque or an amount of money, another person will sign the document and at last the third person will get the goods. This practice was made by some of the directors of GP Ocean Company in order to gain more profit.

Last but not least, unethical practices also contributed to the fraud in a company. Most of the people in this generation is looking at the money as their happiness and make them to go beyond their own principals. Most of the educated people are lack of ethics and moral values in their lives. Some even can take advantage of the public’s property or money in order to make sure their lives are rich and standard. However, no matter how the directors of GP Ocean company defended themselves, at last they were charged and found guilty due to the corruptions that they did.
Impact
At most of the time, when there is misconduct and mismanagement amongst the corporations, the public and stakeholders of the company will be the victims. The public and the stakeholders not only will feel disappointed, betrayed and violated, but also will hardly trust the same or other company in future. As a result of the action, the communities’ confidence is shaken and fairly threatens as well. In this case, the misconduct and mismanagement by the directors of the GP Ocean Company eventually had led the company to a corporate collapse.

Solution
There are few suggestions to minimize crimes such as corruption and fraud in a company. One of the upmost suggestions is there should be greater stakeholder involvement in corporate decision making in order for the company to be transparent and accountable principles of good corporate governance. ( The Star 20th July 2014 )
This practice will enable a more democratic system in the company. The involvement of the stakeholder would enable them to be better informed of the corporation operations and managements. They not only will be prioritized but also will be motivated by the practice conducted. Active stakeholder involvement will restore people’s confidence very soon. ( Clark, A. 2014 )

Corporate Accountabilty
2014, Arthur Clark
12 th Edtition

The Star 20th July 2014 http://www.thestar.com.my/Story/?sec=bu&file=%2F2011%2F1%2F8%2Fbusiness%2F7757276

http://www.my.all.biz/gp-ocean-food-sdn-bhd-e5120 http://cgmalaysia.blogspot.com/2012/04/gp-ocean-food-securities-commission-2.html http://www.ipedr.com/vol10/89-S10048.pdf http://www.alchemyconsultants.co.za/alcemynovember09.pdf http://jahn-essay-examples.blogspot.com/2012/05/enhancing-corporate-accountability.html
Cleak. A ( 2012 ) Corrpaotre Accountatbukliy page 156-158

Introduction
American International Group (AIG) is known as the world’s largest insurance and financial services company which provides a wide range of property casualty insurance, life insurance, retirement products and other financial services to customers in more than 130 countries. AIG companies, which are top-ranked life insurer, are the biggest underwriters of commercial and industrial insurance in United States.

Problem
Even though the American International Group (AIG) has said to be the top-ranked life insurer, however fraud still happened. In 2004, the AIG scandal has cost AIG $USD 126 million settlement with the SEC and the Justice Department that resolved the matter. However, AIG still had to co-operate with the investigators due to the ‘non-traditional insurance product’.

In 2005, after the AIG scandal on insurance and mutual funds, AIG was under the investigation for accounting fraud. Due to this incident, the company lost over $USD 58 billion which worth of market compensation. Besides that, AIG was listed as the fastest decrease in market value since the Worldcom and Enron scandals. Yet, the investigators have found over a billion US dollars worth of errors in accounting transactions. As a result of one error which involved $USD 500 million transaction with Berkshire Hathaway, had drastically inflated AIG’s revenues.

Causes
As stated, there was nothing wrong with the core insurance business units of American International Group (AIG). However, the problem started when there was an accumulation of misplaced bets on credit default swaps. The credit default swaps, which basically against one’s ability to pay back the debt, are expensive by virtue of speculators fear and greed. Most of the banks would step out in the idea of lending money as the picture of the company is under credit default swaps will make them think it is a bad bet. Without the loan, one cannot neither build the factory nor produce or sell anything.
Impact
Severely damaged reputation
As we can say, the first immediate impact of AIG bankruptcy will be the investors. Even though AIG is widely regarded as world’s No. 1 insurance corporation, however many had not realized that AIG is also the world’s biggest credit insurer for many major corporations as well as the largest issuers on credit related derivative products such as credit default swaps. Besides, the investors also lost their confidence upon the company as they have lost quite high percent of their value. At the same time, unemployment was at an all time high and affected nearly a huge crowd of Americans. Meanwhile, the production levels still continue to shrink and layoff surpass any growth. The reputation lost is difficult to recover and AIG’s recent lawsuit against the US government made the task even more challenging.

Liquidity crisis
When the housing market crashed and subprime mortgage borrowers defaulted, the value of MBS fell drastically. Just then, AIG insured more than $440 billion of fixed income investments held by the world’s leading financial organizations, including $57.8 billion in paper related to subprime mortgages. Investors of MBS who had bought CDS protection also sought insurance payout from AIG at the same time. These events, coupled with increased collateral requirements due to the downgrade of its credit ratings by major rating agencies, eventually caused AIG to suffer a liquidity crisis. Basically, it did not have enough money and other assets to meet its current obligations.

Solution
One of the solutions that can be suggested is that greater degree of regulation over the derivatives should be implemented. A movement towards more regulated clearing houses would be the first step towards bringing more regulatory focus to types of contracts. Besides, with the organized and structured exchanges, there will be higher transparency.

Apart from that, there should be a standard for monitoring capital adequacy and risk exposure of insurer. Few aspects such as capital requirement, leverage ratio and liquidity requirements should be taken into account to develop a comprehensive regulatory and betterment. Moreover, there also should be a proper assignment of credit ratings in order to reduce any crisis in the company.

http://moneymorning.com/2008/09/22/credit-default-swaps-2/# http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=AIG.N http://www.cheatingculture.com/accounting-fraud/2010/11/8/aig-before-the-crash-there-was-the-fraud.html http://www.corporatenarc.com/aigscandal2.php http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/19/aig-failure-sullivan-leadership-governance-soul.html http://www.studymode.com/essays/Aig-Bailout-Stakeholder-Analysis-1256258.html http://www.moneymatters360.com/index.php/impact-of-government-aig-bailout-on-investors-16584/ http://clubs.ntu.edu.sg/rms/researchreports/AIG.pdf www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/09/american-investment-group-aig-bailout.asp
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