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Ancient Egypt

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

BAROQUE AND ROCOCO COSTUMES
(1600 to 1700 A.D.)

During the 17th century, when Europe was in a series of social and political upheavals, a new art style developed and flourished. Baroque style: 1. 2. 3. During the 18th century, when Louis XIV was too young to reign over France, the nation entered the Regency period and a new art style supplanted the baroque style. Rococo style: 1. 2. The ___________________________ was considered as the symbol of the glory and the majesty of King Louis XIV’s reign and served to display fashionable clothing during the period.

Sources of costume information:
Artworks Fashion plates with written descriptions Literature Surviving costumes

Fabrics:
Finely woven linen and wool Satin, brocade and damask Lace Cotton

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

Baroque (17th Century)
Costume components for men
Major elements of costume: shirt, doublet, jacket, trunk hose or knee-length breeches Shirt – cut very full, made of white linen and had a flat collar (called a falling band) Doublet – worn over the shirt and laced to the breeches, usually with a skirt-like extension reaching to the hip Breeches – cut full throughout or cut more closely and tapering gradually to the knee; lower edges may be decorated with ribbons and lace Capes and cloaks – often had wide collars Balagny – circular capes, hung over one shoulder, secured with a cord that passed through the wide collar Cassocks or Casaques – coats with wide, full sleeves that were wide throughout the body and ended at thigh height or below Petticoat breeches or Rhinegraves – breeches in the form of a divided skirt that was cut so full that it gave the appearance of a short skirt Canons – full, wide ruffles attached at the bottom of breeches Cravats – long, narrow, scarf-like pieces separate from the shirt, worn instead of collars Surtouts or Justacorps – knee-length coats with fitted straight sleeves with turned back cuffs and buttoned down the front; completely covered the waistcoat and breeches Love Lock – a lock of hair grown longer than the rest; usually tied with a ribbon - Shoes and boots had high heels and straight soles, without shaping for left or right feet Slap Soles – a flat sole attached at the front of boots and shoes intended to keep the heel of the shoe or boot from sinking into soft ground Latchets – shoes with large, open sides and extensions that were tied across the instep Jack Boots – high, rigid boots made of heavy leather, worn for horseback riding

Costume components for women
The white linen chemise continued to be the undermost garment. Gowns – made with bodices and skirts seamed together at the waist Modeste – outer skirt layer Secret – under skirt layer

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

Jackets – sometimes worn in combination with skirts instead of gowns; bodices had short tabs or basques extending below the waist Virago Sleeves – full, stylish sleeves that were paned and tied into a series of puffs Mantua or Manteau – a new construction for women’s dresses with the bodice and skirt cut in one length from shoulder to hem; full in back and front, it was worn over a corset and an underskirt - Hair was built up high on top of the head, with long, curling locks at the back and sides. Fontange or Commode – a headdress made of a series of ruffles held in place with wire supports; evolved to become an elaborate, tall structure of three or four lace tiers in front and a cascade of ruffles and bows at the back Pantofles – heel-less slippers or mules

Cosmetics and Grooming
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Rococo (18th Century)

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

Costume components for men
Major elements of men’s costume consisted of under drawers, a shirt, waistcoat, an outer coat, knee-length breeches, hose and shoes. Hats and wigs were added on appropriate occasions. Drawers – worn next to the skin beneath the breeches; closed at the waist with drawstrings or buttons and were made of cotton or wool, ending at the knee Cravats Steinkirk – a style of the cravat in which the tie was pulled through the buttonhole and twisted loosely Frock Coats – cut looser and shorter than dress coats and had flat, turned-down collars; worn for formal and informal occasions, depending on the fabric used Ditto Suit – refers to waistcoats, coats and breeches made from the same fabric Surtouts Banyans – comfortable, loosely fitted garments initially worn as casual dress at home Toupee or Foretop – brushing the hair straight back from the forehead and into a slightly elevated roll Queues – wigs with a lock or pigtail at the back Club Wigs or Catogans – wigs in which queues were doubled up on themselves and tied in the middle to form a loop of hair Chapeau Bras = flat hats that were carried under the arm instead of worn on the head Bicorne Hats – hats with two-corners Tricorne Hats – hats with three-corners Spatterdashers or Spats or Gaiters – separate protective coverings that extended from the top of the shoe to some point below the knee and were worn to protect the legs

Costume components for women
A variety of supporting undergarments determined the shape of women’s costume during the 18th century. Chemises

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

Petticoats Panniers – wide hoops on the skirts, producing the visual effect of perching a basket on either hip; made of whalebone, metal or wicker basket materials Stays – corsets that were boned in the front and back and closed by lacing Jumps – loose, unboned bodices worn at home to provide relief from tight corseting Sacque, Robe Battante, Robe Volante, or Innocente – unbelted gown that was loose from shoulder to floor; made with pleats at the back and the shoulders and worn over a domeshaped hoop Pet-en-lair – short, hip-length version of the sacque worn with a separate, gathered skirt Mantua-style Gown – cut in one piece from shoulder to hem that was fitted to the body in the front and back Robe a la Francaise – had a full, pleated cut at the back and a fitted front Robe a l’Anglaise – had a close fit at the front and back Stomacher – a triangular piece that had tabs on the sides and was pinned either to the bodice or to the stays; decorated with embroidery, ribbons (eschelles) or artificial flowers or lace Engageants – sleeves ending below the elbow finished with ruffles Polonaise – an overdress and petticoat in which the overskirt was puffed and looped by means of tapes and rings sewn into the skirt “Round” Gowns – gowns closed all the way down the front Chemise a la Reine – white muslin gown that resembled the chemise, but had a waistline and a soft, fully gathered skirt Pinners – circular caps with single or double frills around the edge that were placed flat on the head Mob caps – had high, puffed out crowns at the back of the cap and wide, flat borders that encircled the face Tete de Mouton – hairstyle with close, tight curls that looked similar to a sheep’s head Bergere – large, flat straw hats with low crowns and wide brims Mules – backless slippers

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Clothing Evolution / Lecture 7

Clogs or Pattens – overshoes that protect against wet and muddy surfaces; made of matching or other fabrics and had sturdy leather soles, built-up arches and latchets that tied across the instep to hold it in place

Source: Tortora, Phyllis and Eubank, Keith. Survey of Historic Costume. 5th ed. New York: Fairchild Books. 2010.

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