Free Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By ysnetservices
Words 491
Pages 2
Antony van Leeuwenhoek was an unlikely scientist. A tradesman of Delft, Holland, he came from a family of tradesmen, had no fortune, received no higher education or university degrees, and knew no languages other than his native Dutch. This would have been enough to exclude him from the scientific community of his time completely. Yet with skill, diligence, an endless curiosity, and an open mind free of the scientific dogma of his day, Leeuwenhoek succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology. It was he who discovered bacteria, free-living and parasitic microscopic protists, sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more. His researches, which were widely circulated, opened up an entire world of microscopic life to the awareness of scientists.
Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft on October 24, 1632. (His last name, incidentally, often is quite troublesome to non-Dutch speakers: "layu-wen-hook" is a passable English approximation.) His father was a basket-maker, while his mother's family were brewers. Antony was educated as a child in a school in the town of Warmond, then lived with his uncle at Benthuizen; in 1648 he was apprenticed in a linen-draper's shop. Around 1654 he returned to Delft, where he spent the rest of his life. He set himself up in business as a draper (a fabric merchant); he is also known to have worked as a surveyor, a wine assayer, and as a minor city official. In 1676 he served as the trustee of the estate of the deceased and bankrupt Jan Vermeer, the famous painter, who had had been born in the same year as Leeuwenhoek and is thought to have been a friend of his. And at some time before 1668, Antony van Leeuwenhoek learned to grind lenses, made simple microscopes, and began observing with them. He seems to have been inspired to take up microscopy by having seen a copy of Robert Hooke's illustrated book Micrographia, which depicted Hooke's own observations with the microscope and was very popular.
Leeuwenhoek is known to have made over 500 "microscopes," of which fewer than ten have survived to the present day. In basic design, probably all of Leeuwenhoek's instruments -- certainly all the ones that are known -- were simply powerful magnifying glasses, not compound microscopes of the type used today. A drawing of one of Leeuwenhoek's "microscopes" is shown at the left. Compared to modern microscopes, it is an extremely simple device, using only one lens, mounted in a tiny hole in the brass plate that makes up the body of the instrument. The specimen was mounted on the sharp point that sticks up in front of the lens, and its position and focus could be adjusted by turning the two screws. The entire instrument was only 3-4 inches long, and had to be held up close to the eye; it required good lighting and great patience to use.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Antony subtly exploits the general outpour of emotions, undermining Brutus’ previous speech. In his highly rhetorical dialogue, Antony successfully sways the allegiance of the plebs who, not so long ago, desired ‘Caesars better parts to be crowned in Brutus’, into a torment of vengeance and mischief. He achieves this affect through utilising pathos, appealing to the audience sense of morality, rather than logic as previously done by Brutus. Antony employs language that is both inclusive and emotional, emphasised through the tricolon of invocations. He calls upon the mob first as ‘friends’, then ‘Romans and Countrymen’, and then proceeds into his dichotomous presentation of ‘good’ and ‘evil’, stressing the reprehensible death of ‘faithful and just Caesar’. The pathos is accentuated by his use of aposiopesis- ‘my heart is in the coffin with Caesar, and I must pause till it come back’, drawing attention to the emotional implications of the murder which Brutus has deliberately understated. As such, Antony’s speech, flowing

Words: 278 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Antony and Cleopatra

...Antony & Cleopatra Essay A rewrite The theme of duty versus pleasure; the dramatic element of conflict, and the characterization of Antony v. Octavius in Act 1 of the drama Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare, sets up the rest of the play and contributes to Antony’s overthrow and Octavius’s victory. The theme of duty versus pleasure is directly advertised in the opening of the play which directly foreshadows the dreadful decisions Antony makes which directly lead to his downfall and Octavius’s victory. The beginning of the play begins with Philo and Demetrius’s conversation, which demonstrates the theme of duty vs. pleasure. For instance, Antony states “There’s not a minute of our lives should stretch without some pleasure now. What sport tonight?” (Act 1, scene 1, page 7). In this quote Antony is telling Cleopatra that they should not just waste time instead they should have a romantic time together. This quote specifically focuses on the theme of pleasure and further signifies how Antony is avoiding his duties towards Rome. Antony presents his carefree attitude when he says “not a minute of our lives should stretch” the readers can easily elaborate upon his downfall as he does not put any focus towards Rome. The words “not a minute” elaborate how all Antony wants is pleasure and Cleopatra by his side. Also, the quote creates a romantic tone as Antony is showcasing his love for Cleopatra....

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Mark Antonys Speech

...Summary of Mark Antony’s Speech In William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there is a character named Mark Antony, he gives a speech at Julius Caesar’s funeral. People consider this speech to be one of the most finest and most remembered lines written by Shakespeare. This speeches main function was used to invalidate Brutus’s convincing statement of how Caesar actually died, Antony also wanted to shift the mood of the crowd. Mark Antony knew that Brutus had made the crowd believe that the death of Caesar was going to be most beneficial towards Rome. Brutus had just finished giving his speech on what had happened to Caesar and it was Mark Antony’s turn to address the crowd and he knew that he would have to hold a neutral ground at first to gain some support of the “plebeians” in line 75, Antony says, “ I have come to bury Caesar, not to praise him”. Antony then begins to talk about how Caesar is remembered by his bad deeds, but then he goes forth and addresses them on how Caesar also did good things he had done. “The evil that men do lives after them, the good is oft interred with their bones…” in this quote Mark Antony uses a literary device called personification and in this quote Antony personifies the attributes of good and evil. Antony also uses another device called reiteration to suit a common person’s emotion. Antony keeps on repeating “Brutus is an honorable man”. However Antony uses a sarcastic tone whenever he mentions these words....

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antony vs Brutus

...For instance, Brutus says “Had you rather Caesar was living and die all slaves…” which was countered by Antony. It was countered by Antony saying that Caesar felt deeply for his people and that he was a very humble kindhearted...

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Perkins Engines and Antony James

...What Antony James is: Antony James is a hair and...

Words: 1569 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Brutus and Antony Speech

...William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor. He was born on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. His father was a successful local businessman and his mother was the daughter of a landowner. Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and nicknamed the Bard of Avon. He wrote about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, of which the authorship of some is uncertain. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18.  he is thought to have spent most of his time in London writing and performing in his plays. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories and these works remain regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, includingHamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Around 1613, at the age of 49, he......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Julius Caesar Rhetoric Essay

...Antony persuades the people of Rome to follow him and Caesar instead of Brutus. Brutus is a respectable man and is himself honourable, but most importantly he has mastered the art of rhetoric. Antony states in his speech that "[Brutus] Hath told you Caesar was ambitious", and then Antony retorts with "I thrice presented him [Caesar] a kingly crown which he did thrice refuse." By doing that, Antony carefully rebuts Brutus' statement that Caesar was ambitious and starts turning the crowd against the conspirators. Throughout his speech Antony calls the conspirators honorable men. He then says, "You [the crowd] all did love him once, not without cause. What cause withholds you then to mourn for him?" This question goes against Brutus by questioning his speech when he betrayed Caesar. Now the crowd is starting to turn against the conspirators and follow Antony. Antony then teases the crowd with Caesar's will, which they beg him to read, but he refuses. Antony tells the crowd to "have patience" and expresses his feeling that he will "wrong the honourable men whose daggers have stabbed Caesar" if he is to read the will. The crowd yells out "they were traitors" and have at this time completely turned against the conspirators and are inflamed about Caesar's death. To refute Brutus' claim that Caesar was a heartless tyrant Antony recounts "how dearly he [Caesar] loved him [Brutus]"....

Words: 540 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Julius Caesar: Brutus and Mark Antony Comparison In William Shakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar, there is a major difference between two of the characters, Brutus and Mark Antony. Brutus was very honorable and Antony was very persuasive. When Brutus spoke at Caesar’s funeral, he appealed to the people’s logic and Antony spoke to the emotions of the people. Antony is very smart and uses his brain frequently during the play and Brutus is very naive about many of things. Brutus was very honorable and Antony was very persuasive. Brutus was very honorable in the way that he always told people the truth. Antony was persuasive in the way that he used people to get whatever he wanted. For example, Antony used Lepidus to seek revenge on all of the conspirators to take the blame for their deaths. In the speech at Caesar’s funeral Brutus spoke to the people’s logical mind and Antony spoke to the emotions of the people. Brutus’ speech was very short and to the point and spoke to the logic of the people in the crowd. For example, Brutus spoke in a detached way about Caesar’s death while Antony spoke to the emotions of the crowd by crying and talking about all the good things that Caesar did for Rome. Antony’s intelligence was very apparent throughout the play and Brutus appeared to be naive about many things. Antony is smart in the way that he manipulates people to his own advantage....

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Actium Rome

...He was also angry that Antony will said that Cleopatra’s son would be Caesar’s true heir. He wanted to also get revenge for all this. Octavian wanted to capture the Greek City and Naval Port of Methone because it was loyal to Antony. Antony wanted to defeat Octavian’s...

Words: 1679 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Julius Caesar

...All of the conspirators not only want to kill Caesar, but they also want to kill Antony because they see him as being dangerous. Honestly, I believe that Antony is harmless once Caesar is dead. I believe that Caesar is acying a little bit too overconfident about going out on the ides of March. His wife Calphurnia had a dream...

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Loyalty Potrayed in Julius Caesar

...Antony and Brutus both loved Caesar but had different places were their loyalty lies. Mark Antony loved Caesar and was loyal to him throughout his life and even after Caesars death....

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...When Mark Antony, Caesar's protégé, beholds Cleopatra aboard her elaborate barge at Tarsus some years later, he is smitten and becomes both her lover and military ally. Their liaison notwithstanding, Antony, to consolidate his position in Rome, marries Octavia, sister of the ambitious Octavian. The marriage satisfies no one. Cleopatra is infuriated, and Antony, tiring of his Roman wife, returns to Egypt. There he flaunts his liaison by marrying Cleopatra in a public ceremony. Sensing Antony's weakness, Octavian attacks and defeats his forces at Actium. Alarmed, Cleopatra withdraws her fleet and seeks refuge in her tomb. Written by alfiehitchie The story of Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt who wants to stabilize her power by using the tensions in the Roman Empire. Caesar visits Egypt, has an affair with her, and returns to Rome. She bears his child and visits Rome to claim her place at Caesar's side. He is murdered before this can happen. She returns to Egypt leaving Rome in turmoil. Mark Antony follows her to Egypt and they fall in love. However, Octavian defeats...

Words: 1472 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Julius Caesar Anthony and Brutus Comparison

...Next, they both were extremely close to Caesar, Antony was a close friend to Caesar, and Brutus was a member of the senate so he could talk to Caesar. Both, Brutus and Antony care more for Rome than they did for Caesar. Antony cared...

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Superstition in Duchess of Malfi

...SUPERSTITIONS AND DREAM INTERPRETATIONS IN THE DUCHESS OF MALFIAND ALL FOR LOVE Superstition, a sort of a feeling that takes umpteen number of forms and at times frightens life out of people, takes a special place in the life of a person which might make a person float on cloud nine or perish in dungeons. Superstitions are universal and they do exist even now in the 21st century and the plays before three centuries are no exceptions. The plays during the 16th and 17th centuries were abounding with superstitious beliefs which might seem ridiculous in the present scenario. In this paper we shall see the role of superstitious beliefs and dreams in The Duchess of Malfi by John Webster and All for Love by John Dryden. The Duchess of Malfi is a revenge tragedy and unlike other revenge tragedies here the villain himself avenges the death of the Duchess. The Duchess is a young widow who is in love with Antonio, the manager of her house hold and is steadfast on marrying him. In spite of the threatening of her brothers she marries Antonio with the aid of Cariola. Ferdinand, one of her brothers employs Bosolo to spy her. Ferdinand apart from eyeing the fortune of the Duchess he also eyes her beauty. But Cardinal, the other brother of the Duchess is worried only about her wealth. Bosola passes the news that the Duchess has given birth to a child and Ferdinand in unquenchable fury banishes the Duchess. Ferdinand with the help of Bosola gains a fake key to the chamber of the Duchess and...

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Different Flavors of Love by Shakespeare

...But in reality, it seems as though Antony is insecure and followed her as he thought she was leaving him; he likes the challenge that sharp-tongued Cleopatra provides and goes after her because he does not want to lose her...

Words: 3779 - Pages: 16