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Anthropology 101 Human Evolution Studyguide

In: People

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4 fields of Anthropology (Bio/Physical, SocioCultural, Archaeology, Linguistics):
Subfields of Anthropology • Socio‐Cultural Anthropology – Study of living peoples • Biological/Physical Anthropology – Evol i ut on of the human species – Study of physical remains of people – Adaptation of living peoples • Archaeology • Linquistics
Bio‐Anthropology • Evolution of us (subject of this class) • Study of Primates • How the human species has physically ad d apte to different environments (bi l ) (biology) • Diversity of human species • Human health, past and present • Interpretation of human remains (forensics, osteology).

Scientific Method (including steps in the scientific method)
The Scientific Method • Basic belief that physical world is empirical and objective • Objective vs. interpretive information • All science is conducted within a cultural and social paradigm
Observation
Inductive Interpretation
Coming up with Hypothesis • Use what we already know about the world to create hypothesis of what bees do:
Testing Hypothesis • Create tests or design set of observations to test the hypothesis’
Refine Hypothesis/Create new ones • If hypothesis is rejected, can come up with new ones (alternatives) to test • If hypothesis is supported, can further refine it or come up with alternatives that could also be “correct” – Could tomatoes be naturally pollinated in other ways? • Occam's razor: accept the simplest explanation that works
Testing hypothesis is repeatable • Our results will be replicated if others perform the same test, or if we repeat it.
Use of the Scientific Method • Use objective methods to catalog the past – Use this to interpret the past • Hypotheses, models, theories • Inductive vs. deductive reasoning • Does the data fit the model? • Use of a research design

Pseudosciene
• Pseudoscience – Selective use of evidence – Blatantly ignores contradictory evidence
Darwinian Evolution
Species change through time by gradually adapting to new or changing environments. – Minor variations of inheritable traits are selected for or against.
Artificial Selection (intentional breeding)
Evolution by Artificial Selection * Darwin contemplated how plant and animal breeders can create new forms * Pigeons, cows, etc. * Breeders mate only animals/plants with “better” traits * Leads over time to certain traits being emphasized in whole group * Despite careful breeding, variation still exists
Natural Selection
Selection in Nature * Similar to artificial selection by breeders * Influence of Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) * Competition for resources * Natural variation may imbue individual with slightly better “fitness” & allow them to reproduce at better rate * The trait would be “selected for” in Nature * Variation already exists, unlike Lamarck’s view that variation develops when needed * Traits that convey better adaptability will be selected for * Deleterious traits selected against * Evolution does not have a particular direction, but changes in response to environment * Since it is random, not always better and species do go extinct * Over time, new species can arise

genotype vs. phenotype

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