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An Exegesis of 1 Enoch Chapters 6-8: How and Why This Text Is Considered Apocalyptic and Its Meaning, Then and Now.

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An exegesis of 1 Enoch Chapters 6-8: How and why this text is considered apocalyptic and its meaning, then and now.

The First Book of Enoch VI-VIII
VI. 1. ‘And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. 2. And the angels, the children of heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: ‘Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.’ 3. And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: ‘I fear ye will not indeed agree to this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.’ 4. And they answered him and said: ‘Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.’ 5. Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. 6. And they were all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual implications upon it. 7. And these are the names of their leaders: Semiazaz, their leader, Arakiba, Rameel, Kokabiel, Tamiel, Ramiel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal, Asael, Armoros, Batarel, Ananel, Zaquel, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. 8. These are their chiefs of tens.
VII. 1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. 2. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: 3. Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, (sic) 4. The Giants turned against them and devoured mankind. 5. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. 6. Then the earth laid acquisition against the lawless ones.
VIII. 1. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals (of the earth) and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. 2. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. 3. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root cuttings, Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal, (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. 4. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven…

We first hear about Enoch, Biblically speaking in Genesis 5:24 and Jude quotes from the Book of Enoch in Jude verses 14-15. In this present age Enoch is not one of Canonical books, and is considered pseudepigraphic by most Christian Churches. However it is still a part of the Ethiopian Bible. It is made up of several books: The First Book of Enoch (known as 1 Enoch, also known as the Ethiopic book) of which chapters 1-36 are sometimes referred to as the Book of Watchers), The Second Book of Enoch (known as 2 Enoch or The Slavonic Secrets of Enoch), The Third Book of Enoch (The Hebrew Book of Enoch). According to R. H Charles, the earliest recordings of these writings are only extant in Greek and exist now only in the Ethiopic version, which was translated from the Greek. The original manuscripts are thought to have been translated from Aramaic, although some parts are thought to have been written in Hebrew (2007: xviii). The book does not actually contain the words of the Biblical patriarch Enoch, who we hear of in Genesis, as he lived several thousand years earlier than the period in which the Book of Enoch is believed to have been written. Charles tells us that it was written during the period of the first risings of apocalyptic literature, 200-150 B.C. (2007: xiii). There are many parallels between the words within the Book of Enoch and the words of Biblical Scripture. Jesus quotes many times, the very words that are recorded in Enoch. This paper focuses specifically on a passage from 1 Enoch, Chapters 6-8; it is a short exegesis of this, the purpose of which is to analyse why the Book of Enoch overall is considered to be apocalyptic and to guise the meaning of the chosen passage in its own cultural and historical context, as well as what it means for humans everywhere now, in this present day.

1 Enoch 6-8 presents us with an elaboration on the fall of angels from heaven, led by Semjaza (6:3) and tells of the havoc and destruction they brought upon the earth, and upon mankind; this is sometimes referred to as the second fall. Scripture tells us in Hebrews 12:22 that when Lucifer fell he took a third of the heavens with him. In 1 Enoch 6:7, we are given a whole list of names of Angels who made a pact that they would fall to earth because of their desire to copulate with the daughters of men; there were more than 200 who fell. They bore children known to be Giants, whose children in turn were known as the Nephilim. They taught their wives charms and spells and the use of plants (7:1) and they taught the men how to make weapons and how to beautify their eyelids (8:1) and there was teaching of astrology, sorcery and cosmology (8:3). As Elizabeth Claire Prophet says, these teachings were ‘twisted versions of the secrets of heaven’ (2000: 10). And when man could no longer sustain the Nephilim, for their appetites were unable to be satisfied, they devoured birds, reptiles, fish and then even man (7:5). The meaning of the events in 1 Enoch 6-8, is essentially a part of beginning to understand the heavenly angelic fall; it is the origins of evil…

Enoch as Apocalyptic Literature
John J. Collins gives us some insight into the apocalyptic nature of 1 Enoch. He tells us that 1 Enoch itself, is not just one work, but is a major collection of apocalyptic writings and is made up of five separate compositions., The occurrence of fallen angels, having sex with the daughters of men and then bearing a new race of giants and Nephilim, suggests chaos and the events that follow are clearly violent and a disaster for the human race. This is a theme that occurs within all apocalyptic literature; there is always chaos, violence and threat to the human race. The author’s situation is not revealed, like in all Jewish apocalypses, which allows it to be transferred to analogous present day situations. John J. Collins says:
‘What we touch on here is the essential multivalence of apocalyptic symbolism… The pollution of the earth is a figurative expression in any case, but the story suggests violence and lawlessness… 1 Enoch 6-11 records perceived crises… The author chose not to refer to wars of Diadochi or the priesthood… The problem is transposed to a mythological plane… In the Book of the Watchers, as in all the Jewish apocalypses, the situation of the historical author is concealed… …1 Enoch 1-36 becomes a paradigm which is not restricted to one historical situation but can be applied whenever an analogous situation arises. ’ (1998: 51)

Collins is suggesting this literature may be applied to all ages throughout history, where an analogous situation may occur…

Insight into the Heavenly Fall & the Origins of Evil
1 Enoch 6-8 is the story of the angels who fell from heaven and their leaders who instigated this fall, along with the crimes they committed on earth, against humanity. George Nickelsburg tells us that:
‘It has long been recognised that 1 Enoch 6-11 is a conflation of two separate cycles of tradition about the fall of the angels in which Semihazah and Asa el are identified as the chief of the fallen angels.’ (1977: 383)

In Genesis 6:1 we are told of the multiplication of men upon the earth, but the offspring were not born of relations between women and men but by ‘the sons of God’ and ‘the daughters of men’…
‘And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.’ (Genesis 6:1)

This text from Genesis seems to be a direct reference to 1 Enoch 6: 1-2:
‘And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and they said to one another: ‘Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.’

This passage is expanded on in Enoch, whereas in Genesis the author (who seems to have taken this from Enoch) only touches lightly upon this subject. Claire Prophet tells us that J. T Milik’s extensive research on Enoch, published in 1976 had established that Enoch is in fact an earlier account than Genesis, and thus the author of Genesis is referring to Enoch and not the other way around. This is contrary to what most of the Church Fathers had believed.
‘Milik arrives at a surprising yet well justified conclusion: that not only is the history of the fallen angels in Enoch older than Genesis 6 – but Genesis 6 is in fact a direct summary of the earlier Enoch account.’ (Prophet 2000: 69) Siam Bhayro also suggests that Genesis 6:4 is a subsequent account of this event:
‘6-11 is the 'Shemihazah Narrative' (SN), which, based upon Gen. 6.1-2, 4, 2 tells of the descent of the 'sons of God' in order to choose for themselves human wives… The leader of this act of rebellion against the Most High is the angel Shemihazah, who leads two hundred fellow conspirators in a descent onto Mount Hermon. These angels instruct humankind in forbidden arts, such as magic, mantic skills and medicine. This core stratum subsequently uses Gen. 6.4 as a basis for its account of the giant progeny of the union between the sons of God and the daughters of men’. (2006: 164)

Looking at the etymology the words ‘sons of God’, from Genesis, the meaning according to the Jewish Encyclopedia is a:
‘Term applied to an angel or demigod, one of the mythological beings whose exploits are described in Gen. vi. 2-4, and whose ill conduct was among the causes of the Flood’.’ (Internet Source 2)

In 6:3, their leader Semjaza said he would be the one who will have to answer to God for this deed. So the angels of heaven, or demons if you like, made a pact with one another to fall to earth so that they may take wives for themselves and were incarnated with fleshly bodies so that they could have sexual relations with women (6:4-5).

When the angels came to earth, we are told in 6:6 that they arrived on the summit of Mount Hermon. It was there that they bound one another to the sacred curses. The meaning of Mt. Hermon, is ‘‘sacred mountain’’ as Ladd tells us. He also says that this is the second known fall of the angels. The first was led by Lucifer and Semayza led the second. There is also a third fall, after the flood (Genesis 6:1), where some angels committed fornication again with women on earth (2008: 18-19). This would suggest that they were not entirely wiped out, because of the third fall after the flood.

Chapter 7:2 of John D. Ladd’s translation says that the offspring born to the daughters of men were Giants and the offspring of the Giants were the Nephilim… It is significant that each time, a new ‘species’ is born; according to Ladd’s translation of 1 Enoch 7:2 after the Giants begot the Nephilim, they begot Elioud. Ladd says of this that:
‘The last group shows repeated degenerating. The second law of thermodynamics says that everything progresses towards entropy, i.e. it runs down, degenerates, becomes more disordered.’ (2008: 23)

They then continued to sin; 7:3 tells us they ‘consumed all the acquisitions of men’, and after this they began to devour men (7:4) and all kinds of birds, reptiles, fish, and then finally each other, even drinking each other’s blood (7:5). The drinking of blood is condemned in Genesis 9:4 and the devouring of men to birds, reptiles and fish is a biblical metaphor for the breakdown in the order of creation. Ultimately rebellion against God, results in chaos and decay. Paul D. Hanson of Harvard says:
‘This message is again rooted in scripture by drawing upon Genesis 6:5-12 and 8:2… the defilement of the created order extending from humankind to birds, beasts and reptiles. This in biblical metaphor, is a description of the collapse in the order of creation, with pugnacious forces unleashed in a vicious process of degeneration and decay.’ (1977: 200)

This presents a warning of the inevitability that sin placates sin, and from one desire of lust, the fallen angels and their offspring degenerated further, digressing in their ways, eating men and one another. Ladd states on this verse that:
‘This shows that from the lust for the women, they went to cannibalism. Sin increases its grip, brings more and more degeneration to its victims. Sins grow stronger and worse, as they are tolerated and condoned. People get more and more evil, if they allow sin in their persons.’ (2008: 23)

Ladd’s analyses of this verse is of particular poignancy to lead us to our understanding of this passage today, and what we can learn from the actions that are taken upon desire, rather than reason and will. If we act purely upon desire, it can weaken our will and lead to ever increasing sin. The meaning of the passage is an insight into the origins of evil; it should deter humans from rebellion against God, for the results of such a deed can only be destruction and wickedness. In Ladd’s further analysis of 1 Enoch, he says:
‘The sins of these fallen angels, corrupted mankind, corrupted the earth, and the things they taught mankind were learned far too soon, for God’s plan.’ (2008: 26)

In 7:1 the author speaks of how the angels taught the women charms and spells, and made them acquainted with plants. This is seemingly a reference to divination or witchcraft. 1 Samuel 15:23 says ‘For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft’ (KJV)… This appears to be a reference to these first acts of rebellion. Chapter 8:1 is where the angels taught men how to make weapons, beautify their eyelids, the casting of spells and astrology. Much deceit has arisen from these things in the world. Never has there been a time in the age of the earth where man has not been at war. People visit fortune tellers only to receive false truths transmitted by evil spirits and the ever increasing promotion of the need to look a certain way preys upon the young – and old. Elizabeth Claire Prophet, who believes the ‘watchers’ are still walking (and ruling) the earth today says:
‘The truth is that these fallen ones are so dead that they cannot respond to the cries of the people to stop waging arms races, nor do they give adequate answer to appeals to stop misappropriating the people’s money in the inner sanctums of their ‘bank tums’. Instead, the Watchers take the people’s gold and give them inflated, worthless currency in exchange for their sacred labor.’ (2000: 51)

When we think about the problems in the world today, they seem to be two major things, war upon one another, resulting in death, starvation, poor sanitation, sickness and disease and the ever increasing industry of sex – promoting haughtiness, individualism, instant self-gratification, arrogance and overt pride of one’s appearance; the very things that caused the angels to fall and spread their wickedness to mankind; pride (Isaiah 14:12) and lust (1 Enoch 6:2). Claire Elizabeth Prophet gives an interesting explanation on the connection between pride and lust and it this final statement that shall be the conclusion to the very meaning of 1 Enoch 6-8:

‘If the angels fell through lust, they must have had (or gotten) physical bodies to outplay their physical desires. But if the angels merely fell through pride, a corruption of mind and heart, they need not have bodies… The latter explanation was, in theological terms, less problematical. I for one do not believe that the sin of pride does not require a physical body to outplay itself. The preening of these devils – their body fixations and perversions ad nauseam and a physical culture based entirely on the pride of the eye, from body-building to fashion to the decadence of the Cain civilization – is rooted in both pride and lust and is the proving ground for egos vying for attention and acclaim through the success cult. The love of money is also rooted in both pride and lust. These vices feed on each other as acts of lust become an assertion of pride in sexual prowess… The sin of lust does not technically require a physical body to stain the soul… In fact it would seem to dwell upon the flesh-and-blood aspects of sin should cause digression from the fact that the state of sinfulness or virtue is a condition of the soul which may be carried to its logical conclusion in contempt of the Almighty on any plane of habitation by either men or angels, whether clothed with bodies earthly, astral, or ethereal.’ (2000: 54-55)

Bibliography
Brindle, W. A., (eds.) 1988. The King James Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
Bhayro, S., 2006. 'Noah's Library: Sources for 1 Enoch 6--11', Journal For The Study Of The Pseudepigrapha, 15, 3, pp. 163-177, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 April 2012.
Charles, R. H., 2007. The Book of Enoch. New York: Dover Publications, INC.
Collins, J. J., 1998. The Apocalyptic Imagination. Cambridge, U.K.: William B. Eerdmans.
Hanson, P. D 1977., 'REBELLION IN HEAVEN, AZAZEL, AND EUHEMERISTIC HEROES IN 1 ENOCH 6-11', Journal Of Biblical Literature, 96, 2, p. 195, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 April 2012.
Ladd, J. D., 2008. Commentary on the Book of Enoch. Canton, Ohio: Xulon Press
Lumpkin, J. B., 2011. The Book of Enoch – The Angels, The Watchers, The Nephilim. Blountsville AL: Fifth Estate.
Nickelsburg, G. W. E., 1977. ‘Apocalyptic and Myth in 1 Enoch 6-11,’ Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 383, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 April 2012.
Prophet, C., 2000. Fallen Angels and The Origins of Evil. Gardiner, Montana: Summit University Press.
Reed, A. Y., 2005. Fallen Angels and the History Judaism and Christianity – The Reception of Enochic Literature. NJ: Cambridge University Press
Roberts, S. A., 2012. The Rise and Fall of the Nephilim: The Untold Story of Fallen Angels, Giants on Earth, and their Extraterrestrial Origins. NJ: Career Press.

Internet Sources
Internet Source 1: 2011. ‘Apocalypse’, The Jewish Encyclopedia - The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1642-apocalypse> 17/4/2012.
Internet Source 2: 2011. ‘Son of God’, The Jewish Encyclopedia – The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13912-son-of-god> 17/4/2012.

Further Reading/Useful Resources
Guiley, R. E., 2004. The Encyclopedia of Angels, Second Edition. NY: Facts on File Books.
Henning, W. B. 2007. The Book of Giants – Fallen Angels and Their Sons. USA: Forgotten Books
Tice, P. 2003 (ed.). The Apocrypha: Sacred Texts Excluded From The Bible. San Diego, CA: The Book Tree

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[ 1 ]. ‘And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.’ Enoch was pleasing to God, and God took him. Throughout the Book of Enoch, much is revealed to him. In chap. 17-37 Enoch is taken on Journeys through the Earth and Sheol (Greek for the underworld).
[ 2 ]. ‘And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,
To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him’. (KJV)
[ 3 ]. The Book of Enoch is not just one manuscript; found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran, according to Joseph B. Lumpkin it was written over three to four hundred years by several different authors (2011: 17). It’s composed of six parts, as follows: The Book of the Watchers (chaps. 1-36); The Book of the Similitudes (chaps. 37-7l), The Book of Astronomical Writings (chaps. 72-82); The Book of Dream Visions (chaps. 83-90); and The Book of the Epistle of Enoch (chaps. 91-107). The Book of Parables was not found among the Dead Sea Scrolls but was later added (Lumpkin 2011: 17-18).
[ 4 ]. Enoch was ‘‘taken’’ by God and did not die. In apocalyptic literature death was regarded as negative; the wages of sin. Enoch was taken up to God and was perhaps able to come back and share with us things we need to learn. ‘‘Enoch walked with God’’ (he behaved in a way that was in accordance with the will of God). The name Enoch means ‘dedicated’ or ‘devoted’. In common with Elijah he occupies a special place among the OT figures: When he was removed from the Earth he was carried directly to heaven (Gen 5: 22-29). According to Gen 5 Enoch is Adam’s great grandson. His father was Jared, the father of Methuselah. He is the great grandson of Noah. The NT contains three mentions of Enoch: Lk 3: 37, Heb 11:5 and Jude 1:14-15. 1 Enoch 6: 1-8 is essentially a commentary on Gen 6: 1-4.
[ 5 ]. Whilst scholars usually take the passage from 1 Enoch 6-11 for analysis, this paper is purely focussing on the earlier part of this passage. Verses 9-11 focus on the punishment given to the angels by God, whilst verses 6-8 focus on the fall of the angels and their crimes.
[ 6 ]. Its meaning is ever more powerful today, in the knowledge of its suppression and exclusion from the Canonical books of the Bible, by the Church fathers. Why was it excluded, is a question that should adhere some thought and what does this mean for us, particularly in light of its apocalyptic nature?
[ 7 ]. The leader of the fallen angels is also referred to further on in the text in 6:7 as Semiazaz (R. H Charles translation) and Samlazaz (Joseph B. Lupmkin translation); Lumpkin says that ‘Samlazaz could be another spelling of Semjaza, and possibly the same entity.’ (2011: 27) Semihaza and Shemihaza are also other spellings of Semjaza to be found in other translations of 1 Enoch.
[ 8 ]. John D. Ladd says ‘This is the second fall of angels. Lucifer led the first rebellion, and the whole creation that he was to lead in worship to God, instead rebelled, and worshipped him instead.’ (2008: 18). This means the second fall from heaven; this was post fall of Adam and Eve, which we refer to as ‘the fall’, however there was a heavenly fall prior to Adam & Eve (Hebews 12:22) as they were tempted in the garden by the devil (the fallen angel - Lucifer). So by the second fall, it is presumable that the author means heavenly fall.
[ 9 ]. Does this hybrid human and fallen angel/demon blood line still exist and are they among us today, ruling our governments and corrupting our economies, holding weapons of mass destruction, preventing ordinary good-willed people from bringing enlightenment and truth to the world’s systems? Did these angels teach man to unleash war on upon one another?
[ 10 ]. Lucifer fell to earth, but so did many others, and whilst Genesis gives us a short report on the temptation of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, what exactly did this temptation from the devil entail of? What was the ‘forbidden fruit’? Was Cain, the first murderer, the son of Eve and the first fallen angel - Lucifer? What is recorded to have happened in 1 Enoch, may give us some insight into this. When Scripture speaks of Noah being ‘pure’ (Gen 6:9), does this mean a pure blood line, free from the seed of angelic/satanic rebellion, in order that the son of man (Jesus) would be born from this pure lineage? These are questions that should be kept in mind, as we uncover the meaning of this apocalyptic text and begin to unveil the secrets that the Church fathers had hidden for so long.
[ 11 ]. These are the Book of the Watchers (chaps. 1-36), the Similitudes (chaps. 37-71), the Astronomical Book (chaps. 72-82), the Book of Dreams (chaps. 83-90), and the Epistle of Enoch (chaps. 91-108) (Collins: 1998: 43).
[ 12 ]. The text in focus is within the Book of the Watchers. Prior to chap. 6-8, chap. 1-5 is the introduction of a utopia for the righteous and their eschatological rewards – light, joy, peace and they will inherit the earth (5:7). It speaks of the wisdom they shall obtain and how they will no longer do wrong (5:8). Collins says that ‘Wisdom here is a gift that is given only through supernatural revelation. The attainment of such wisdom is a recurring goal of apocalyptic literature.’ (1998: 49) The latter three chapters 9-11, are about the judgment and condemnation of the fallen angels. 1 Enoch 10:12-13 says ‘After you have seen your sons devour each other, you will be bound for 70 generations under the hills of the earth until the day of judgment is come. On that day of judgment they will be sent into the abyss of fire, and have torment in their eternal prison.’ This is apocalyptic in nature as it is revealing and disclosing the judgment of those who brought about rebellion from God, i.e. evil. ‘An "Apocalypse," in the terminology of early Jewish and Christian literature, is a revelation of hidden things given by God… The word is derived from the Greek ἀπōκάλυψις, "uncovering," "disclosure".’ (Internet Source 1)
[ 13 ]. In St. Paul’s letter to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 11:10), Paul says ‘For this cause women ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.’ Claire Prophet notes that whilst most Bible commentaries explain that Paul meant a woman’s uncovered head is an offense to the angels who observe church gatherings, Tertullian believes Paul was referring to the fallen angels spoken of in Enoch (2000: 46-47).
[ 14 ]. Despite the fact that many of the Church Fathers later rejected the book of Enoch, and it is as such non Canonical, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Origen (who was later labelled heretic) and Clement of Alexandria all respected the as they did Scripture (Prophet 2000: 39-48)
[ 15 ]. ‘There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown’. (KJV) This verse is then expanded on in 1 Enoch 7:2 where the size of the giants is given: ‘And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells.’
[ 16 ]. If referring to humans, the term ‘Sons of Adam’ would more likely have been used. Annette Yoshiko Reed says: ‘Jewish exegetes frequently equate the ‘‘sons of God’’ of Gen 6:1-4 with fallen angels and echo the extrabiblical expansions of the Book of the Watchers.’ (2005:82)
[ 17 ]. John D. Ladd points towards references to this later in Enoch 106:4, Genesis 6:1-4, 2 Peter 2:4, Jude 6-7, and 1 Peter 3:19 (2008: 17). He also shows us reference to the works of Josephus on the fall of the angels: ‘Josephus, Antiq. Book V. ch. 2 it says: ‘‘Many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust and despisers of all that was good… these men did what resembled the acts of those Grecians called ‘giants’.’’’ (2008: 17) He also goes onto say that: ‘The Ante-Nicene fathers refer to angels as falling ‘‘into impure love of virgins… and were begotten those who are ‘giants’.’’ (Vol. 2, page 142, and vol. 8, pages 85, 273).’ (2008:17)
[ 18 ]. They may be called demons after their rebellion from God and their dishonouring of their spiritual home, for their succumbing to their lust of the daughters of men. Satan was created as a part of the angelic realm (Eph. 6:11-12) and was the leading angel (Ezek. 28:12-14). He is referred to as the ‘prince of demons’ (Matt. 12:24 [NIV]).
[ 19 ]. Genesis 19: 1-22 speaks of the angels who visited lot, in verse 2 lot says ‘I pray you into your servant’s house, and tarry all night and wash your feet’ (KJV), suggesting that these angels were embodied as men. In Hebrews 13:2 we are told ‘Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.’ (KJV) This seems to suggest that one may have met an angel, but they did not know it, suggesting they must look like ordinary men.
[ 20 ]. Claire Prophet asks the all-important question: ‘If evil angels used to be around on earth and, as scripture seems to indicate, wore the guise of common men, why couldn’t they still be around? Given the state of affairs on planet earth, where would we find them today? Do they manipulate our government? Mismanage our economy?’ (2000: 7) Others too have suggested that the account of the fallen angels and their copulation with the daughters of men is very much supported by scripture and parallels to 1 Enoch are found all throughout the Bible. It may sound like a fanciful/science fiction/mythological story but due to the Biblical parallels some people take this story to be historical fact. Its indicative nature is potentially one of the reasons the Church Fathers and Constantine rejected the book of Enoch. Jesus himself quotes Enoch many times in Scripture; Matthew 5:5, ‘Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth’’ is resounding of Enoch 6:9, ‘The elect shall possess light, joy, and peace; and they shall inherit the earth.’ Claire Prophet says: ‘There is abundant proof that Christ approved of the Book of Enoch. Over a hundred phrases in the New Testament find precedents in the Book of Enoch.’ (2000: 18) Scott Alan Roberts reminds us that: ‘Nearly every culture has in its annals mythological tales of supernatural beings who came to earth for the purpose of intermingling with human beings. And out of these early encounters came the many subsequent accounts of an ancient universal flood imposed by a god or superior being for the purpose of wiping-out the offspring created by the supernatural intercourse between these beings and humans. In the ancient, pan-cultural understanding, these beings are referred to as angels, demons, spirits – and even gods.’ (2012: 15)
[ 21 ]. 7:2 (although in Lumpkin’s translation it is in 7:3) the author speaks of the women becoming pregnant and baring giants. Lumpkin gives us a reference to parallel texts in the book of Jubilees 7, 21-25. 1 Enoch 7: 4-6, which speaks about the giant’s consumption of everything mad had made, including man and eventually each other, has parallels with Jasher 2, 19-22 (2011: 28-29).
[ 22 ]. ‘But flesh with its life, which is its blood, shall you not eat’. (KJV)
[ 23 ]. As previously mentioned, violence, chaos, decay, pollution and lawlessness are always themes of an apocalyptic nature. Collins says ‘The pollution of the earth is a figurative expression in any case, but the story suggests violence and lawlessness… 1 Enoch 6-11 records perceived crises’. (1998: 51)
[ 24 ]. Claire Prophet says on this verse that: ‘Millennia ago, someone explained war not as a man-invented or God-sent plague, but as a vengeful act of a fallen angel barred from the planes of God’s power. The implication is that man, through one form of manipulation or another, latched on to the war games of the fallen angels and allowed himself to commit genocide in defence of their archrivalries.’ (2000: 11)
[ 25 ]. War in terms of whether this is armed weapons war or the social war on injustice and poverty.

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...Book™ C O P Y R I G H T © 2002 BY VI S I B LE I N K PRE SS® This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition, and other applicable laws. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine or newspaper. All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Visible Ink Press® 43311 Joy Rd. #414 Canton, MI 48187-2075 Visible Ink Press and The Handy Religion Answer Book are trademarks of Visible Ink Press LLC. Most Visible Ink Press books are available at special quantity discounts when purchased in bulk by corporations, organizations, or groups. Customized printings, special imprints, messages, and excerpts can be produced to meet your needs. For more information, contact Special Markets Director, Visible Ink Press, at www.visibleink.com or (734) 667-3211. Art Director: Mary Claire Krzewinski Typesetting: Graphix Group Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Renard, John, 1944The handy religion answer book / John Renard. p. cm. ISBN 1-57859-125-2 (pbk.) 1. Religions--Miscellanea. I. Title. BL80.2 .R46 2001 291--dc21 Printed in the United States of America All rights reserved 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2001004052 CIP Contents I NTRODUCTION ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS......

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