Premium Essay

An Infant Needs to Develop a Relationship with at Least One

In: Science

Submitted By stevechan2015
Words 1063
Pages 5
an infant needs to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver for the child’s successful social and emotional development, and in particular for learning how to effectively regulate their feelings.
Attachment theory in psychology originates with the seminal work of John Bowlby (1958). In the 1930’s John Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist in a Child Guidance Clinic in London, where he treated many emotionally disturbed children. This experience led Bowlby to consider the importance of the child’s relationship with their mother in terms of their social, emotional and cognitive development. Specifically, it shaped his belief about the link between early infant separations with the mother and later maladjustment, and led Bowlby to formulate his attachment theory.
Bowlby defined attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings”
Attachment theory has become the dominant theory used today in the study of infant and toddler behavior and in the fields of infant mental health, treatment of children, and related fields. Secure attachment is considered to be the best attachment style. Secure attachment is when children feel secure in the presence of their caregivers. When the caregiver leaves the infant alone, the infant feels separation anxiety. Separation anxiety is what infants feel when they are separated from their caregivers. Anxious-ambivalent attachment is when the infant feels separation anxiety when separated from his caregiver and does not feel reassured when the caregiver returns to the infant. Anxious-avoidant attachment is when the infant avoids their parents. Disorganized attachment is when there is a lack of attachment behavior. In the 1980s, the theory was extended to attachment in adults. Attachment applies to adults when adults feel close attachment to their parents and their romantic partners.
Behavioral problems...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Child Development Observation

...| Child Development Observation (Infant) | Introduction to Early Child Development | Instructor: Kathrine Palichuk | Dawn Freeman | 9/1/2014 | [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] | Each child will go through the same developmental process, varying in time and order. During prenatal development the fetus is dependent on the mother to provide the child with a healthy environment to help promote the proper physical development of the unborn child. Healthy development of a child begins at conception. As the fetus grows and develops senses, organs, and brain function, the mother’s lifestyle controls the quality of development in all of the important areas. (Groark, McCarthy, & Afton, 2014) Physical and motor development The infant’s head is heavier than the rest of their body and they are unable to have any control over its movement; of course the does not mean the head does not move but that the movement is only a reflex. The infant at this stage in development has natural reflexes: Moro or startle reflex, which is the sudden extension of arms and legs, head, jerks back and newborn may often gasp in air and cry out. This reflex is often seen when child is surprised by a loud sound or sudden movement. (Groark, McCarthy, & Afton, 2014) Rooting reflex is the...

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Competence

...developing friendships and romantic relationships (Engles, Finkenauer, Meeus, & Dekovic, 2005). Ainsworth found that the anxious-ambivalently attached are especially at-risk for later behavioral problems, including aggressive conduct. These data suggested it is vital for the one-third of children who do not develop a secure attachment as infants be provided opportunities to repair the original attachment relationship or construct some form of attachment outside the home, perhaps through interaction with a teacher or mentor. This paper will “BRIEFLY DESCRIBE HOW PARENTS AND TEACHERS CAN HELP TEACH SOCIAL COMPETENCE”. Erikson (1950) provided another important theory related to social competence; his psychosocial theory of personality development emphasized the interplay between the social and emotional domains. Erikson highlighted the importance of the person resolving a series of conflicts where interpersonal relationships play an important role. In infancy, the conflict is Trust versus Mistrust. Erikson hypothesized that an infant will develop trust through interaction with a warm, available, and responsive caregiver or the infant will develop mistrust through interaction with a negative or unresponsive and unavailable caregiver. Subsequently, it is this development of trust in infancy that allows an individual to succeed in the next stage of toddlerhood called Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt. In this stage, the toddler is more likely to develop a sense of his......

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Attachment Theory

...education, friendships and employment. A child with poor or social and emotional development are at risk of experiencing poor relationships with peers, academic problems and can lead them into involvement in unsociable activities or crime. Research suggests the key to social and emotional development lies in the child’s early relationship with parents and caregivers. It is believed that children develop and thrive better when they are brought up in an environment where the caregiver satisfies a child’s needs physically and emotionally. Throughout the Late 1930s and 1940s a psychologist John Bowlby investigated the nature and the purpose of the close relationships that a person forms with people throughout their lives, in particular, childhood. He researched the making and breaking of bonds to understand the psychological behaviour and social and emotional development of human being (Howe, 1995, P46). As a result of these investigations and studies Bowlby developed a theory called the ‘Attachment Theory’. The basis of this theory is that “the infant and young child should experience warm, intimate and continuous relationships between the child and the mother” (Steele, 2002, State of the art: Attachment). Bowlby’s attachment theory hypothesis that humans have some biological need to develop a close loving bond with their mothers, or caregiver. This bond develops within the first year of the child’s life, and if the bond is not developed or the bond is broken, the......

Words: 2891 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Persuasive Essay

...than our children. So why not consider breast milk? Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005) Breastfeeding can start as soon as the child is born. With the protection of breast milk the overall focus on disease, illness and sickness would be half the battle. Breast milk provides many benefits and the dietary influence it has on disease is too great to be compared to. Being a new mother for the first time can be very stressful in the beginning. There are many things to do before the baby is before. A new mother has to make many choices that will affect the newborn. Many of those choices will be more challenging than others. Some of the decisions the mother and father have to make before the baby is born can include, which hospital will they deliver, who will be the babies physician, what kind of diapers, will the baby sleep with the parents or her own crib. So many decisions to make but one important thing that will have a huge effect on a newborn is feeding. What will the parent’s decide? Formula or Breast milk? I believe that the best choice for feeding a newborn is definitely breast milk because there are many benefits for the baby when it comes to breast-feeding. More new mothers choose to breastfeed because of the benefits it has for the newborn. Hormones in breast milk aid the infants gastrointestinal system to develop more rapidly become less permeable much...

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Proportional Changes

...Infants Proportional changes * The infant’s posterior fontanel closes by 6 to 8 weeks of age. * The infant’s anterior fontanel closes by 12 to 18 months of age * Weight – Infants gain approximately 150 to 210 g (about 5 to 7 oz) per week the first 6 months of life. Birth weight is at least doubled by the age of 6 months, and tripled by the age of 12 months. * Height – Infants grow approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) per month the first 6 months of life. Growth occurs in spurts after the age of 6 months, and the birth length increases by 50% by the age of 12 months. * Head circumference – The circumference of infants’ heads increases approximately 1.5 cm (0.6 in) * per month for the first 6 months of life, and then approximately 0.5 cm (0.2 in) between 6 and 12 months of age. Maturation of Systems * The respiratory rate slows somewhat and is relatively stable * The heart slows and the rhythm is soften sinus dysrhythmia * Systolic pressure rises during first 2 months and diastolic pressure rises first 3 months * The liver is the most immature of all the GI throughout infancy * Thermoregulation becomes more efficient. * A shift in total body fluid occurs Nutrition * Feeding alternatives * Breastfeeding provides a complete diet for infants during the first 6 months. * Iron-fortified formula is an acceptable alternative to breast milk. Cow’s milk is not recommended. * It is recommended to begin vitamin......

Words: 4630 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Essay

...CHAPTER OUTLINE I. EXPLORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Developmental psychology is concerned with the course and causes of developmental changes over a person’s entire lifetime. What does “genetic influence” mean? A. Historical Perspective 1. British empiricist philosopher John Locke in the 1690s argued that childhood experiences (nurture) permanently affect people. Empiricists saw the newborn as a blank slate or tabula rasa on which experience writes. 2. French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the 1760s argued the opposite, that nature alone gives children all they need to grow and learn, without adult guidance. 3. American psychologist Arnold Gesell in the early 1900s said that motor skills develop in a fixed sequence of stages in all children due to maturation, natural growth or change, which unfolds in a fixed sequence relatively independent of the environment. The term development encompasses not only maturation but also the behavioral and mental processes that are influenced by learning. 4. Behaviorist John B. Watson in the 1910s claimed that all development is due to learning. 5. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget saw nature and nurture as inseparable and interactive in cognitive development. B. Understanding Genetic Influence 1. Behavioral genetics is the study of how genes affect behavior. This research demonstrated that nature and nurture jointly contribute to development in two ways. ......

Words: 6271 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Breastfeeding Is Bad for Business

...system, we observe poorer countries stripped of their resources and limited in their abilities to develop. Around the 16th century, when the major continents were for the first time all aware of each other, nations and regions began to emerge as economically dominant and dominated. We observe a coordinated effort to implement this system of domination and dependence in the first colonizers. Many centuries later, this system still exists. It has evolved into a system with a global capitalist, consumerist, profit maximizing, goal. Even more interesting, this system is no longer controlled by nations. The very governments which encouraged strong capitalist minded companies are no longer in control of the supra-national organizations. Multinational companies, having exhausted their home markets, have reached to the underdeveloped regions in search of resources, and ultimately profits, in an effort to continue growing their business. Successful firms with flourishing international businesses and markets are not necessarily a negative outcome. The situation we see today however involves a world in which several multinational companies actively search for profits in the third world, regions in which people may not have enough resources to adequately support themselves in the first place. “We are part of an economic pattern which stimulates desires rather than satisfy needs in order to perpetuate itself.” These...

Words: 8063 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Nursing Theories

...Introduction Positive parent-child relationships provide the foundation for children’s learning. With parents’ sensitive, responsive, and predictable care, young children develop the skills they need to succeed in life. Early parent-child relationships have powerful effects on children’s emotional well-being (Dawson & Ashman, 2000), their basic coping and problem-solving abilities, and future capacity for relationships (Lerner & Castellino, 2002). Through these interactions, children learn skills they need to engage with others and to succeed in different environments (Rogoff, 2003). They learn how to manage their emotions and behaviors and establish healthy relationships with adults and peers. They also learn how to adjust to new situations and to resolve conflicts .When parents have warm, trusting, and reliable relationships with peers, family, community members, and service providers, they are more likely to have positive relationships with their children. To work toward the Parent, Family, Community and Environment: Positive Parent-Child Relationships Outcome, providers and programs can: provide emotional and concrete support to parents,1.respect diverse parenting styles, 2.value cultural differences and home languages, 3.reinforce the importance of fathers and other co-parents, 4.help parents connect with other parents and community members and resources, and model warm, responsive relationships by engaging in these relationships with parents and other family......

Words: 4297 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Childbearing

...pinnacle of experience of birth to the assumption of the joys and responsibilities of family life. Well-integrated post-natal care has an important role to play in assisting this transition and launching the family in their new life together. The puerperium is a period of 6 weeks which begins as soon as the placenta has been expelled. During this time a number of physiological and psychological changes take place: ➢ The reproductive organs returns to the non-pregnant stage ➢ Other physiological changes which occur during pregnancy are reversed ➢ Lactation is established ➢ The mother recovers from the stress of pregnancy and delivery, and assumes responsibility for the care and nature of the infant. This care is based upon 3 principles: 1. Promoting the...

Words: 3648 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Expectations of Development in Early Adolescene

...Expectation of Development in Early Adolescence Amy Whalen Carrington College, Reno Expectation of Development in Early Adolescence Bone fractures are a common occurrence during the childhood years. Children are vulnerable to injury because of the daily activities they perform, the risks they take, and the rate of growth. This can impact the growth and development both physiologically and psychologically for the child. Adolescents can view this type of injury as an impact on their social development and can see their recovery as a slow process that is robbing them of their time with their peers. Although it is crucial to focus on the healing process physiologically for an adolescent, it is also important to ensure the teen is developing appropriately through the psychological stages of life. The developmental stages introduced by Erikson, Freud, Piaget, and Kohlberg help to determine a child’s path into adulthood. This patient is a fourteen year old male that lives at home with his parents and is a freshman in high school. The patient appears to be well nourished, his stated age, and aware of his surroundings. When the patient was playing soccer when he was involved in a collision with his opponent. He was struck in the right leg and fell to the ground with severe pain. The patient was transported to the emergency department by his coach for apparent trauma to the right leg. After being evaluated by the emergency room physician, the patient was diagnosed with a...

Words: 3370 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

China's One-Child Adoption Report

...China's beliefs are so different to those in the United states. One example is the cultural desire for a male child. There are various reasons why families in China might favor a male over a female. In rural provinces, the family's living situations depend on its family members. As a result, a family with a son would be at a significant advantage over one with a daughter. Traditionally, it is the son's responsibility to care for his parents as they age. A daughter would be expected to be the caregiver for her husband's parents, rather than her own. Due to these ways of living, the Chinese believe that it is crucial to have a son, for their livelihood and a way of social security for their aging parents. Even though China has taken steps to change these belief systems, in the past few years, many families, especially those in rural areas are still firmly favoring a male child. This situation is even more complex because of China's one-child policy which forbids families from having multiple children. As a result of the policy, there are many children who are available to be adopted, which...

Words: 1584 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Effects of Divorce on Children

...child than the divorce. When children are involved in a divorce, it often leads to a wide variety of problems down the road and not just for the couple divorcing. It is unbelievable how many people get a divorce without looking into what kind of effect it might have on their children. Unfortunately, the traumatic effects of divorce on children stay with them throughout their childhood and continue on into their adult lives. And in most cases, couples find themselves involving their children in divorce which only makes things worse. When you first break the news to your child that you are getting a divorce, their initial reaction might vary from extreme anger, to sadness, to immediately thinking that the breakup is their fault. One of the most damaging effects of divorce on children is the different outlets they turn to in an effort to deal with their hurt and pain. Unfortunately this more times than not is drugs. Kids use drugs to cover up the emotional pain they are experiencing as a result of the issues that led to the divorce. This then leads to poor grades in school and may even result in the child dropping out of school. But aside from the physical effects of divorce, there are many damaging emotional side effects that your...

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Reactive Attachment Disorder in Children and Adolescents in

...Record of the Caregiving Environment, Strange Situation Procedure, Disturbances of Attachment Interview, and the Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment (Smyke, et. al. 2012), the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Interview (Cone, et. al., 2009) in addition to the Reactive Affective Disorder Checklist (RAD-C) and the Relationships Problem Questionnaire (RPQ), in the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder (Thrall, et al., 2009). These measurements were not only utilized to discover the existence of RAD, but to test the validity of the methods. Additionally, treatment studies including holding, narrative therapy, parenting skills training, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, psychodrama, and/or neurofeedback (Wimmer, et. al.,2009) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (Cone, et. al.,2009) are examined. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) lists Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) as a serious, directly linked outcome of early infant–mother attachment difficulties (American Psychiatric Association 2000). According to the DSM-IV-TR, Reactive Attachment Disorder is ‘‘the psychological disturbance of the relationship between a child and his parent(s) or primary caregiver based on pathogenic care’’ (American Psychiatric Association 2000, p 128). It is characterized by ‘‘markedly disturbed and...

Words: 3238 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Ssri Use in Pregnancy

...Depression in Pregnancy and the Effects of SSRI’s Depression is a condition that is very common and is talked about more openly today than it once was. It is especially common in child bearing age and women are more likely to be affected. Depression is also very prevalent in pregnancy and the postpartum period. It has been reported that as many as 10% of women experience more than just the “blues” during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (Fleschler and Peskin, 2008). According to Mosby’s Dictionary (2009), depression is defined as: “an abnormal emotional state characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejections, worthlessness, emptiness, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality”. Although depression can be precipitated by a traumatic event, a person with depression will often not be able to explain their feelings and might seem to have a lack of motivation, inability to concentrate, suffer from insomnia, and have a loss of interest or joy in activities they once enjoyed. Treatment for depression is especially important in pregnancy. Woman who do not receive treatment may not get regular prenatal care, are at a higher risk for an increase in substance abuse, preterm delivery and low birth weight infant’s (Fleschler and Peskin, 2008). Non-pharmacological treatment of depression includes: exercise, yoga, relaxation techniques, and participation in support groups or cognitive behavioral therapy. When these......

Words: 2821 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Human Growth and Development

...Infants grow and change as they progress into a preschooler, middle aged child and into adolescents. Physical growth, intellectual/cognitive growth, psychosocial changes, social development, moral development, and the personality all changes and evolves as the infant makes its way through these stages of life. During infancy, children attach to others. “Attachment, a strong, positive emotional bond that forms between an infant and one or more significant persons, is a crucial factor in enabling individuals to develop social relationships” (Feldman, 2014, p. 198).They normally form their initial primary relationship with their parents and other family members. “Research suggests an association between an infant’s attachment pattern and his or her social and emotional competence as an adult” (Feldman, 2014, p. 198). Through the process of “reciprocal socialization, in which infants’ behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers,” infant’s social world starts to take form (Feldman, 2014, p. 188). Infants express their sociability, at first, in nonverbal ways. They smile, laugh, stare, and with age make vocalizations and imitate others. A mothers’ interactions with her baby is important for the babies’ social development. As mothers’ respond appropriately to their babies’ social cues, the infant’s attachment is strengthened. A father’s expression of positive emotions is also important to the infant’s social well-being. Personality includes......

Words: 1903 - Pages: 8