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Ana Maria

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sarboayk
Words 672
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Politica de pret Conceptul de pret Categorii de pret. Politici de pret Strategii ale politicii de pret Conceptul de pret. Pretul reprezinta unul dintre cele 4 componente ale mixului de marketing in stransa legatura cu produsul, pretul este un element acorporal al acestuia. Pretul in viziunea de marketing reprezinta: Mijloc de masura a gradului de valorificare a resurselor intreprinderii. Este un barometru al capacitatii intreprinderii de adaptare la cerintele mediului si de influentare a acestuia. Este un instrument de recuperare a cheltuielilor efectuate si de apropiere a beneficiilor incorporate in produse. Pretul joaca un rol in actul de vanzare cumparare, este un element de contact si de armonizare intre produs si mediul caruia i se adreseaza intre oferta si cererea de marfuri. Din punct de vedere al cererii, nivelul si evolutia pretului sunt influentate de: Utilitatea bunurilor. Din punct de vedere a ofertei, nivelului si evolutia pretului sunt influentate de: Costurile de productie, respectiv consumul de factorii necesari producerii bunului oferit. Preturile bunului respectiv practicate pe alte piete. Cresterea cererii conduce la cresterea pretului si invers, cererea scade, se reduce pretul. Cresterea ofertei la o cerere data, are drept efect reducerea pretului, iar scaderea ofertei conduce la majorarea pretului. Categorii de preturi Teoria si practica economica grupeaza categoriile de preturi dupa mai multe criterii si anume: Din punct de vedere al modului de formare. Din punct de vedere al naturii si obiectului pietei. Dupa natura obiectului schimbului Dupa stadiul dupa care se realizeaza schimbul. Dupa sfera de aplicabilitate in cadrul pietei mondiale. Din punct de vedere al modului de formare Preturi administrate – sunt stabilite de producatori pe baza unor reglementari generale sau proprii. La baza estimarii preturilor stau costurile medii, cota cheltuielilor generale si rata profitului. In aceasta categorie se intalnesc preturi unice al caror niveluri este fix. Preturi cu limite de variatie stabilite. Preturi libere – sunt preturile libere ce se formeaza pe piata prin mecanismul cererii si ofertei, nesupuse nici unui fel de reglementari. Din punct de vedere al naturii si obiectului pietei Preturi ale bunurilor materiale si ale serviciilor Preturi ale factorilor din productie Preturi sau cursuri ale hartiilor de valoare Preturi ale banilor corespunzatori pietei Titlurilor financiare si monetare. Preturi dupa natura obiectului schimbului Preturi industriale Preturi agricole Tarife pentru servicii Dupa stadiul in care se realizeaza schimbul Preturi cu ridicata Preturi cu amanuntul Dupa sfera de aplicabilitate in cadrul pietei mondiale Pretul bursa sau cotatia de bursa. Pret de licitatie Pretul de lista sau catalogul Preturi de tranzactie Pretul indexat – este cel practicat de OPEC, care inafara unor cheltuieli Pretul ajustat – cel prevazut in contract, care poate fi colectat in momentul vanzarii produsului. Pretul director, cel ce se formeaza pe piata principala a unui produs. Preturi de piata, cel care se modifica in general in raport de cerere si oferta. Preturi convenite prin reglementari internationale de catre unele grupe de state. Functiile pretului Functia de calcul si masurare a cheltuielilor si rezultatelor prin intermediul careia capata expresie baneasca indicatorii ce caracterizeaza activitatea economico-sociala. Pretul ca si costul, pe baza caruia se formeaza are o puternica incarcatura informationala. Mesajele sale putand fi rapid transmise agentilor economici. Functia de stimulare a producatorilor – prin influenta lor asupra veniturilor preturile reprezinta componenta motivationala principala a actiunilor producatorilor si consumurilor. Prin aceste conditii ele devin elementul central al strategiilor agentilor economici stimulandu`i in: {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Functia de recuperare a costurilor si de distributie a veniturilor – aceasta functie face ca prin nivelul lor, preturile sa asigure agentilor economici recuperarea sau compensarea cheltuielilor si obtinerea unor profituri. *3. Politci de pret vezi sus prima pagina Prin functiile lui economice, pretul este nu numai o categorie valorica, dar si o importanta parghie prin intermediul careia se realizeaza anumite obiective economice si sociale ale unei tari. Pretul este un fenomen prezent prin politicile pretului, statul are in vedere: Atenuarea unor dificultati economice Asigurarea stabilitatii economice. Sporirea eficientei economice Asigurarea unor preturi avantajoase la materii prime Mentinerea unor tarife reduse la transport Protejarea produselor interne fata de import.

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