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Anglo-Saxon Opposition

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East Anglia, 1070-71: Hereward the Wake
East Anglia, 1070-71: Hereward the Wake
The Northern Rebellion, 1069
The Northern Rebellion, 1069
The Midlands (2) 1068-69

The Midlands (2) 1068-69

The Midlands (1) 1068
The Midlands (1) 1068
The south east: First Major Rising, Kent, 1067
The south east: First Major Rising, Kent, 1067
The south western rebellions:
The Exeter Rising, 1067-8; Cornwall & Devon, 1068-9

The south western rebellions:
The Exeter Rising, 1067-8; Cornwall & Devon, 1068-9

Fenland’s boggy isle of Ely
Fenland’s boggy isle of Ely

Date
Geography
Date
Geography

Pure Saxon revolt.
Earl Morcar expected help from the Danes.

Pure Saxon revolt.
Earl Morcar expected help from the Danes.

Edgar Atheling of Wessex.
King Malcolm.
King Swegn
Viking army
Supported by native Anglo Scandinavians
Northumbrian aristocracy.
Welsh
Edgar Atheling of Wessex.
King Malcolm.
King Swegn
Viking army
Supported by native Anglo Scandinavians
Northumbrian aristocracy.
Welsh
(1)Edwin + Morcar allied with Welsh princes

(2)Thegn - Eadric the ‘wild’ the Welsh princes rising put down fitzOsbern.
(1)Edwin + Morcar allied with Welsh princes

(2)Thegn - Eadric the ‘wild’ the Welsh princes rising put down fitzOsbern.
3 of Harold’s sons came of over from Ireland.
3 of Harold’s sons came of over from Ireland.
Foreign –
Eustace of
Boulogne.
Foreign –
Eustace of
Boulogne.
Nature of Leader ship
Nature
of
Leader ship

Lack of royal authority.
Anti-Norman.
Lack of royal authority.
Anti-Norman.
North had been semi-dependant of south before 1066.
Northern earls didn’t try to save Godwin (1051) or Edward (1052) and ejected Tostig (1065).
Lack of royal authority + monastic influence. Allowed continuance of genuine ethnic + political differences + gave coherence to Northern opposition to William.
OPPOSITION SUCCESS:
Norman Robert of Commines, Earl of Northumberland, was burned to death in a house in Durham (1069).
Ethelwin, Saxon bishop of Durham turned against William + marched on York, Norman castellan of York. His men were massacred.
North had been semi-dependant of south before 1066.
Northern earls didn’t try to save Godwin (1051) or Edward (1052) and ejected Tostig (1065).
Lack of royal authority + monastic influence. Allowed continuance of genuine ethnic + political differences + gave coherence to Northern opposition to William.
OPPOSITION SUCCESS:
Norman Robert of Commines, Earl of Northumberland, was burned to death in a house in Durham (1069).
Ethelwin, Saxon bishop of Durham turned against William + marched on York, Norman castellan of York. His men were massacred. (1) Edwin and Morcar realised there wasn’t enough land to go round. Will was giving it to Normans / N barons were taking it. Edwin felt threatened by Roger of Montgomery’s earldom in Shropshire. (2) His estates had been expropriated by the Normans. Resented this + growth of Norman power. Clashed with Norman landowner fitz Scrob. (3) Edwin and Morcar realised there wasn’t enough land to go round. Will was giving it to Normans / N barons were taking it. Edwin felt threatened by Roger of Montgomery’s earldom in Shropshire. (4) His estates had been expropriated by the Normans. Resented this + growth of Norman power. Clashed with Norman landowner fitz Scrob.
In both cases, 3 of Harold’s sons came over from Ireland gaining support due to the taxation increase by the Normans.
In both cases, 3 of Harold’s sons came over from Ireland gaining support due to the taxation increase by the Normans.
Eustace had believed that Dover belonged to him, since Edward had put him there in ’65. Odo gained his rights. Eustace had to forfeit English Lands.
Odo oppressed the English.
Eustace had believed that Dover belonged to him, since Edward had put him there in ’65. Odo gained his rights. Eustace had to forfeit English Lands.
Odo oppressed the English.
Causes
of
Revolt

(Why
Rebel?)
Causes of Revolt

(Why
Rebel?)

[William’s response] (1) William built castles + used experienced men such as William fitzOsbern and the counts of Eu and Mortain. (2) William personally dealt with the attacks on York + sough + destroyed rebel/Danes in the North. (3) Danes after defeating York for he first time retreated with their plunder to Lincolnshire giving William opportunity to deal with them. They were happy to make peace in return for further plunder – as long as Normans were not attacked. (4) The Harrying of the North. Like Harold, William went up north so rapidly he surprised the York rebels. With his huge army, he routed them, killing many hundreds, and ravaged the city. He then ordered the most notorious act of his reign: the Harrying of the North. Northumbria was systematically ravaged, as was Yorkshire. He burnt everything between the Humber and the Tees.
[William’s response] (5) William built castles + used experienced men such as William fitzOsbern and the counts of Eu and Mortain. (6) William personally dealt with the attacks on York + sough + destroyed rebel/Danes in the North. (7) Danes after defeating York for he first time retreated with their plunder to Lincolnshire giving William opportunity to deal with them. They were happy to make peace in return for further plunder – as long as Normans were not attacked. (8) The Harrying of the North. Like Harold, William went up north so rapidly he surprised the York rebels. With his huge army, he routed them, killing many hundreds, and ravaged the city. He then ordered the most notorious act of his reign: the Harrying of the North. Northumbria was systematically ravaged, as was Yorkshire. He burnt everything between the Humber and the Tees.
[East Anglia]
Guerrilla warfare.
[East Anglia]
Guerrilla warfare.
[The North]
For strategy – see leadership]
[The North]
For strategy – see leadership]
[The Midlands 1 and 2]

William personally went to Warwick in the heart of Edwin’s Mercian lands.
[The Midlands 1 and 2]

William personally went to Warwick in the heart of Edwin’s Mercian lands.
[South West]
Exeter got little English help from the south west.
[South West]
Exeter got little English help from the south west.
[South east]
Odo possibly believed he had rights in Dover. He oppressed the English
[South east]
Odo possibly believed he had rights in Dover. He oppressed the English
Effectiveness
of strategy maybe linked to…
Effectiveness
of strategy maybe linked to…

William’s response

Violent

Non-violent
William’s response

Violent

Non-violent
Conspiracy failed.
Eustace had to forfeit English lands.
Conspiracy failed.
Eustace had to forfeit English lands.
Once William was in Warwick, he built castles. Same in Nottingham.
These rebellions were more serious than those in the south west. William was determined to act.
William ended 1068 making his royal presence felt; he did a rapid progress through Warwick, Nottingham, York, Lincoln and Cambridge.

Once William was in Warwick, he built castles. Same in Nottingham.
These rebellions were more serious than those in the south west. William was determined to act.
William ended 1068 making his royal presence felt; he did a rapid progress through Warwick, Nottingham, York, Lincoln and Cambridge.

He treated Exeter leniently hoping to gain support in the south west. He built and garrisoned a castle in Exeter, under the Norman fitzGilbert. Exeter stayed loyal to William in the Devon/Cornwall rebellions.
After Exeter, he made his half-brother, Robert of Mortain, Earl of Cornwall, to enhance his authority there.
During the Devon/Cornish rebellions he odered Geoffrey of Coutances to lift the siege of Robert of Mortains new castle at Montacute with London and Local forces
He treated Exeter leniently hoping to gain support in the south west. He built and garrisoned a castle in Exeter, under the Norman fitzGilbert. Exeter stayed loyal to William in the Devon/Cornwall rebellions.
After Exeter, he made his half-brother, Robert of Mortain, Earl of Cornwall, to enhance his authority there.
During the Devon/Cornish rebellions he odered Geoffrey of Coutances to lift the siege of Robert of Mortains new castle at Montacute with London and Local forces

Bought off the Danes. Slaves built causeway over bog lands to the isle of Ely.
Bought off the Danes. Slaves built causeway over bog lands to the isle of Ely.

Evaluation
You need to consider the analysis above in order to: 1. Reflect upon the similarities and differences between the different revolts 2. Evaluate the key reasons as to why the Anglo-Saxon opponents of William’s regime failed to dislodge the ‘Conqueror’.

Evaluation
You need to consider the analysis above in order to: 3. Reflect upon the similarities and differences between the different revolts 4. Evaluate the key reasons as to why the Anglo-Saxon opponents of William’s regime failed to dislodge the ‘Conqueror’.

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