Free Essay

Anthrax Letters

In: Other Topics

Submitted By deepseamdv
Words 538
Pages 3
Anthrax letter attacks of 2001 The Anthrax letters that where sent out after the 9/11 attacks, these letters where laced with anthrax and sent to different Americans the FBI code named this biological attack as “Amerithrax”. The anthrax-laced letters killed 5 Americans and made 17 people sick. The letters started showing up September 18, 2001 about one week after the September 11 attacks occurred. “From mid-September to November 2001, a number of anthrax-laced letters were mailed to news media offices on the U.S. east coast and to the U.S. Congress. A total of 22 individuals contracted either cutaneous anthrax (11 cases) or inhalation anthrax (11 cases), and 5 died (all from inhalation anthrax). Anthrax cases included individuals at targeted locations (9 cases), postal service employees (9 cases), individuals who handle cross-contaminated mail (2 cases), and individuals with unpinpointed exposures (2 cases). An additional case of cutaneous anthrax occurred in March 2002 due to laboratory exposure to collected samples.” (Johnson, 2005. P.1). One of the first victims of the anthrax letters was Robert Stevens who worked at the Sun he died four days after getting exposed to the anthrax, he went to a hospital with unknown symptoms that included vomiting and shortness of breath. Two other letters where sent to Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy. The letter that went to Daschle was opened by an aid and after opening it the government postal service was closed. The other letter addressed to Leahy was never opened and it was found in an impounded mail bag around November. One of the reasons the letter took so long to find was that its zip code was misread but even with the misdirection the letter still contaminated David Hose through inhalation anthrax. Other letters where sent to ABC, CBS, New York Post and the National Enquirer in Boca Raton Florida, these letters where believed to have been mailed from Princeton, New Jersey around August 2001. The anthrax letters contained messages that are believed to have been coded with secret messages but that will never be verified as the person who was the main subject of the investigation committed suicide. “In August 2008, Department of Justice and FBI officials announced a breakthrough in the case showing that charges were about to be brought against Dr. Bruce Ivins, who took his own life before those charges could be filed. On February 19, 2010, the Justice Department, the FBI, and the U.S. Postal Inspection Service formally concluded the investigation into the 2001 anthrax attacks and issued an Investigative Summary.” (FBI, 2010, p.1). Dr. Bruce Ivins was a United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Dr. Ivins was the key suspect in the Anthrax letters, he died of an overdose of Tylenol with codeine after he found out he was the key suspect and charges where going to be brought against him.

References

Wm. Robert, Johnson. (2005). Review of fall 2001 anthrax bioattacks. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nas/RDRP/appendices/chapter6/a6-45.pdf

FBI. Famous Cases & Criminals. Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Anthrax Vaccine

...Anthrax has had a long, somewhat secret recorded history of use not only by others, but also our own government.The first recorded usage of Anthrax was with the Scandanavian Freedom Fighters (Supplied by German Military) to fight against the Russian Imperial Army in Finland in 1916.(Wikipedia) The Japanese Kwantung army had recorded testing of Anthrax as a weapon in the 1930’s.This new form of bio-terrorism was tested on Prisoners of war during the time. some of this testing involved intentional infection of prisoners of war, thousands of whom died. From then to about 1972, (When the U.S Signed the “Biological Weapons Convention”) the United States had stockpiled “Weaponized Anthrax” (FBI.gov) These “Weaponized stocks of anthrax in the US” were destroyed after President Nixon ordered the U.S Bio-warfare program to be stopped. The stock was eliminated in 1972. Later on, the Soviet Union created 200 tons of anthrax spores and stockpiled them at Vozrozhdeniya Island in Kantubek. “The stockpile was abandoned in 1992 and destroyed in 2002.” (Wikipedia). After the terrible day of September 11, Anthrax - laced letters started appearing in the U.S Postal Service. “Five Americans were killed and 17 were sickened in what became the worst biological attacks in U.S. history.” Because of this incident, the FBI created a specialized task force called “The Amerithrax Task Force” which spends countless hours in counter biological warfare. In recent years, Multiple types of Anthrax......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Anthrax Vaccine as a Component of the Strategic National Stockpile: a Dilemma for Homeland Security

...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS ANTHRAX VACCINE AS A COMPONENT OF THE STRATEGIC NATIONAL STOCKPILE: A DILEMMA FOR HOMELAND SECURITY by Thomas L. Rempfer December 2009 Thesis Advisor: Second Reader: Stanley Supinski Dean Lynch Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2. REPORT DATE December 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Anthrax Vaccine as a Component of the Strategic National Stockpile: A Dilemma for Homeland Security 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas L. Rempfer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA......

Words: 3672 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Nursing and Bioterrorism

...Overview of Bioterrorism This course has been awarded two (2.0) contact hours. This course expires on November 12, 2014. Copyright © 2008 by RN.com. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of these materials are prohibited without the express written authorization of RN.com. First Published: Updated: November 12, 2008 Nov 12, 2011 IMPORTANT INFORMATION RN.com strives to keeps its content fair and unbiased. The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. The planners of the educational activity have no conflicts of interest to disclose. (Conflict of Interest Definition: Circumstances create a conflict of interest when an individual has an opportunity to affect Education content about products or services of a commercial interest with which he/she has a financial relationship.) There is no commercial support being used for this course. Participants are advised that the accredited status of RN.com does not imply endorsement by the provider or ANCC of any products/therapeutics mentioned in this course. The information in the course is for educational purposes only. There is no “off label” usage of drugs or products discussed in this course. Acknowledgements RN.com acknowledges the valuable contributions of… Material protected by Copyright …The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (www.cdc.gov), the key government agency responsible for disseminating knowledge about various biological agents. …U.S. Medical Research Institute of Infectious......

Words: 6008 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Epidemics:

...sure to include the following: presenting symptoms and outbreak characteristics. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by a gram positive, rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. It can be found naturally in soil. There are 4 types of anthrax, cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal, and injection. Cutaneous anthrax develops when a person handles infected animals or animal products and is the most common form on anthrax. Inhalation anthrax develops when a person breathes in the anthrax spores. It is considered the most deadly and infection usually develops within a week after exposure. Gastrointestinal anthrax occurs when a person eats raw or undercooked meat from an infected animal. It affects the upper GI and has rarely been reported. Injection anthrax has recently been identified in heroin-injecting drug users in northern Europe but hasn’t been reported in the U.S yet. How do we get infected you ask?  The Bacillus anthracis produce spores that are dormant and live in the soil. The spores get into the body of an animal (breath in or in-gest spores from contaminated soil, plants or water) or person (breath in, eat or drink the animals that are contaminated with it or drink water) and can get activated. Once acti-vated they become anthrax and spread throughout the body and cause serious illness or death. Symptoms for each of the types are as follows: Cutaneous anthrax-group of small itchy blisters or bumps followed by a painless ulcer with a black......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Biological Warfare

...research also sheds light on the rising voices in the media and public which demand concrete strategies to prepare for any and all eventualities. We also see how these demands shape public policy and scientific research. Lastly, we conclude that there is a definitive causal link between people’s perception of the biological terror threat and their public and private behavior. Introduction The primary research question we have is that in what ways has the use or threat of biological weapons of mass destruction affected the lives of US citizens in recent history? America has been on the receiving end of terror attacks and the year 2001 is still fresh in everyone’s minds. The terror attacks on the world trade center were soon followed by the anthrax attacks which were perpetrated by a lone, disturbed scientist. The fact that a single man, without any proper training or planning, could execute terror of this scale using home grown bacteria woke the American public and government to the threat of such attacks if they were carried out by organized outfits like Al-Qaeda. The paranoia that gripped the average Americans caused a clear shift in their mentality towards a number of things with respect to their psychology, sociology and basic interaction...

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Anthrax

...Anthrax Whitney Mikesell BIO 112 Anthrax is an acute infectious disease, which is potentially fatal, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most commonly found to infect wild and domestic animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, camels, and other herbivores. But, it has been found to infect humans who are exposed to the infected animals or tissue from the infected animals. Although humans can be infected with anthrax and it is classified as a highly contagious disease it hasn’t been found to have spread from one human to another. The first mention of Anthrax as an illness actually appears in the Bible in Exodus chapter 9. It says that it was the fifth plague inflicted on Egypt. But, the best ancient account of anthrax is by the Roman poet Virgil (70-19 BC). He wrote four Georgics, instructive verse works on agriculture. The third Georgic is devoted to raising animals, and contains a passage on veterinary medicine that concludes with a detailed account of an epizootic that occurred in the district of Noricum, in the eastern Alps. Virgil describes the disease in sheep, cattle, horses, dogs, and other domestic and wild animals. Although the narrative contains errors and traces of poetic license, it includes many facts. Virgil understood the severity of the infecting source, as well as the potential for transmission of the disease to humans. Anthrax continued to be a fatal disease affecting both humans and animals through the......

Words: 1451 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Administrative Regulations

...n reference to e-book Chapter 2, problem 11 (found on e-book, p. 73), discuss the questions presented in Cases and Problems 2-11. Are there situations in which a company, for the common good, must give up the economic advantage accorded by intellectual property laws? How should the Bayer credo – Bayer: Success Through Expertise with Responsibility – impact its corporate responsibility in the anthrax situation? In your discussion, make reference to the Social Responsibility of Corporations Matrix, Exhibit 2.2 (p. 48) and the models of business ethics (found in e-book, pp. 47–49). I agree with everyone that Bayer should not think about its profit motive and help the society. What happened shows a really different picture where government partially thought about the citizens, Pls check this link http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=723 .. v I believe there are times when a company needs to set aside economic advantage to help society. As good example is during war or national emergency. Usually during these times companies set aside their economic advantages to back the nation. Car manufactures start producing military vehicles and the patents they hold can make the vehicles better for societal good. Since the rules of a free market are essentially but on hold and placed under government control, the patents became less leverage. In the same sense, so should Bayer. Bayer's corporate policy seems to oriented towards the Enlightened Self-Interest as evident in the......

Words: 1227 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Anthrax

...Three Types of Anthrax Gastrointestinal - anthrax transmitted through ingestion. Pulmonar y- anthrax transmitted through inhalation. Cutaneous - anthrax transmitted through open wounds.  Cutaneous (Skin) Anthrax• A form of Anthrax -• 95% of all cases• Incubation: 2 to 3 days• Spores enter skin through open wound• Skin infection begins as a raised itchy bump  10. Gastrointestinal Anthrax• Incubation: 2 to 5 days• Case fatality rate: 25 to 75%• has not been documented in U.S.• nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever followed by abdominal pain and vomiting of blood  11. Inhalational Anthrax• Incubation: 1 to 7 days• Usually Fatal• resemble a common cold – sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches and malaise• Then severe breathing problems and shock  cutaneous anthraxRaised itchy bump (resembles incest bite)1-2 days, develops into a vesicle (cyst)Develops into painless ulcer (1-3 cm diameter)Ulcer has black centerSwelling of surrounding tissues Swelling of adjacent lymph glands  14. Gastrointestinal AnthraxInitial signs: nauseaLoss of appetiteVomiting bloodSever diarrheaLesions & soreness in throatDifficulty swallowingSwelling of neck &lymph glands50% of all patients develop meningitis  16. Inhalation anthraxFlu/cold like symptomsCoughChest discomfortShortness of breathTiredness & muscle aches  . Cutaneous Anthrax Clinical Picture :- The lesions typically are 1–3 cm in......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Introduction to Health and Disease

...Disease in the News Introduction to Health and Disease - HCS/245 October 28, 2013 This article is about Anthrax. It basically tells you about the disease. It starts out by explaining what Anthrax actually is, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment, and Future Challenges. The article when it was written gave a through explanation to anyone who really didn’t know what Anthrax is all about. Sad to some people Anthrax is not a Heavy Metal from the 80’s. Anthrax is an often serious and fatal bacterial infection that occurs when Bacillus anthracis endospores enter the body through abrasions in the skin or by inhalation or ingestion. ("Anthrax", 2013). Anthrax can be found in soil in the natural sense and routinely affects wild-life around the world. Although it is rare, people can get ill with anthrax if they come in contact with infected or tarnished animals and its products. Severe illness can happen in both humans and animals if they get in contact with anthrax. The bacteria is not contagious, which means you still can’t get anthrax like the common cold or flu. As far as treatment goes the article does talk about how to treat the disease. There are several alternatives, including antibiotics and antitoxin, which doctors have for treating patients with anthrax. Unfortunately, the more serious case of anthrax, patients will need to be hospitalized. A more aggressive treatment may be required, such as a steady amount fluid drainage......

Words: 980 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Administrative Ethics

...paper Sherry Grant HCS 335 May 21, 2012 Holly Martinez De Andino Presidential Commission to Decide: Is Testing Anthrax Vaccine on Children Ethical? On May 10, 2012 the Presidential Commission of the Study of Bioethical Issues started their deliberations regarding a very important matter: Testing vaccinations and treatments on children. The ethical question is whether or not to begin pediatric studies to determine the effectiveness of Anthrax vaccines and other treatments to be used in the event of a bio terror attack. Upon reading an article in the Washington Post the debate was made clear to me as a reader and me as a parent. The largest debated issue related to the testing of vaccines on children is the overall safety of the children. It has been set forth by the government that studies only be considered in cases where the child will directly benefit from studies or if there are not enough results from adult testing and only if the affects are minimal for the pediatric participant (Associated Press, 2012). There are a great many tools to fight against some of the threats that worry defense experts but none of these outline the proper use on a child. Will these treatments in fact work for children as efficiently as they will work in adults? The National Bio defense Safety Board (which offers advice to the government) suggests that testing of the anthrax vaccine be done only if ethical experts deemed the testing to be appropriate. While this vaccine will not aid......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Disease in the News

...Cockron Abstract Anthrax is a life threatening disease that harms not only animals, but humans as well. There are several types of anthrax and many different types of treatments to help cure them. Although some who are infected with anthrax do not always survive. Anthrax is not common in the U.S. but it does sometimes occur. Anthrax is nationally discussed in most of today’s disease trends. Disease in the News Following the 1998 reports of a series of bioterrorist threats of anthrax exposure, the public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. The U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed interim guidelines for managing anthrax in 2001. What follows is a summary of the investigational findings and subsequently published CDC guidelines for public health authorities regarding anthrax-related acts of bioterrorism (Matteucci, 2011). Anthrax is a life threatening infectious disease that normally affects animals, especially ruminants (such as goats, cattle, sheep, and horses. Anthrax can be transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or their products. Anthrax is now rare in humans in the United States and developed countries. In recent years anthrax has received a great deal of attention as it has become clear that the infection can also be spread by a bioterrorist attack or by biological warfare. Anthrax does not spread from......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bioterrorism Pamphlet

...The ability to detect and prevent infectious diseases is a key component of our federal efforts to combat terrorism. As we sadly learned during the anthrax crisis in 2001, bioterrorism is a real threat. * Tom Davis Delete text and place photo here. Bioterrorism bY SIMI GEORGE faq’s What To Do if You Suspect a Bioterrorist Disease? IMMEDIATELY NOTIFY: * Hospital Infection Control Isolation: Smallpox, plague, hemorrhagic fevers, * Laboratory Hospital Administration * Local Public Health Department What We Need To Prepare for Bioterrorism? * More trained epidemiologists to speed detection * Increased laboratory capacity * Request security drills in schools and other public departments. For more information about bioterrorism and its effects, please contact: Simi George, R.N. (469)347-4236 Simicg2011@yahoo.com Enter Contact Information Here | 1127 Lombard Blvd. San Francisco, CA 59802 | phone 555.555.5555 | fax 555.555.5555 In this educational session you will learn: * Bioterrorism and its effects * The causes of Bioterrorism * The procedures during a bioterrorist attack * The right way to react during a bioterrorist attack * The procedures to take care of a person who is ill from the attack. Bioterrorism is defined as “the use of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or disease in humans, animals, or plants in civilian settings”......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Anthrax

...Anthrax Sindy Flores HCA 415 Community & Public Health Instructor: Tykeysha Boone November 9, 2012 Anthrax also known as Bacillus anthraces is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium. Anthrax spores can be produced in a powdery form for biological warfare. When inhaled by humans, these particles cause respiratory failure and death within a week. Because anthrax is considered to be a potential agent for use in biological warfare, the Department of Defense (DOD), in 1998, announced it would begin a systematic vaccination of all U.S. military personnel. (DOD, 1998) Anthrax infection occurs in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? Preparing for and or recovering from a bioterrorism event, it is the federal government's responsibilities to helping to ensure the preparedness of emergency response providers for terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies, Working with other federal and nonfederal agencies to build a comprehensive national incident management system, and developing comprehensive programs for developing interoperative communications technology and ensuring that emergency response providers acquire such technology. ( CIDRAP) In a bioterrorism event, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has special responsibilities, including detecting the disease, investigating the outbreak,...

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Antrax

...Anthrax Disease in the News paper * Jenny Abarca * University Of Phoenix * HCS 330 * Professor: Jeff Kuhr, Ph.D. University of Phoenix Anthrax: The Deadly Terror It is difficult to imagine that one’s own governmental agencies may have played a role in releasing among it is own citizens one of the deadliest viruses known to humankind. Such is the affirmation made by Thomas L. Rempfer in his 2009 controversial article entitled “The Anthrax Vaccine: A Dilemma for Homeland Security”. His argument essentially relies on the thesis that both the Department of Defense and the Department of Health and Human Resources orchestrated an irrational climate of fear among the American people in which their vulnerability to anthrax and other potential terrorist was highlighted and presented as an issue of national security (2009). The primary reason for such shocking actions by these trusted and respected US institutions was to justify the continued testing of an anthrax vaccination that was imposed on American soldiers as part a mandatory anthrax vaccine immunization program (2009). According to Rempfer, the army and the Department of Defense officials believed that only the threat of an anthrax epidemic would force the government to reconsider closing the mandatory testing of the vaccine on the reluctant soldiers. He argues that the Department of Defense, as well as the Department of Health and Human Resources, played an unintentional role in the highly publicized......

Words: 1904 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Abc Consulting

...Woolsorter's disease; Ragpicker's disease; Cutaneous anthrax; Gastrointestinal anthrax Last reviewed: June 9, 2011. Anthrax is an infectious disease due to a type of bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. Infection in humans most often involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats, but humans who come into contact with infected animals can get sick from anthrax, too. In the past, the people who were most at risk for anthrax included farm workers, veterinarians, and tannery and wool workers. There are three main routes of anthrax infection: Cutaneous anthrax occurs when anthrax spores touch a cut or scrape on the skin. • It is the most common type of anthrax infection. • The main risk is contact with animal hides or hair, bone products, and wool, or with infected animals. People most at risk for cutaneous anthrax include farm workers, veterinarians, and tannery and wool workers. Inhalation anthrax develops when anthrax spores enter the lungs through the respiratory tract. It is most commonly contracted when workers breathe in airborne anthrax spores during processes such as tanning hides and processing wool. Breathing in spores means a person has been exposed to anthrax, but it does not mean the person will have symptoms. • The bacteria spores must "germinate" or sprout (the same way a seed might sprout before a plant grows) before the actual disease......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3