Ancient Naturalist

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Ancient Naturalists and their Contributions

Anaximander (/əˌnæksɨˈmændər/; Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus.
Anaximander's contributions to philosophy relate to many disciplines. In astronomy, he tried to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. In physics, his postulation that the indefinite (or apeiron) was the source of all things led Greek philosophy to a new level of conceptual abstraction. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. He was also involved in the politics of Miletus and was sent as a leader to one of its colonies.
Aristotle, who lived and taught in Greece around 350 B.C., contributed several basic ideas relating to learning and behavior that reappear many centuries later to influence the development of Psychology. These include Aristotle's conception of the life-force, "psyche," or "soul" that distinguishes the animate from the four "causes", and his ideas about the factors involved in memory.
Confucius. The philosophy of Confucius is still prevalent in these modern times. He believed that the educated aristocracy and the rulers had an obligation to set a good example and that morals and good governance were essential for a healthy society. He believed that society should be ruled by compassion and persuasion rather than by threats of punishment.
According to the teachings of Confucius a " good official" had to have five virtues which were good etiquette and manners, kindness and compassion, honesty and sincerity, righteousness and strong family values.
Confucius' greatest contribution to the culture of China was in the field of education. In those ancient times only the…...

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