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Anatomy

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Anatomy & Physiology II EXAM 1 Notes:
CHAPTER 17: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
17.1
-You have to have the communication and control network for your 100,000,000 cells
-Communication System: NERVOUS * Functions: 1. Collects Information 2. Processes Information 3. Initiates Response * Communication Method:
-Nerve signal travels along the neuron then the neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft * Target Cells: 1. Other Neurons 2. Muscle Cells 3. Gland Cells * Response Time: RAPID * Duration of Response: SHORT (terminates with removal of stimulus)
-Communication System: ENDOCRINE (Chemical Communication System) * Functions: 1. Maintaining homeostasis 2. Regulating development, growth, and metabolism 3. Controlling Reproductive Activites * Communication Method:
-Produces and releases hormones-regulatory chemicals (proteins or lipids) secreted into the blood stream and affects target cells. * Target Cells:
-A variety of cells with a specific receptor for a hormone that initiates or inhibits selective cell activities. * Response Time: LONGER * Duration of Response: LONGER LASTING (mins to days and weeks)
17.2
-Endocrine Cells: 1. Derived from epithelium with connective tissue framework 2. Have extensive blood supply to facilitate rapid uptake of hormones 3. Two Locations:
-Single Organ: pineal, thyroid, pituitary, parathyroid, and adrenal glands
-Cells in small clusters in organs with another primary function: stomach, liver, pancreas
-Endocrine glands: scattered throughout the body and interact to maintain homeostasis * Example: Pineal Gland-posterior region of the epithalamus that secretes MELATONIN (Pineapple is a melon) that helps regulate circadian rhythm (makes us drowsy at night) and is involved in the regulation of maturation. * The Pineal Gland decreases in size as we age. * Example: Parathyroid Gland- contains 4 nodules on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Their CHIEF CELLS produce parathyroid hormone that increases blood calcium levels. * The parathyroid also contains oxyphil cells, which an overabundance can cause oxyphil cell adenoma
-Major Endocrine Glands: -Organs that Contain Endocrine Cells: 1. Pituitary 1. Hypothalamus 6. Small Intestine 2. Pineal 2. Thalamus 7. Pancreas 3. Parathyroid 3. Skin 8. Kidneys 4. Thyroid 4. Liver 9. Gonads 5. Adrenal 5. Stomach
-Stimulation of hormone synthesis and release
-Secretion of a hormone is controlled through a reflex * Endocrine Reflex- pre-programmed response to certain stimuli * 3 types of Stimulation: 1. Hormonal- release of a hormone in response to another hormone 2. Humoral- (“humor” =fluid of the body) changes into blood composition triggers a response from certain glands to return nutrients or ions to the normal level 3. Nervous-by signal from the nervous system
17.3
-Major categories of hormones: * All circulatory hormones are synthesized within endocrine cells from either cholesterol or amino acids. 1. Steroid Hormone 2. Protein Hormone 3. Biogenic Amine
-Lipid Soluble -Water Soluble -water Soluable
-Formed from cholesterol -formed from Amino Acids -formed from MODIFIED AA
-Local Hormones (clusters of cells)-a large group of signaling molecules that do not circulate within the blood. They bind with same cell or neighboring cells. * Eicosanoid- (“twenty formed”)= primary hormone
17.4
-Water soluble hormones (PROTEINS AND BIOGENIC AMINE)-cannot pass through membrane because of bilayer; readily dissolve and move through blood
-Lipid soluble hormones(STEROID)- DO NOT readily dissolve and require carrier proteins synthesized by the liver. * In addition, carrier proteins protect hormones from early destruction (this is why some water soluable hormones are transported by carrier protein molecules)
17.5
-Hormones have contact with all tissues of the body, but interact only with target cells that possess and appropriate receptor
-Lipid Soluble hormones are small, nonpolar molecules: 1. Diffuse across plasma membrane 2. Bind to intracellular receptors and form hormone-receptor complex 3. Hormone-receptor complex binds to a specific area of DNA called hormone-response element that initiates the synthesis of a certain protein
-example: testosterone enhances muscle development
-Water soluble hormones are polar molecules unable to cross the plasma membrane, so they have to bind to a plasma membrane receptor, thus initiating a series of biochemical events (signal transduction pathway) 1. Hormone is first messenger 2. Docking of the hormone results in the formation of a second molecule(second messenger) that will modify some cellular activity
-Activation of G Protein: (SWITCH) 1. Hormone (first messenger) binds to the receptor and induces shape change to activate the receptor. 2. G Protein binds to activated receptor 3. GDP (guanine diphosphate) is “bumped off” and GTP (guanine triphosphate) binds to G Protein, activating it. 4. Activated G Protein (with GTP) is released from the receptor and moves along the inside of the plasma membrane, which results in formation or availability of the second messenger
-Activated G Protein will go on to activate ONE of TWO enzyme cascades:
A) Adenylate Cyclase Activity 1. Activated G Protein binds to and causes activation of the plasma membrane enzyme adenylate cyclase 2. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP molecules to cAMP molecules 3. cAMP serves as the “second messenger” by activating protein kinase A (phosphorylating enzyme that activates OR inhibits other molecules by adding a phosphate to them
B) Phospholipase C Activity 1. Activated G Protein binds to and causes activation of the plasma membrane, phospholipase C 2. Phospholipase C splits PIP2 (a phospholipid molecule within plasma membrane) into 2 second messengers a. DAG=diaclyglycerol b. IP3= inositol triphosphate
-DAG activates Kinase C
-IP3 increases Ca2+ in cytosol (from ER or Interstitial fluid)
-Ca2+ acts as a 3rd messenger to: 1. Activate protein kinase enzymes (directly or through calmodulin) 2. Alter activity of ion channels within the plasma membrane
-Action of water soluble hormones-multiple results possible with hormone activation * Activation or inhibition of enzymatic pathways * Stimulation of cellular secretions * Muscle contraction or relaxation
17.6
-A cell’s response to a hormone caries at different times because: 1. The same target cell can display different number of receptors for the same hormone a) up-regulation: cells increase number of receptors in a response to reduced hormone concentration in the blood. b) down-regulation: cells decrease the number of receptors in response to elevated hormone concentration in the blood * Receptor fluctuation also occurs as a result of:
-Developmental maturity, cells state of activity, and different stages of cell cycle
G Protein---GTP
G Protein---GTP 2. The target cell with receptors for various hormones will respond differently based on how the hormones interact.

Phospholipase C
(enzyme)
Phospholipase C
(enzyme)
Adenylate Kinase
(enzyme)
Adenylate Kinase
(enzyme)

ATP cAMP (2nd mess) PIP2 DAG&IP3 (2nd mess) Increases Ca2+ Activation of Protein Kinase Activation of Protein Kinase
17.7
-Review Concepts: 1. Some organic molecules can be oxidized to provide energy to form ATP- these are called “Nutrients.” Major nutrients are: glucose, fatty acids, and some amino acids. 2. Nutrients circulate in the blood in their simple form, but they can also be stored. a. Glucose is stored as glycogen b. Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides c. Amino Acids are stored as proteins 3. Through intracellular enzymatic pathways, nutrients can be deposited and withdrawn here to maintain homeostasis. This blood level of nutrients is highly regulated by various hormones
7.8
-Hypothalamus: * Has DIRECT control over hormone release from pituitary gland. * Has indirect control over hormone release from: thyroid, adrenal, liver, testes, and ovaries
-Pituitary: hypophysis * Connected to hypothalamus by “stalk” or the infundibulum * Partitioned into anterior and posterior pituitary 4. Anterior pituitary: adenohypophysis
-develops from ectoderm in oral cavity
-3/4 pituitary mass
-3 areas: 1. pars distalis 2. pars tuberalis 3. pars intermedia
-hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system-a capillary network connecting the hypothalamus and hypophysis. It allows hypothalamus to release 7 regulatory hormones affecting the anterior pituitary 5. Posterior pituitary: Neurohypophysis
-formed from developing hypothalamus.
-composed of: infundibulum and pars nervosa
-cell bodies and dendrites of about 10,000 neurosecretory neurons are located within the hypothalamic nuclei. They synthesize several hormones and transport them to the pars nervosa for storage. a. oxytocin- labor contractions and milk letdown b. antidiuretic hormone-urine output
-Hormones are released into the blood stream from the posterior pituitary when a nerve signal is sent from the hypothalamus
-Hormones regulated by Hypothalamus: * Released
1.THYROTROPIN 4. PROLACTIN 2. GONADOTROPIN 5. GROWTH HORMONE 3. CORTICOTROPIN * Inhibiting
1. PROLACTIN
2. GROWTH HORMONE
-Hormones of Anterior Pituitary: 1. THYROTROPIN 4. PROLACTIN 2. GONADOTROPIN 5. GROWTH HORMONE 3. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC H
-Hormones of another endocrine gland involved: 1.THYROID H 2. Sex hormones synthesized by gonads 3. Glucocorticoids from adrenal gland
-Growth Hormone: regulated by the hypothalamus * Release controlled by growth hormone releasing hormone(GHRH) * Release is influenced by age, time of day, nutrient levels, stress, and exercise
-Thyroid Gland: * Regulated by Hypothalamus * Largest structure in the body devoted to endocrine activities (20-30 g) * Has left and right lobes, connected by a narrow isthmus (butterfly) and is highly vasculated * Composed of microscopic spherical structures called thyroid follicles that produce thyroid hormone * Follicular cells form a wall surrounding a central lumen that houses protein rich colloid
-Thyroid hormone production: * IODINE is transported into the colloid * THYROGLOBULINS, a protein rich in tyrosine amino acids is synthesized in follicular cells and transported into the colloid * Iodine is added to the tyrosine rings to form MIT
DIT+MIT=T3 or DIT +DIT=T4 * Some colloid internalizes by endocytes into a follicular cell and delivered to a lysosome where an enzyme cuts off T3 and T4 * Mature hormones are released into the blood stream
-Action of the Thyroid Hormone: * Release of the thyroid hormone is under the control of the hypothalamus is the anterior pituitary in response to: * Decreased blood levels of thyroid hormone * Cold weather, pregnancy, or hypoglycemia * Thyroid hormone targets a variety of cells increasing metabolic rate and body temperature. * Increase release of nutrients stored into blood and their use by other body cells * Increase respiration and heart rate to meet the growing oxygen demands * Parafollicular cells (C-cells)-located adjacent to thyroid follicles produce and secrete calcitonin * Decreases blood Calcium level in 3 ways: 1. Inhibits Ca2+ absorption by intestines 2. Inhibits osteoclasts in bone 3. Increases Ca2+ excretion in urine
-Calcitonin opposes the effect of parathyroid hormone(PTH)
-Adrenal Gland: * Regulated by the hypothalamus * Paired, pyramid shaped glands located on the superior surface of each kidney; subdivided into two regions * Adrenal Cortex-(outer) yellow color due to lipid (steroid) content A. Zona glomerulosa- (thin, outer layer) synthesizes MINERALCORTICOIDS to regulate salt and water balance B. Zona fasciculata- (middle layer) synthesizes GLUCOCORTICOIDS to regulate glucose metabolism and immune responses C. Zona Reticularis-(inner layer) sex hormone and GONADOCORTICOID regulation * Adrenal Medulla-(inner) red brown color due to extensive blood vessels, and releases CATECHOLAMINES(epinephrine and norepinephrine)
-Cortisol: type of glucocorticoid * Release is controlled by CORTICOTROPIN-releasing hormone produced by hypothalamus. The cortisol is then transformed into ADRENOCORTICOPIC HORMONE (ACTH) from anterior pituitary—cortisol released by adrenal glands * Cortisol is released: * As a part of the normal daily cycle: (highest before awakening) * In response to both emotional and physical stress * Functions: * Increase nutrient levels in the blood (esp. glucose) to assure adequate fuel to keep you functioning * Suppresses immune system to prevent overactivity
17.9
-The adrenal medulla contains chromatin cells which are the modified neurons of the ANS * Synthesize catecholamines * The sympathetic ANS exerts direct control over the chromaffin cells in response to stress EEE (emergency, exercise, and excitement), medullary cells release catecholamines into blood
-Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: * Fight or Flight Response
Fight or Flight Response
Increased heart rate and blood pressure * Blood vessel constriction * Increased metabolism

17.10
-Anatomy of the Pancreas: * Elongated organ between the duodenum and spleen; posterior to the stomach * Performs endocrine and exocrine activities * Contains: 1. Pancreatic acini-produces alkaline pancreatic juice released into the small intestine to aid in digestion 2. Pancreatic islet cells-(1%) small clusters of endocrine cells: * Alpha cells-secretes GLUCAGON * Beta cells-secretes INSULIN * Delta Cells- secretes SOMATOSTATIN * F-Cells-secretes PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE * Major pancreatic/endocrine function is: Maintaining Blood Glucose Level * INCREASED blood glucose level=damages blood vessels * DEFREASED blood glucose level=lethargy, mental impairment
-Lowering Blood Glucose Level with Insulin-META CELLS -After food intake, high glucose levels are detected by beta cells that respond by releasing insulin (it will facilitate nutrient take up and storage) 1. HEPATOCYTES take up glucose and store as glycogen 2. Adipose tissue takes up glycerol and fatty acids 3. Most cells make up amino acids 4. Various cells take up glucose (only if they have glucose transport proteins)
-Raising the Blood Glucose Level with Glucagon * Glucagon is released by alpha cells in response to low Blood glucose levels * Facilitates nutrient breakdown and release: 1. HEPATOCYTES release glucose into blood 2. Adipose tissue releases fatty acids and glycerol from storage in blood 3. Has no effect on protein components to avoid destruction of skeletal, muscular, and other structural proteins in low glucose situations
CHAPTER 18
-Functions of the circulatory system: 1. Transportation (delivery of gasses, nutrients, and hormones) 2. Regulation(temp, pH, fluid balance) 3. Protection( from pathogens and blood loss after injury)
-Components of the Circulatory system: 1. Blood-fluid connective tissue 2. Blood vessels-hollow tubes that direct blood a. Arteries-carry blood away from the heart b. Veins-take blood to the heart c. Capillaries-permeable, microscopic vessels joining arteries and veins 3. Heart- functions to pump blood
18.1
-Physical characteristics of Blood: A. Color-depends on oxygenation status
-oxygenated=bright red
-deoxygenated=dark red B. Volume: around 5L in an adult (essential for maintaining blood pressure) C. Viscosity-4-5 times more viscous than water D. Temperature-1°C higher than the measured body temperature (it warms as it travels) E. Blood pH- slightly basic (pH between 7.35-7.45) ; with pH alteration, proteins become denatured
-Components of blood: A. Whole Blood: blood drawn from the body in which no constituent has been removed B. Centrifuged blood: separated by centrifuge into 3 components: 1. Plasma-55% i. Water(92%) ii. Proteins(7%) iii. Other solutes(1%) 2. Buffy Coat(41%) iv. Platelets v. Leukocytes 3. Erythrocytes
18.2
-Plasma has similar composition to interstitial fluid, but protein concentration is higher in plasma than interstitial fluid: 1. Water-medium in which formed elements are suspended and carious molecules are dissolved 2. Plasma proteins-collectively all blood proteins exert colloid osmotic pressure that is responsible for running water into capillaries, preventing excess fluid loss between blood capillaries and the interstitial fluid= helping to maintain correct blood V and P. a. Albumins- (58% of total proteins) small proteins that transport hormones, some fatty acids, ions, and some play the major role in maintaining blood-colloid osmotic pressure b. Gllobulins(37% of total proteins) large proteins transporting lipids and metal ions. Immunoglobulins are defensive proteins that attack pathogens c. Fibrogen (4% of total proteins) contributes to blood clot formation (plasma-clotting proteins= serum) d. Regulatory proteins(less than 1%) enzymes and some hormones 3. Other solutes(1%) blood contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions including electrolytes, gas, nutrients, and waste products
18.3
-Formed Element: Erythrocytes -Life Span: 120 days -Density: 4.8 million in females; 5.4 million in males -Functions: carry and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide filled with hemoglobin that is responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide
-Formed Elemend:Leukocytes -Life Span: 12 hours to years -Density: 4500-11,000 -Function: defend against harmful substance
-Formed Elemend:Thrombocytes(Platelets) -Life Span: 8-10 days -Density: 150,000-400,000 -Function: blood clotting
-Since most formed elements have a relatively short life span, there is a continual production of formed elements=hemopoesis 1. Occurs in the red bone marrow of certain bones 2. Involves hemocytoblasts (blood stream cells that can diffenteriate into many types of blood cells influenced by regulatory chemicals called colony-stimulating factors(CSFs)
-Formed elements in the blood: Erythrocytes -Small: lack nucleus and cellular organelles -Shape: bioconcave discs -Flexible: has a latticework of membrane proteins that provides support and flexibility -Content-35% hemoglobin molecules * Hemoglobin-red pigmented protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide * Oxyhemoglobin-bound to oxygen * Deoxyhemoglobin-not bound to oxygen * Carbaminohemoglobin-bound to carbon dioxide
-Hemoglobin structure: * Composed of 4 polypeptides-globulins * Each globulin has a heme group=porphyrin ring+ iron ion in center * One oxygen molecule
Binds to the Fe2+ in each heme group to be transported though the blood
-Erythrocyte destruction: * The absence of both a nucleus and cellular organelles disables protein synthesis of erythrocytes= short life span of around 120 days * Old erythrocytes are disassembled in the spleen or the liver * Globin proteins are broken down into free amino acids and reused by the body. * Fe2+ is transported to the liver by a protein, ferritin. Iron will be delivered to the red bone marrow for the erythrocyte producing as needed * Porphyrin ring is metabolically altered and excreted from the body: * With feces—in the form of brown strecobilin(destruction of RBC’s is normal and good) * With urine—in the form of yellow urobin
-Formed elements in the blood: Leukocytes * Characteristics: * Contain nucleus and organelles * Some have visible, large granules (granulocytes) have some small granules, visible under a microscope (agranulocytes) * Great defense cells * Motile * Can enter body tissues by diapedesis squeezing through the endothelial cells of capillaries * Capable of following chemical signals released by other cells (chemostaxis) * Cell type: Neutrophils(50-70%) * Features: MULTIlobed nucleus, cytoplasm with pale granulocytes * Function: enter tissue to phagocytize pathogen (especially bacteria) * Cell Type: Esoinophils(1-4%) * Features: BIlobed nucleus, cytoplasm with reddish granules * Function: Phagocytes, allergies, and attacks parasitic worms * Cell Type: Lymphocytes(20-40%) * Features: dark, staining rounded nucleus; resides in lymphatic organs and structures * Functions: manage immune responses a) T-lymphocytes b) B-lymphocytes c) NK cells (natural killer) * Cell Type: Monocytes(2-8%) * Features: c-shaped nucleus * Functions: when enter tissues—transforms into dendritic cells OR macrophages “big eaters”
18.4
-Hemostasis: process of stopping blood flowing through the injured blood vessel wall 1. Vascular spasm (contraction)—several minutes a. Sudden constriction of blood vessels that limits blood leakage from the vessel. Greater vasoconstriction with greater vessel damage 2. Platelet plug formation(1 minute) b. Under the normal conditions, endothelial wall is smooth because it is coated with an eicosanoid, prostacyclin, that acts as a platelet replacement
-When vessel is damaged: i. The collagen fibers in the vessel wall become exposed ii. Platelets start sticking here assisted by Von Willebrand factor, plasma protein injury due to formation of platelet plug c. Platelets undergo morphologic change and becomes activated, releasing various chemicals to assist with hemostasis
Ex. Thrombin A2 (type of eicosanoid) will strengthen vascular system and attract other platelets -other chemicals will simulate coagulation and tissue repair. 3. Blood Clotting (Coagulation) d. Most important and complex component of hemostasis e. Clot is an insoluble protein network composed of fibrin with other elements of blood trapped f. Requires Calcuim, Vitamin K g. Clotting factors-inactive enzymes produced in the liver h. Vitamin K-fat soluble vitamin required for synthesis of several clotting factors(coenzyme)
-There are 2 ways to initiate the coagulation cascade: intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. They converge to the common pathway a) Intrinsic pathway(3-6 min)-initiated by platelets after the damage to the vessel wall i. Factor XIII-PLATELTES ii. Factor XI iii. Factor IX-Calcium iv. Factor VIII v. Goal is to produce fibrin polymer
Goal is to produce fibrin polymer
FACTOR X b) Extrinsic pathway(15 sec) vi. Damaged perivascular tissues vii. Factor III viii. Factor VII ix. Calcium x. FACTOR X
-The Sympathetic response to blood loss -If greater than 10% of blood lost== sympathetic response initiated (causes vasoconstriction, rapid heart rate, force of heart contraction & blood redistributes to heart and brain) FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT **This is effective in maintaining blood pressure until 40% of blood lost, then it is insufficient blood volume to support life.
-Hemostasis: elimination of the blood clot a) Clot retraction: occurs as clot is forming. Contractile proteins within platelets contract, helping to bring the sides of the vessels closer together to repair the damage b) Fibrinolysis- degradation of fibrin strands by plasmin, begins within the 2 days after clot formation
Clot formation and clot elimination, if imbalanced, can lead to various bleeding or blood clotting disorders

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