Premium Essay

An Argumentative Research Paper on Research Topic: What Is Science?

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Peru
Words 9230
Pages 37
PERU E. M COLLINS
COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS TERM PAPER
ARGUEMENTATION
STUDENT ID NO: D33/34238/2010

AN ARGUMENTATIVE RESEARCH PAPER ON RESEARCH TOPIC: WHAT IS SCIENCE?

TOPIC:
Dispelling Misconceptions; Physical and Natural Sciences are not superior over Social Sciences.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract. 3
Introduction 4
Recommendations 22
REFERENCES 25

Abstract.

Science in general is a great and highly developed human enterprise. Its intricacies are clearly not limited to the scientists alone, but it is essential for the entire human race. If we think of science as a space within the larger space of society then it is at the interfaces between these two spaces that human beings are involved with science. To see this interface clearly from the space of science is not the same as seeing it as a mere collection of facts that should be construed to be true and nothing but the truth. Science is beyond facts, ideals and thoughts. It is a process and a model that has undergone tests, been tried, reviewed and accepted as a true representation of the processes and occurrences in the natural world
However, due to the broad nature of science, and the work, time and resources involved in pursuit of knowledge in different science fields which entails different interests, and thereby different values too; and the different possibilities of knowledge about different subjects, has lead to a myopic misconception by the science practitioners that Physical and Natural applied sciences are more superior and of more importance than social sciences. These differences among practitioners of the various science disciplines are pervasive and aptly cultural ones, since scientific work requires transcending unconscious…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Writing a Literature Review What is a Literature Review? A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically. A literature review is written in essay format. It is not an annotated bibliography, because it groups related works together and discusses trends and developments rather than focusing on one item at a time. It is not a summary; rather, it evaluates previous and current research. Purpose A literature review is written to highlight specific arguments and ideas in a field of study. By highlighting these arguments, the writer attempts to show what has been studied in the field, and also where the weaknesses, gaps, or areas needing further study are. The review should therefore also demonstrate to the reader why the writer’s research is useful, necessary, important, and valid. Audience Literature reviews can have different types of audiences, so consider why and for whom you are writing your review. For example, a lot of literature reviews are written as a chapter for a thesis or dissertation, so the audience will want to know in what way your research is important and original. Highlighting the gap in knowledge which your research aims to fill is particularly important in this instance because you need to convince the reader that there is an opening in the area of study. A......

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Yep This Is It

...About Us Samples FAQ Our Prices Order now Writers Contact Us We write: Essays Research Papers Coursework Thesis Dissertations Term Papers UK Essays # Count of pages: Number of words: Choose your academic level: Term: Discount Code (optional): Discount: 0% Price: $0 Official PayPal Seal website security Types of Essays A big problem that most students and new essay writers run into is “How to write an essay.” usually roughly all essays follow a common structure of writing which comprises of an introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Once the writers are lucid about the technique of writing an essay and how to write an essay outline, the next step that they face up to is how to move toward a particular research paper topic. And what type of writing works best? Students often complain about a certain type of essay they have been assigned with. It seems to them that writing within essay type boundaries doesn’t allow them to think out the box, limits their potential. But writing a paper without any directions could be even more confusing than the class assignment you got. Do not think about the limitations as of the prison walls, but as of the walls in your room where you feel free to paint murals or change nothing whatsoever, simply being in control of it, being yourself. Tweet Quick Navigation through the Types of Essays Page Basic Types: Narrative, Descriptive and Persuasive How Can We......

Words: 2955 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Historical Materialism

...TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory JoinSearchBrowseSaved Papers Home Page » Other Topics Historical Materialism In: Other Topics Historical Materialism INTRODUCTION "In the Marxian view, human history is like a river. From any given vantage point, a river looks much the same day after day. But actually it is constantly flowing and changing, crumbling its banks, widening and deepening its channel. The water seen one day is never the same as that seen the next. Some of it is constantly being evaporated and drawn up, to return as rain. From year to year these changes may be scarcely perceptible. But one day, when the banks are thoroughly weakened and the rains long and heavy, the river floods, bursts its banks, and may take a new course. This represents the dialectical part of Marx’s famous theory of dialectical (or historical) materialism." Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organised. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Syllabus

...other as from the authors we read in class. As part of our commitment to helping students reach their full potential in their academic, professional, and civic lives, Arts and Sciences faculty believe that learning in all disciplines is an integrative process, a synthesis of critical reading, thinking, and writing. For this reason, as we guide you in your studies in LIB 111, we will use a Writing Intensive approach that emphasizes mastery of information and concepts AND the application of what you have learned in a variety of forms: you will be actively involved in learning to write and writing to learn. In addition to being assessed on your mastery of course-specific forms of information and content, you will also be expected to meet the College’s standards for Writing Proficiency. Students who are not performing at a satisfactory level of proficiency in the course, may, at any time, be required to seek additional instruction from me and/or the Writing Center. By the end of the course, students should be able to: 1. comprehend, evaluate, and summarize college-level readings; 2. recognize and evaluate sound and flawed arguments; 3. write coherent essays, including creating a strong thesis, developing logical analysis and synthesis of their own ideas and others’, and organizing paragraphs with strong topic sentences and transition; 4. present their own and others’ views about a subject clearly, soundly, and accurately by selecting, documenting, and discussing appropriate......

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Literacure Rewiew

...REVIEW: A FEW TIPS ON CONDUCTING IT What is a review of the literature? A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography—see the bottom of the next page), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review lets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas: 1. information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies. 2. A literature review must do these things: a) be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing b) synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known c) identify areas...

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Electronics

...* Skip to Navigation * Skip to Content TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory * Join * Search * Browse * Saved Papers ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Search Bottom of Form * Home Page » * Computers and Technology Unit 4 Research Paper In: Computers and Technology Unit 4 Research Paper A port expander is a device that allows one port on a computer system to connect to multiple devices. There are two forms of port expanders: internal and external. An internal expander has a connection inside the computer, typically on the motherboard and the only part the user sees is the expansion plate that contains multiple ports. As for an external device, it plugs into the existing port and then has multiple places to connect. The most common versions are used for USB and Ethernet ports. There are numerous types of ports that have available port expanders for them. Here is a list that I have compiled: * Ethernet port expander * Firewire port expander * DB-25 port expander * Serial port expander * USB port expander * VGA port expander * DVI port expander * SCSI port expander * Audio port expander * Video port expander * Microphone port expander * RS-422 port expander * Modbus serial port expander * SATA port expander * SAS port expander * SSD port expander Port expanders are generic devices that can be used with any computer as long as the......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Subjects Information

...Academic assistance is the defined as an activity for teaching available for students in all subjects including science, mathematics, management, business studies, business and law and information technology. In the academic assistance, all subject related helps is being provided to the students to meet specific subject related queries. It is defined as a tutoring practice, which provides support to the students in solving particular subject related queries. Apart from this, this makes the learning process easy for the students through providing ready to learn or tailor made notes and helps in solving specific subject problems. Basically, academic assistance is the new method of tutoring by a large number of institutions to facilitate the students in their studies. Academic assistance encompasses all types of subjects from English to Management. In the academic content development, a number of subjects such as business studies, marketing, accounting and financial management, operations management, qualitative techniques, history, science, statistics, dissertation and its proposal development, human resources and organizational behaviour are covered. In pertinent to the given subjects, academic assistance is a kind of help provided to the students in developing particular topic related subjects content. Academic assistance is not only limited to provide a notes specific to subjects, but also it covers a full helps in completing the project steps such as authentic data......

Words: 5329 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Embryonic Stem Cells

...Simran Mann Negative Opinion Paper Biology 3000 Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells Harvesting embryonic stem cells can be an argumentative topic with differing opinions. I believe by researching and experimenting on embryonic stem cells, the results can be beneficial to society through medical treatments. I believe this research will benefit medical science into further advancement. The human body contains more than 220 differentiation cell types that are acquired from a collection of cells that are referred to as embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, these cells originate from an embryo, within the inner cell mass of a blastocyst that is known to be five days old. Moreover, these cells are classified to be pluripotent, which can individualize inside any three layers of the germ. Thus, embryonic stem cells are able to reform relatively any part of the human body. In addition, these cells are capable of cloning endlessly. As a result, these cells can benefit in medicine for both regenerative medicine and medical research. Regenerative therapy is the process of reconstruction or substitution of new tissue developed with the supervision of embryonic stem cells caused by obscured and impaired tissue from a disease or injury. Therefore, when the stem cells are injected into the patient’s body, those cells locate to the injured area and begin to diffuse and expand by renewing the injured cells; thus, recovering the bodily functions in that area. A few of the illnesses that can......

Words: 1226 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Abstract Writting

...Abstracts What is an abstract? An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline; an abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An abstract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage. Types of abstracts There are two types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so as a consequence they have different components and styles. There is also a third type called critical, but it is rarely used. For the purpose of your research project, students will be required to write an informative abstract. Descriptive abstracts A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less. Informative......

Words: 1485 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How to Write a Research Paper

...A Guide on How to write a research paper 1. Establish Your Topic * Genuinely interests you. * Read and think about what you'd like to do. * Narrow it down to something more manageable (e.g.: Too general: Ancient Egypt. Revised: The building of the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. * Brainstorming to get ideas. 2. Identify the goal of the paper * An argumentative research paper: argues for one point of view. The issue should be debatable with a logical counter argument. * An analytical research paper: offers a fresh look at an important issue to persuade audience that it is important. 3. Look for Sources of Information *  Books, magazine articles, and internet articles. * A research paper should use at least four sources. * The academic credibility of a source could be considered. * Make note of page numbers, URLs, and quotable passages for citation. 4. Read Your Sources and Take Notes * Use index cards to relate ideas from different sources. * Keep source information on the other side of the cards. * Use quotation marks for “copy/paste” to avoid PLAGIARISM. * Organize your note cards by subtopic to make an outline. 5. Write a First Draft * Table of contents. * Introduction (let the reader know what the topic is, inform the reader about your point of view, arouse the reader's curiosity to read more). * Body (Limit each paragraph to one main idea, prove your points continually by using......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Teaching Philosophy

...emphasize peer workshops, group work, and the use of student essays as reading material in an attempt to sharpen students’ critical reading skills and create a more comfortable class environment. “Teachers of writing should be well-versed in composition theory and research, and they should know methods for turning that theory into practice. When writing teachers first walk into classrooms, they should already know and practice good composition. However, much as in doctoring, learning to teach well is a lifetime process, and lifetime professional development is the key to successful practice. Students deserve no less.” (NCTE, 1998-2014). Alternating informational lectures, student-driven class discussions, and guided work in small teams produces a learning comprehensive in which the students can comfortably share and provide their ideas and interpretations.   My composition class is a mixture of argumentative theory which presents students with the vocabulary to discuss their methods of argumentation, critical essays that open debates among the students, and student essays, both as examples and to train critical reading. By reading and debating current articles, the students are forced to address controversial topics, analyze their opponent's arguments and logically defend their own position. By analyzing their peers’ essays, they learn to detect rhetorical structures and logical fallacies in order to teach them to become better readers of their own work. “It is found that......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Animal Testing

...acknowledges, accommodates, and/or refutes them. Think about your audience and what you feel they need to hear, the subject you feel is of greatest concern to your audience, and discover what most affects your audience. You will begin this assignment by thinking of three topics.  I and your classmates will help you choose the strongest of those.  You will need to consider the assignment, but you will also need to recognize this is not an “issue” paper.  You will need to consult the Taboo List.  From the point of topic selection, you research will begin.  I will be giving you some sp We will be covering the many components of argument in upcoming meetings.  Argument is a big subject, and we will be taking our time covering elements of proof, logic, fallacies, and counter argument. Document Type: Argumentative essay  Style: MLA  Actual Order Pages: 3 References: 6 Academic Level: Masters  Subject Type: English  Language: US English  Line Spacing: Double (Standard)  Font Face: Times New Roman Word Count: 825 Sources / References: 1- Two books- Salem Press, EBSCOhost eBooks or Google Books, etc. 2- Two online sources- Google Scholar, JSTOR, EBSCOhost or government sources (Census Bureau, Centers for Disease Control, and Library of Congress), etc. 3- Two additional sources- documentaries, newspaper articles or film (related to the topic), etc. Animal testing has been used in medical and scientific research for centuries but now there is a rising awareness among......

Words: 1358 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hello

...Ana Magalhaes David Frisch ENC 1102 30 January 2016 The Morality of Animal Testing in Cosmetic Companies Preface The ethical treatment of animal testing is a controversial topic in the field of zoology. Different aspects on animal testing range from positivity to negativity. Animals such as dogs and rats are used for experimental trials because they have been found to have psychological and genetic correlations that relate to humans. Although the benefits and improvements to modern medicine made it possible to ban animal experimentation completely, animals are still the main subjects in cosmetic industries. Something important to keep in mind when it comes to animal experimentation is that, “Most experimentation has nothing to do with disease research… it is cosmetic product testing” (Medical News Online). According to the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) over one hundred million animals suffer from experiments to test cosmetics. Many people stand against animal experimentation claiming that animals are not ours to experiment on, and even though that’s an important point, there are many other issues that should be discussed. For example, ninety two percent of all animal trials in cosmetics that are effective on animals are ineffective on humans (ASPCA). Meaning that the reasoning behind it is the lower cost of animal testing provided to those companies. Unfortunately, theses experiments are the cheapest options and some companies are required by the......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Good Essay

...Hawthorne Writing: Answer the following question in one paragraph. Use quotes from the novel as evidence. Some readers believe that the elaborate decoration that Hester embroiders on the scarlet letter indicates her rejection of the community’s view of her act. Do you agree or disagree? Explain your position using evidence from the text. (test grade) Writing: Write a well-developed essay addressing the following prompt. Document all sources using MLA citation. Compare Hester to a modern day person who has been shunned. Provide at least two research sources for the other person. (project grade) Reading: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” Jonathan Edwards Analyzing: SOAPSTONE and cannons of rhetoric Reading: Teacher Introduction Essay Writing: Students and teacher evaluate where each student’s writing is and where it needs to be by analyzing students’ introductory personal/reflective and descriptive writing assignments – What I need to know about you and Describe a person who has had a profound influence on your life and discuss the ramifications of your association with that person – by looking at the following: o Vocabulary – showing versus telling strategies, sensory imagery, wide-ranging vocabulary, balancing generalization and specific illustrative detail, painting with absolutes, participles, appositives, adjectives out of order, action verbs o Style – varying sentence beginnings, varying sentence structure, varying sentence length,......

Words: 3064 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Important G3

...GS text for a. an answer to an examination question, b. an opening paragraph of an assignment, or c. a background (or scene-setting) paragraph to an analysis or discussion begins with one of the following a. a short or extended definition, b. a contrastive or comparative definition, or c. a generalization or purpose statement General statement – More specific detail – Specific detail – Broader statement “Writing passage begins with a definition; definitions are a common way of getting started. (unfamiliar reader – used to clarify terms / familiar reader – expected you to demonstrate your understanding of complex concepts) Sentence Definition; To what class does (Definition) belong? How is it different / would you define? (Compare / Cause) A term is (a) class wh-word/that specific detail. Indefinite article / before both the term and class Ex) Annealing is a metalworking process / A star is a celestial body A disinfectant is an/the agent capable of destroying disease causing microorganisms. An; it does not refer to a particular representative. The; indentifies or describes the term, some previous mention of other agents. The distinguishing information in the restrictive relative clause - one involves a simple deletion / the other involves a change in word form or an entire word. 1) Enamel, in dentistry, is a hard, white inorganic material (that is) on the crown of a tooth. : the verb to be 2) A collagen is a white, inelastic protein......

Words: 5740 - Pages: 23