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Annontated Bibliography

In: Business and Management

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Female Leaders vs Male Leaders

Female Leaders versus Male Leaders in Executive Administration- Annotated Bibliography

University of Phoenix

Annotated Bibliography
Birch, E.S. (2013). The Underrepresentation of Women Executive in the United States Defense
Industry: A Phenomenological Study. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation & Theses database. (UMI No. 3572921)
The study examines the theory that women in the United States are underrepresented at senior levels in organizations despite their qualifying education and experience. Women are better educated, better qualified, and have more work skills for senior positions. In the late 20th century, women experienced more problems in being advanced than men. Women progressing in their career remain a struggle for upper administration as a result of male-dominated industries, according to Birch.
Schulz, D. (2014). The Female Executive’s Perspective on Experience with Career Planning and Advancing in Organizations. The Exchange, 3(1), 57-67.
In the study, Schulz details that gender roles continue to play a role in the discrepancy at executive levels. Schulz designed a study to investigate the independence of female executives with career planning and advancement in organizations. Schulz recommendation was to create and maintain a level playing field for men and women who desire advancement to executive level organizations.

Brown, S.M. (1979). Male Versus Female Leaders: A Comparison of Empirical Studies. Sex Roles, 5(5).
In this study, Brown describes how the progress of placing women in management positions had achieved limited success in the late 70’s. Brown demonstrated a study that revealed managers were highly critical of women’s dependability and supervisory abilities. The study further revealed characteristics of managers were more congruent with male than female characteristics.
Stainback, Kevin., & Soyoung, Kavon (2012). Female Leaders, Organizational Power, and Sex Segregation. ANNALS, AAPSS. 639(1). 217-235. doi: 10.1177/0002716211421868.
Because men are overrepresented in position of organizational power, it is assumed that they will produce unequal opportunities between female and male subordinates. Women in leadership roles must have the motivation and power to help female subordinates. A study revealed that women may not desire to help female subordinates.

Birch (2013) – ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database
Schulz (2014) – ProQuest
Brown (1979) – EBSCOhost
Stainback & Soyoung (2012) – SAGE Journals

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