In: Historical Events

Submitted By rmccrary
Words 275
Pages 2
Runderius McCrary
Mrs. Edwards Frogs vs. Toads Most people find it difficult to differentiate a frog from a toad. They normally mix them up. Although they seem similar in a lot of areas, they certainly have numerous dissimilarities too. Frogs are found in many different shapes, sizes, and colors. Frogs have smooth, wet skin. They live most of the time in or near water. They have different eye colors including brown, silver, green, and even red along with different shapes and sizes. Some of the frogs have sticky feet while some are webbed. It is obvious that not even all frogs have same qualities. Toads too have numerous shapes, sizes, and textures, but they don’t have much variety in color. Toads are fat and have rough skin. They do spend most of their time in water, but they live in moist places like woods, fields, and even gardens. Their pupils do have different shapes, sizes, and colors, but generally they are egg-shaped, small and black. They also have webbed feet. Toads and frogs have the same way to catch and eat food. Both of them use their tongue to catch prey. But a frog has a very small tooth around its upper jaw edge to capture food, but a toad doesn’t have any teeth at all. Toads eat almost the same foods as frogs like bugs, insects, fish, etc. In Conclusion, frogs and toads do seem similar but they have several qualities regarding shape, size, color, and texture that make them different. So it should be crystal clear that people can mistake the difference between a frog and a…...

Similar Documents


...same time portable electronic devices became popular. Amphibian populations are declining in numbers worldwide. Not coincidentally, the earth’s ozone layer has been continuously depleted throughout the last 50 years. Atmospheric ozone blocks UV-B, a type of ultraviolet radiation that is continuously produced by the sun, and which can damage genes. Because amphibians lack hair, hide, or feathers to shield them, they are particularly vulnerable to UV-B radiation. In addition, their gelatinous eggs lack the protection of leathery or hard shells. Thus, the primary cause of the declining amphibian population is the depletion of the ozone layer.  Each of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument EXCEPT:  (A) Of the various types of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.  (B) Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are the populations of nonamphibian species whose tissues and eggs have more natural protection from  UV-B.  (C) Atmospheric ozone has been significantly depleted above all the areas of the world in  which amphibian populations are declining.  (D) The natural habitat of amphibians has not become smaller over the past century.  (E) Amphibian populations have declined continuously for the last 50 years. (A) Of the various types of radiation blocked by atmospheric ozone, UV-B is the only type that can damage genes.  (B) Amphibian populations are declining far more rapidly than are......

Words: 2202 - Pages: 9

The Best and Funniest

...answers 1 It contains questions that divide objects into two groups. 2 It is possible that every student produced a different key, even if they had the same items to classify. 3 May depend on whether the keys work. Compare some to see which are better and why. Prac 2: Constructing keys Common mistakes Students should be encouraged to devise questions that divide each group into two fairly equal subgroups. Suggested answers 1 It is easier to list characteristics of objects that are familiar and readily available. 2 Student response. 4.2 Answers Remembering 1 Take in energy, take in and use gases, produce wastes, respond to stimuli, move, ability to reproduce, grow and are made from cells. 2 Mammals use lungs, birds use lungs, amphibians have lungs but use their skin and fish use gills. 3 Student responses will vary. Autotrophs: mammals, birds, reptiles Heterotrophs: grass, seaweed, trees 4 37°C 5 Glucose 6 a Photosynthesis b Cellular respiration 7 a Carbon dioxide + water + energy → oxygen + glucose b Oxygen + glucose → water + carbon dioxide + energy 8 Excretion Understanding 9 After sun-baking the blood and body temperature of ectotherms can be high. This can give them extra energy so they are far more active. 10 During growth and when it responds to light. 11 During our infant and teen years, as humans get older they grow, become larger and more complicated. As humans grow they also change shape and proportions, for......

Words: 2951 - Pages: 12

Where Did All the Frogs Go?

...ribbit in the middle of the night. Amphibians are still very important to humans, to the ecosystem, and to predators. If the amphibians become extinct, they will be nothing but a memory. Frogs control pests like flies, mosquitoes, and other insects that have the capability of carrying a disease. If a mosquito is carrying a disease and bites a human, they could get malaria, which can cause death. Frogs decrease the chance for humans to get deadly diseases like that. As amphibians decrease, problems may increase. Loosing fifty percent of the amphibians would put them almost extinct; they are already on the endangered list, which wouldn’t be good if we lost even more of the population. Conversationalists think that because amphibians are small, they are not as important to focus on, but they are wrong. Like mentioned above, amphibians control the insect population. The loss of the amphibians will also cause their predators to die as well. Amphibians have been teaching us many things; they have been alive for 350 million years, surviving dinosaurs, meteors, and also humans. That is a long period of evolutionary success. They adapt to wide range of environments like deserts, forests, and ponds. They still teach us things today, like new medicines and cures that are used from the chemicals within the skins of the amphibians. The chemicals can be used to make heart stimulates, painkillers, and organ gluers. Loosing more amphibian population would cause a......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Biology Corroboree Frogs

...decline is not yet apparent to scientists, there are many probable contributing factors that have. The 3 main impacts that are known of have been; the increase in deceases related to a fungal species by the name of Amphibian Chytrid fungus or scientifically known as Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis; human development has also taken a toll on their environment reducing the areas that suit the frogs accordingly and historic cattle grazing has greatly reduced and compromised the peat-bog systems which they use to breed (costin et al. 2000). The main problem that face the species over is all the diseases that have been contracted from the Chytrid fungus. This has been a major problem since the early 1980’s overall the species has declined by 98% and is estimated that if this disease is not resolved they will be extinct within a period of 5 years. Currently there are attempts being made to preserve and increase the population of these unique frogs. A plan was put in place by a group of ecologists based in New South Whales involving the ideals of adding a small number of adult lab bread Corroboree Frogs into the National park in an attempt to boost the current numbers of adult frogs that are of a mature age with a capability to breed as well as developing a resistance to the Amphibian Chytrid fungus. Another strategy put in place was the breeding of tadpoles in artificial pools placed in the wild aimed to allow the tadpoles to mature in a safe environment. However the strategies......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4


...rate and have led to deadly outbreaks in amphibian, bat, and bee populations. And in the last decade, researchers note, some of the most virulent strains have infected people. by Michelle Nijhuis On the southeastern outskirts of Washington, D.C., inside the Smithsonian Institution’s cavernous Museum Support Center, one can see some frogs that no longer exist. Alcohol-filled glass jars hold preserved specimens of Incilius periglenes, the Monte Verde golden toad; the Honduran frog Craugastor chrysozetetes, which in life was olive-brown with purple palms and soles; its Costa Rican cousin, Craugastor escoces; and Atelopus ignescens, a black toad not seen in the wild for decades. All of these extinct species are likely victims of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which attacks the outer skin layers of amphibians, disrupting their water and electrolyte intake so severely that infected animals can die of cardiac arrest. The fungus, known familiarly as Bd, has been found in more than 500 species of amphibians in 54 countries to date, most recently in Asia. Some areas of Central America have lost more than 40 percent of their amphibian species to Bd infection. Karen Lips, a University of Maryland herpetologist who has watched Bd march through Central American amphibian populations for almost 20 years, says no amphibian is safe: “We live in a Bd world now,” she says. USFW The BD fungus has been found in more than 500 species of amphibians, including the Panamanian golden......

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6


...the lateral line system, but absent in adults of the same species. And metamorphosis living terrestrial amphibians also lose the lateral line system of their aquatic larvae. Thus many ancient tetrapod's, like modern amphibians were probably aquatic as juveniles and terrestrial as adults. Ichthyostega, late Devonian, is a member of the ichtostedid amphibian group. The animal was about 1 cm long. Skelton of seymouria a later terrestrial anthracosaur from the early perimain was about 50 cm long. 35. What are the Lissamphibis including what animals they include common characteristics and where they stand in the vertebrate story? They arose from labyrinthodont radiation. Although many features such as enfolded labyrinthine teeth, have been lost. Three groups of living amphibians arise from within Lissamphibis and date back over 2 million years. The groups are frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Amphibian eggs, will which lack shells and amniotic membranes, are laid in water or moist locations. External fertilization characterizes frogs whereas internal fertilization characterizes most salamanders and probably all caecilians. Typically, paired longs are present although they may be reduced or even absent entirely in some families of salamanders. Mucous glands of the skin keep amphibians moist and poison skin glands produce chemical unpleasant or toxic to predators. Modern amphibians in some ways in between fish and later tetrapod therefore they supply us with approximately......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Sequence a

...the Master has passed away. Taking it upon himself, the man decides to live in the same ways as the master used to live. We do not learn much about the new women or her baby who enter the storyline. The women (we never see her face), eventually tries to run away but dies by falling into a hole of ice and drowns. Many seasons pass. The boy who is now a monk, has learned many lessons and learned from his mistakes. He goes back to his Buddha roots and carries on the same traditions his master had practiced. Many years later, the little baby from the unknown women has grown to be to a young boy. The monk takes it upon himself to teach the boy the way of Buddhism, eventually reenacting the same mischief by placing rocks into different amphibians for fun. The film ends with a Buddha looking over the lake and house. The view is to assume that the life cycle will repeat itself. Spring, summer, fall, winter...and spring had a very visible and audibly presence for the viewer. We are able to see that our story’s timeline takes place over many years. The story takes us on a generational journey, which brings out many attributes from our characters. It is imaginative the way the director uses all the seasons for us to see the different amount of time that has elapsed. This gives you a feel of how time can pass quickly. The viewer can create the story in their mind from events that take place throughout the movie. B) Describe the plot of the assignment sequence, and......

Words: 1727 - Pages: 7

Organ for Salt and Water Balance and Excretion

...ENVIRONMENT OSMOCONFORMERS – Animals that match their body osmolarity to their environment actively or passively. OSMOREGULATORS – Animals, however, tend to maintain a constant concentration in their internal fluids different from that of their environment. EXCRETION OF NITROGENOUS WASTE Nitrogenous waste is mostly in the form of ammonia, which is highly soluble in water, and is excreted by diffusion from the blood across the gill membranes.   AMMONOTELIC – Animals that eliminate nitrogenous waste as ammonia. Includes aquatic invertebrates, bony fishes, crocodiles, and amphibian tadpoles.   UREOTELIC – Excrete urea as their major nitrogenous waste. Among these animals are mammals, amphibians, and cartilaginous fishes. Urea is soluble in water but its excretion at low concentrations needs a large volume of water. URICOTELIC – Includes insects, reptiles, birds, and some amphibians. These animals use very little water to dispose their nitrogenous waste. Uric acid is insoluble in water and is excreted in semisolid form. EXCRETORY SYSTEM FLAME CELLS – A hollow cell in the excretory system of certain invertebrates, including flatworms containing a tuft of cilia inside a tubule. METANEPHRIDIA – Filtration process of body fluids and processing of urine. MALPHIGIAN TUBULES – Blind tubes hanging into the body cavity and connected to the gut. GREEN GLAND – Made up of an end sac connected to a nephridial canal then to a bladder. Salt-water dwelling......

Words: 427 - Pages: 2


...prehistoric predecessor to the modern frog, lived 370 million years ago during the Devonian Period. Sometimes referred to as "the first four-legged fish," skeletal remains of this earliest-known amphibian were first discovered in East Greenland. Surprised? Few people realize just how ancient frogs are. For 190 million years, the ancestors of modern frogs have roamed (if not ruled) the earth, looking much the same as they do today. The secret to their success is their amazing adaptability. As amphibians, frogs have one webbed foot in each of two worlds. The advantages of this double life are clear to see: Are land predators giving you trouble? Dive into the water. Not enough to eat in the pond? Hop out and see what they're serving on shore. Frogs have evolved to live in an astounding variety of climates. They can be found just about anywhere there's fresh water, from the desert to the Arctic, on all continents except Antarctica. Though they thrive in warm, moist tropical climates, frogs also live in deserts and high on 15,000 foot mountain slopes. The Australian water-holding frog is a desert dweller that can wait up to seven years for rain. It burrows underground and surrounds itself in a transparent cocoon made of its own shed skin. Frozen Wood Frog Like all amphibians, frogs are cold-blooded, meaning that their body temperatures change with the temperature of their surroundings. When temperatures drop, some frogs dig burrows underground or in the mud at......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

The Effect Climate Change Has on a Species

...velocities, have high concentrations of small-ranged species. These species will likely be at particular risk as velocities increase over the next several decades (Science daily). A team of ecologists and computer scientists have asked how fast species around the world have had to migrate to keep up with this massive historical climate change and whether there are differences in the modern communities between places with low and high required migration rates (Science daily). Researchers tested a verity of terrestrial amphibians, mammals and birds with small-ranged species diversity. High concentrations of small-ranged species occurred where velocities were low (for example, the South American Andes), and small-ranged Weak dispersers (amphibians) were most strongly affected by velocity, while the strongest dispersers (birds) were least affected. Within the mammals, bats showed patterns more similar to birds, while non-flying mammals were more like the amphibians (Science daily). This seems to be directly connected with required migration, and a species ability to disperse in this response, and the probability that climate change will cause a species to become extinct. Word cited ( /releases/2011/10/111007102916.htm)...

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

Aquatic Eutrophication

...pathogenic infection in amphibians Pieter T. J. Johnson*†, Jonathan M. Chase‡, Katherine L. Dosch§, Richard B. Hartson§, Jackson A. Gross¶, Don J. Larson , Daniel R. Sutherland**††, and Stephen R. Carpenter§ *Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Ramaley N122, Boulder, CO 80309-0334; ‡Department of Biology, Washington University, Box 1137, St. Louis, MO 63130; §Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, 680 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706-1492; ¶Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 3535 Harbor Boulevard, Suite 110, Costa Mesa, CA 92626; Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, P.O. Box 751403, Fairbanks, AK 99775; and **Department of Biology and River Studies Center, University of Wisconsin, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601 Contributed by Stephen R. Carpenter, August 16, 2007 (sent for review June 18, 2007) The widespread emergence of human and wildlife diseases has challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale agents of environmental change affect host–pathogen interactions. Accelerated eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems owing to nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment is a pervasive form of environmental change that has been implicated in the emergence of diseases through direct and indirect pathways. We provide experimental evidence linking eutrophication and disease in a multihost parasite system. The trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae sequentially infects birds, snails, and amphibian......

Words: 5333 - Pages: 22

Anurans in Sitio Pahiron Cagayan de Oro City

...Introduction Class Amphibia are ectothermal vertebrates that have a water permeable skin. The word Amphibia means “both kinds of life” which is generally a term for animals who can live in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (2014) there are 7,259 species of Amphibians all over the world. One of the order of Class Amphibia is Anura. Having 6,389 described species; they are considered as the most numerous species under class Amphibia (IUCN, 2014). Anurans are amphibians with no tails and comprise different species of frogs and toads inhabiting a wide geographic range. In spite of the numerous number of Anurans recorded, there are over 1,680 threatened species of anurans in the world (IUCN, 2014). In the data of the IUCN in 1994, there were only 124 threatened species of anurans. Extinction under the class of amphibians has reached 32 species. One of the main reasons of this decline is habitat destruction. According to the study of Attenborough in 2008, amphibians are one of the first to be affected in the presence of harmful environment. Compared with other terrestrial fauna, amphibians are more vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation due to their rel- atively low vagility (Gibbs 1998a, Bowne & Bowers 2004), high risk of mortality when migrating across inhospitable terrain (Fahrig et al. 1995, Carr & Fahrig 2001, Becker et al. 2007), low tolerance to environmental extremes (Findlay......

Words: 4854 - Pages: 20

Childhood Book

...Year, and Days with Frog and Toad. These two amphibians have unique characteristics. The adventures of these two amphibians make for some of the simplest and most enjoyable chapter books for developing readers. Toad and Frog are, indeed, friends, and their respect for each other comes through on every page. Arnold Lobel's writing is engaging without being cloying, and the vocabulary is basic without being babyish. The story is illustrated with swamp-toned sketches of the friends and their surroundings. While we are never too old to read tales of compassion, caring, and unequivocal friendship, Lobel's Frog and Toad tales primarily speak to children in primary grades. The language is basic, the sentences are short, and the chapters in the books are just the right length. Even though the characters are fictional, the feelings they share are very real, and the care they show for each other and the world around them stands as a good example of behavior. This book is a perfect example of taking a theme and creating stories surrounding that theme in a variety of ways that will appeal to younger children just learning to read. Children seem to relate strongly to these tales. In response to "The Letter," in which Frog becomes Toad's pen pal to fulfill his friend's desire for mail, one boy said, "I never get mail either! That is sad!" The themes of friendship and growing up seem to resonate strongly even if they're expressed by amphibians. The Frog and Toad Are Friends series is......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Lesson 3 Essay

...genes to the next generation. As a result, the number of resistant bacteria keeps increasing. This is the result of Natural selection, individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to reproduce and their offspring will make up a greater proportion of the next generation. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2012) 3- What are the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups, specifically those that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life? The first ones to make their way to land environment where the amphibians. Most amphibians spend the larval stage in the water and the adult stage on land. This metamorphosis is a distinctive characteristic of amphibians but some don’t practice it. Some are direct developers; the adults don’t return to the water to reproduce so there's not tadpole stage. The great variety of life histories observed among amphibians made them successful colonizers of the land environment. Reptiles are another example of adaptations of land existence. The amniote egg made development on land possible and eliminated the need for water environment during development. This egg provides the embryo with atmospheric oxygen, food, and water; removes nitrogenous wastes; and protects the embryo from drying out from mechanical injury. (Mader & Windelspecht, 2012) 4- Providing examples, explain how sexual reproduction in plants has evolved to become less dependent on water. The nonvascular plants and...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Purple Frig

...The Newly Discovered Purple Chubby Amphibian For decades scientist have tried finding a species that once shared the same land when dinosaurs still crawled on this Earth. To scientist surprise, they recently made an unusual discovery of a new species of frogs. The strange looking new amphibian is known to be a sole surviving member of amphibians that evolved more than 130 million years ago. Scientist calls this species discovery as a ‘once in a century find’ because of it’s belonging to an ancient group of amphibians that once shared the same land with dinosaurs. Formally discovered in 2003, the poignous frog, also known as the “Purple Frog”, has been the talk of all scientist discoveries because of its comic features and behaviors. Although this new species has recently been discovered with highly distinctive and comical appearances, its behaviors adaptive values benefit the amphibian by increasing its total fitness. However scientists might now be able to research this rare species because it is slowly decreasing in population. The purple frog has a sidesplitting appearance with a distinctive habitat in an unusual range of geographical location. This new species of frog can be described as a typical frog at first glance but as you pay closer attention you notice its distinctive appearances compared to other species of frogs. The body has a similar shape like most frogs yet it has a plump bloated body shape with short fore and hind limbs that end in webbed feet with......

Words: 1475 - Pages: 6