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Anatomy and Physology

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Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among people who are old. Bones that commonly break include the back bones, the bones of the forearm, and the hip. Until a broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common form of osteoporosis. It affects many women after menopause, leaving some women up in age such as an 84 year old slim, small boned female at high risk for fracture. Osteoarthritis is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the problems come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected. Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement

and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized. When a muscle atrophies it leads to muscle weakness in which may become difficult to restore...

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Sliding Filament Thory, with Ref to Upper Arm.

...Norah Carr Co-ordination and movement Lo3. March 2012. 3:1 eplain the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction with reference to the antagonistic muscles of the upper arm. 3:2. Draw and label a diagram of a synovial joint, explaining the functions of each structure. 3:3. Distinguish between a hinge, pivot and a ball and socket joint with reference to named examples, shapes of bones and the ranges of movement possible. To understand the sliding filament theory, one should first look at the muscles. All movement through the body is created and stopped by muscles. Muscles work in antagonistic pairs, that means that when one muscle relaxes, it antagonistic pair will contract and vice versa. Muscle fibres are found in bundles wasting very little space. The muscle fibres which have bunches of myofibrils, which house myofilaments within.(thick myosin and thin actin filaments). Once the brain decides it wants to contract a muscle, it sends a series of electrical impulses via chemical reactions called Action potentials, down to motor neurons which innervate muscle fibres. through a process called 'lateral inhibition' the brain will send an exictatory (contract) signal to one motor neuron and an inhibitory (relax) signal to the other. Once the 'signal' (action potential) reaches the muscle fibre a series of events takes place, and very quickly: The Action potential travels along the axon of the motor neuron to the synaptic end bulb. This is an area of the......

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