Premium Essay

Anti Communism

In: Business and Management

Submitted By vcenales
Words 995
Pages 4
Anticommunism and McCarthyism
Victor Cenales
HIS/145
January 14, 2012
Timothy Heyburn

Anticommunism and McCarthyism During the late 1940s and early 1950s, a struggle broke out between the Unite States and the Soviet Union in what was known as the Cold War. The west was concerned with anti-Communism becoming a part of its domestic politics. It had become an obsession of most conservative politicians to expose what they call Communist subversion and at the same time dealt a blow to the liberal causes. The interest of the Soviet Union was in the control of strategic interest. In addition the Soviet Union was determined to create a secure sphere for itself in Central and Eastern Europe as protection against possible future aggression from the West (Brinkley Ch. 29). These different views were the bases for the Cold War. Not only did the cold war have international consequences but also create a division within the United States. Since Communism was a major concern, the spread of anti-Communism was introduced as a way to protect the fundamental way Americans lived. In addition anti-Communism gave birth to McCarthyism. I will discuss the differences between anticommunism and McCarthyism, the perspective from which the media covered anticommunism and McCarthyism, how the American foreign policy decisions were affected or impacted by anticommunism and finally how Americans’ lives changed because of the Red Scare. To gain a clear understanding of the differences between anticommunism and McCarthyism, a brief definition of Communism must be given. Communism is a distinct socio-political philosophy that is willing to use violent means to attain its goal of classless society. The capitalist system in which America operates on is defined as a social system that is based on one’s individual right to own and to become wealthy. The communist…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Communism Potentially Emancipatory

...In order for one to answer whether the idea of communism is potentially emancipatory it is important to first define what the communist idea is as well as what an emancipatory feature of policy is. To start with the latter, emancipatory theory drawn from its name is the notion that people are means within themselves and not ends to the needs of others. They have agency and should be free to propose the world in which they wish to live in. According to Ramsey 2011:183, the emergence of emancipatory theory was in the 1960’s and 1970’s and it emerged as theory that was opposed to the oppression to the extent that they are marginalised. “Dominance is progressively dehumanizing for both the oppressed and the oppressor, though only the resistance of the oppressed will allow for the possible re-humanization of the oppressors” (Ramsey, 2011:183.) Emancipatory theory is meant to target oppression that consolidated within dominant systems of policy in reality that takes away people’s agency and consciousness. This essay deals with communism as an idea, this requires effort in departing from the use of communism as an adjective that describes a form of politics, “An entire century of experiences both epic in scope and appalling was required to understand that certain phrases produced by this short-circuiting between the real and the Idea were misconceived.”(Badiou, 2010:13). At this point Badiou requires us to not look at communism in its historical context and use misconceived......

Words: 2351 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Communism Essay

...Communism: A Review of an Ideology Raymond Castaneda English 228: Fall Session 2012 The purpose of this essay is to explain how unsuccessful Communism is ideologically in part due to its’ economic shortcomings. For ages, mankind has been in search of a perfect society, a utopia; a society, in which no suffering exists, and everyone is happy. In writing, they are common, from the City of Atlantis to the Garden of Eden. However, there are no utopias, none for which anyone can provide proof of. For better or worse, there have been men who have attempted to bring about these utopias in the form of egalitarian societies. Some of these societies have aimed at removing the differences in social class and material wealth between people in an attempt to establish a utopian society. For example communism which was based on a Marxist utopian ideology, has proven to be ultimately a flawed principle and regime. In recent times, so called utopian societies were identified as either socialist, or communist. True communist societies have aimed to be egalitarian, and perhaps even utopian. While the effects of communist and socialist regimes are not confined to one single aspect of human life, this essay focuses on the economic effects of communism. Unfortunately, they have not succeeded in either; instead these societies have resulted in poverty, violence, and overall failure . Modern communism cannot be explained without first defining it, as there have been many historical and......

Words: 3323 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Communism

...Communism PHI 105 July 8 2013 Final Project “I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition” (Fidel Castro). Communism has become a demonized and taboo word around the world,especially in Western society where it is taught that capitalism is the only correct way to govern a society. Many people condemn communism, however so fewunderstand the beliefs and concepts behind communism. It is not correct to say that communism has failed, but rather that a true communist society has never been enacted. In order to better understand communism we must first know the definition of communism. Communism is (a: a theory advocating elimination of private property b: a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed” (Merriam-Webster). Communism is also defined as “a system of government and ideals where all people are considered equal in an attempt to create a fairer society” ("Communism", n.d.). The base of the word communism is commune. A commune is a “group of people living communally sharing in the work, earnings and property” ("Communism", n.d.). In a commune there is no private property, rather the individuals living within the commune share all property and resources. Also in a commune all profits and resources are administered equally to all those who reside......

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

History: Development of Anti-Communism

...Australia’s fear for communism was in 2 forms: fear of communism spreading to Australia and fear of its emergence from within Australian society. During the 1950s and 1960s events such as the Korean and Malayan Emergency, the Petrov Affair and the Vietnam War all contributed and spurred on this nation-wide fear. Two theories also developed in this time: the domino theory and the concept of forward defence. After WW2 people doubted that the subsequent peace and security would not last, it was a period of fear and tension. WW2 had justified Australia’s long-standing fear for its vast Asian neighbours, especially Japan. So when the revolutionary communism dominated China in October 1949, propagandas changed their target, portraying communism as a disease; Australia’s original fear of invasion by its Asian neighbours changed to fear of communism. The phrase ‘reds under the beds’ originated in this period, meaning that there were people that saw communists everywhere. Australia under the Menzies government ardently sought to expose communism within Australia. Menzies tried to pass the Communist Party Dissolution Bill in 1950 and was determined even after its rejection to ban the Party. He pushed for a referendum in September 1951 but that was also unsuccessful. There were many alleged communist plots, but in April 1954 came the most notable one of all: the Petrov Affair. The Petrov Affair was basically the exposure of the third secretary of the Soviet Embassy in......

Words: 603 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Anti-Communism and Mccarthyism Paper

...WWII was a major historical event that shaped the United States and struck fear into its citizens. Soon following the end of WWII a new fear of the unknown began to develop within Americans which caused nationwide anxiety and panic. Many believed communism might be the next threat to challenge the United States. The growing sentiments of Senator Joseph McCarthy lead out to protect America’s freedom from communism, although his sweeping lash stripped freedoms from many of his fellow citizens. Strange as it may seem, in this period of American history both communism and McCarthyism threatened America; fear fueled the fire to a Red Scare glow before its flame would dwindle and smolder. In order to better understand these events, a more detailed look into history is needed to explain how this controversy and cultural phenomenon came to be. Understanding the Differences Is there a difference between anti-communism and McCarthyism? Despite the common belief that these two terms have the same meaning, there are indeed fundamental differences. Anti-communism can be understood as a set of beliefs, social values, or political opinions that a communist form of government is unacceptable and wrong. McCarthyism, on the other hand, was suspicious and it unfairly accused American citizens of being a communist. Lead by and named affectionately after Senator Joseph McCarthy, McCarthyism and its accusations violated American civil rights, destroyed reputations, caused employers to......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Communism

...Communism People all over the world look to the United States for the latest trends, fashions, and technology. The United States have set all these standards during the majority of the last century, by being a government that represents freedom. All over the world people who were trapped in Communist governments hope that one day they too can be as fortunate as the people living in America; to them this freedom is part of their American Dream. The actual definition of Communism is a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. I don’t agree with it at all it shouldn’t be allowed to be used but it is. Communism is a system that follows the roots of Marxism. It unites the people into one class and call for industrial power. All the people work, the people are all at the same social level. It creates a false sense of unity. Most of these communist governments are dictatorships, the government oppresses all opposing views. Communist polices deny people their basic rights and freedom. The people cannot even own their own private property. The methods of Communism have been varied slightly by each different government. Stalin and Lenin were the driving forces behind Russia's Socialist Workers party. Fidel Castro ran the party in Cuba. Mao Tung ran the Chinese Workers party. Democratic governments support basic rights......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Communism

...The Red Scare The Red Scare of WWI The red scare was a national-wide anti-radical terror which was provoked by mounting apprehension, fear and imminence of Bolshevik revolution of the united state. The Red Scare was also involved in the promotion of communism and followed the Bolshevik revolution, as well. Communism is social ownership or economic system that property or resources were collectively owned by classes but not by individuals. When WWI ended, the Bolshevik revolution of Russia and the Red Scare came up due to fear of communist and socialist and took hold of the United State. There were bombings by the anarchist all over and this had put the State in fear. Democracy was not expressed, the innocent were put to jail by putting forward their views. There were no social liberty and everybody was afraid that the Bolshevik revolution could take control. During the First World War, patriotism filled the hearts of people and the state was divided into two major groups. There was a minor group which was unrecognized on governmental affairs. The first group worked in the war industry and the other in the armed forces. During this period, one had to be patriot, communist, slackers or draft dodgers; they were all classified as suspect. Out of this patriotism the Red scare took control in 1920s (Binkley 187). The McCarthyism According to Binkley, McCarthyism also known as the second Red Scare is the act of making accusations of treachery, sedition, or......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Factors That Led to the Collapse of Communism

...Collapse of Communism and the Demise of the Soviet Union Purnea Gillani Author Note This report was prepared for International Relations Practice, BS (Hons) Major in Political Science and Minor in Management, taught by Professor Sajaad Naseer ABSTRACT The collapse of the soviet empire is often heralded in the West as a triumph of capitalism and democracy, as though this event was a direct result of the policies of the Reagan and Thatcher governments. This analysis has little relation to measurable facts, circumstances and internal political dynamics that were the real historical causes of the deterioration of the Soviet empire. The key to understanding the reasons for the demise of the Soviet Union and communism in Eastern Europe is to be found not in the speeches or policies of Western politicians, but in internal Soviet history. Through our report we have attempted to discern the various complex factors that came together and led to the unraveling of the Soviet Union and the end of communism in Europe. This report contains an analysis of how social, political and economic factors culminated in the sudden and unprecedented collapse of the Soviet Union at the perceived height of its power. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank … Contents ABSTRACT 2 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 3 INTRODUCTION 5 LITERATURE REVIEW 8 ROLE OF PUBLIC OPINION IN COMMUNISMS......

Words: 4852 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Anti-Communism in the United States

...religion. However, while a movement is working to politicize or publicize an idea or belief, the movement is not necessarily equivalent to, or perhaps even relevant to, the idea that underlies the movement. Much of this is true with the frequently overlooked distinction between McCarthyism and the more general anticommunism. Properly defined, anticommunism is an ideology that holds that communism is morally and politically wrong. Regardless of whether the communist regime is legitimate or not according to the standards of Western democracy, the anti-communist believes that government is fundamentally wrong and should not exist. Because anticommunism is an ideology (that is, is based on an idea), any person regardless of country or place in government, can be an anti-communist by virtue of the fact that an anti-communist is, by definition, nothing more than a person ideologically opposed to the idea of communism. Being opposed does not specify any action on the part of the person, however. In other words, being anti-communist does not mean a person will participate in marches against communism or boo communists in public debate. Simply put, anticommunism is a structure of ideas, not behavior, and does not contain elements of action, behavior, or demonstration. In contrast, McCarthyism was a particular political movement in the United States at a particular period. Joseph McCarthy, the notorious Senator from the state of Wisconsin, ascribed to a particular form of......

Words: 1151 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Rise of Communism in Russia

..."Unless we accept the claim that Leninism gave birth to an entirely new state, and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind, we must recognize in today Soviet Union the old empire of the Russians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980's" (Luttwak, 1). In their Communist Manifesto of 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all class differences would disappear and humankind would live in harmony. Marx and Engels claimed to have discovered a scientific approach to socialism based on the laws of history. They declared that the course of history was determined by the clash of opposing forces rooted in the economic system and the ownership of property. Just as the feudal system had given way to capitalism, so in time capitalism would give way to socialism. The class struggle of the future would be between the bourgeoisie, who were the capitalist employers, and the proletariat, who were the workers. The struggle would end, according to Marx, in the socialist revolution and the attainment of full communism (Groiler's Encyclopedia). Socialism, of which "Marxism-Leninism" is a takeoff, originated in the West. Designed in France and Germany, it was brought into Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted support among the country's educated, public-minded elite, who at that time were called intelligentsia (Pipes, 21). After Revolution broke out over Europe in 1848 the modern......

Words: 2424 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Communism in the Usa

...Communism in the USA 1: Source A suggests that in the 1920s, America feared that the working class would stop working and the country would go downhill. This is shown in the source by the person representing the labour class, walking down the stairs, labelled with words like strikes, riots and murders. This is showing us that America feared what would happen to the labour class. Source A also suggests that America thinks one event will lead to another, not knowing what it will eventually end with. This is shown in the source by the words on the steps, like disorder and bolshevism, and then by the question mark at the end. 2: Source C and source B are both telling us about the problem of communism in America after the war. From these sources we can learn that people who were communist, were frowned upon by many Americans, especially the government. We can tell this because source C says ‘Hundreds of poor labouring men and women are being thrown into jails and police stations’, and in source B, it says ‘determination to drive from our midst the agents of Bolshevism.’ Both sources refer to them as criminals as source B says ‘a mass formation of the criminals of the world.’ and source C says that they are being tracked down, like criminals. We are also told by by both sources that there was a huge amount of communists. We can tell this by the fact that in source B they are referred to as a ‘mass formation’ and source C says ‘the voice of the many.’ Source C, is......

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Communism

...Adlai E Stevenson once said, “Communism is the death of the soul. It is the organization of total conformity - in short, of tyranny - and it is committed to making tyranny universal.” The communism Stevenson is referring to does not match the communism Karl Marx wrote about in his political pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto. In Marx’s pure, communist economy, the community makes decisions. “In today's communist countries, most economic decisions are made by the government. Its leaders make all economic decisions, a system known as a command economy. The decisions are outlined in a plan that is carried out with laws, regulations and directives.” (useconomy) The communist countries in the twentieth century were not Marx’s idea of communism because the government is involved instead of the community. In an ideal world, Communism would be utopia. Everyone would work together for each other’s benefit instead of personal gain. However, the state of communism in the world in the twentieth century was very different from the utopia Marx alluded to as seen in the communist Russian government. One of the major issues with communism is that it can kill any ambition or motivation of the people in the communist country. Because individual efforts only benefit the community as a whole and there is no chance of moving up in class, communist citizens often have no motivation to work hard in their jobs. This is one of the major reasons for the economic downfall of the Soviet Union during......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Communism

...generally have a negative view towards communism. This is because communism preaches the exact opposite views on which our country was built on and what it stands for. Communism is a social, political and economic movement that establishes a common ownership of the means of production. In this society it is not like capitalism. They do not believe in the views that some people should be wealthier and have other luxuriates that others don’t. The theory was to abolish capitalist inequalities to have a working class who constitute the main producer of wealth in society. Since the communist views are complete opposite to American views, there are some key reasons why Americans are against it. For one, Americans say it goes directly against what our constitution says. Communism is all about the redistribution of wealth which we as Americans would not stand for. It also calls for a dictator to not fall apart. Marxist philosophers have also talked about gassing those who are mentally unfit or disabled and also they sometimes force sterilization to stop unneeded births of certain groups of people. In a communistic society you own nothing and you have no right to religion. This is directly taking away from the freedom of the peoples. The government controls the people, which we view as unconstitutional and unfair. All Americans should have the right to have their own views on religion and own personal luxuries as they please. Also, communism government has unlimited power and they...

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Communism Essay

...Australia’s response to communism after WW2 (bibliography-skwirk.com) * The Korean War * The ANZUS Treaty and SEATO Alliance * Outlaw the Communist Party * The Petrov Affair Introduction: The conclusion of World War 2 quickly provoked the Australian government to react to the spreading threat of Communism. The end of the war dramatically changed every nation in the word, dividing the East and West into two different political parties, the Capitalists and Communists. This brought about a dreadful atmosphere of fear and tension to sweep around the post World War 2 World. Australia faced many difficulties and hardship prior to WW2. Just as many other countries in the west, Australia also feared the wide spread of communism. Communism, both democratically and physically went against the basis of Australian human rights and the social equality which every men and women worked so hard to accomplish. Communism is a form system of government composed by Karl Marx, which abolishes free market, private property and ownership, freedom of speech, unequal pay and human beliefs. The Australian government responded to the threat of communism in varies ways, by using a number of techniques such as participating in the ANZUS and SEATO alliance, rewriting the constitution to outlaw certain political groups and assisting American troops overseas to discontinue uprooting dictatorships. Firstly, Australia’s involvement in the Korean War was an successful decision made by......

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Some Causes for Collapse of Communism

...Which did more to cause the collapse of the Soviet Communism by 1991, developments inside or outside the USSR? 1991 marks the end of Soviet Communism. Leading to 1991, USSR started to lose support from the Eastern European as USSR was in a situation that provided them with undesirable economic situations, low living standards, political instability and lack of freedom. As a whole, the cause for these situations, thereby leading to the fall of Soviet Communism, can be categorized in two main reasons – developments inside of USSR, and developments outside the USSR. While the external developments such as role of Ronald Reagan & his policies, the Pope’s involvement, rise of non communist movements in Eastern Europe and price of oil and effects on USSR did played a significant role in breaking the Soviet Communism, it is still undeniable that the internal developments, mainly the USSR leaders’ (Brezhnev and Gorbachev) policies, made larger and more tangible impacts that raises the resentment and opposition to Soviet domination, causing it to fall apart. The developments inside the USSR therefore did more to cause the collapse of the Soviet Communism. To begin with, one of the early causes of the fall of communism is due to the stagnation period under Brezhnev where economy did not improve, or rather, declined (which can be seen from USSR’s continuous importing of grain from US). This stagnation was due to expanded military and neglected domestic economy. As a whole, this......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7