Premium Essay

Ap Biology

In: Science

Submitted By racton85
Words 2561
Pages 11
AP Biology
Summer Independent Study Packet

Directions: As you carefully read through chapters 1-7 in your Campbell Biology textbook, thoughtfully respond to each of the following questions. It is important that you actually read the chapters for review and understanding. Do not just look for answers to the questions provided. Review all diagrams provided. The majority of the material in these beginning chapters should be a review for you. If need be, focus on those areas which may seem less familiar. After reviewing this material independently during the summer, it is expected that you have a solid understanding of these basic concepts for the start of this course. Prepare any specific questions that you may have. Again, this is an independent review and you will be expected to know these concepts for future use and assessment. This introductory material will not be covered in detail during class time.

Chapter 1: Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life

1. Explain the importance of a biological hierarchy in terms of biological organization.

2. Why must scientists study the interactions of organisms with each other and the environment?

3. Comment on the relationship between structure and function in biology.

4. How specifically is the cell life’s basic unit of structure and function?

5. What is the significance of DNA to organisms?

6. Explain the basic concept of a biological feedback system. How does it work?

7. Explain briefly how life’s vast organisms are classified. Give the basic ideas. Make sure to include domains in your discussion.

8. Explain Darwin’s mechanism of evolutionary adaptation called natural selection.

9. Explain why “editing” is an appropriate metaphor for how natural selection acts on a population’s heritable variations.

10. Why do “science” and “inquiry” fit so...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ap Biology

...Izabella Zamiatala Period: 5th November 27th, 2012 AP Biology : Chapter 15 Review Questions 1. Cells are equipped with controls that govern gene expression; that is, which gene products appear, when, and what amounts. When control mechanisms come into play depends on cell type, on prevailing chemical conditions, and on signals from other cell types that can change a target cell’s activities. Cells of complex organisms inherit the same genes, yet most become specialized in composition, structure, and function. This process of cell differentiation arises when different populations of cells activate and suppress their genes in highly selective, unique ways. 2. By negative control, regulatory proteins slow down or curtail gene activity. By positive control, regulatory proteins promote or enhance gene activities. Control is exerted through chemical modifications that inactivate or activate specific gene regions or the histone proteins that organize the DNA. For instance, regions of newly replicated DNA can be shut down by methylation, the attachment of methyl group to nucleotide bases. 3. A. Repressor protein: protein that binds with an operator on bacterial DNA to block transcription. A special regulating protein formed in bacterial cells that halt transcription, which is the synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (m-RNA) from a specific operon (a group of genes that carry out the synthesis of functionally related enzymes). The number of different......

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ap Biology

...* DNA technology – Methods for studying and manipulating genetic material, has rapidly revolutionized the field of forensics, the scientific analysis of evidence for legal investigators * Has practical applications beyond its use in forensic science * Include the use of gene cloning in the production of medical and industrial products, the development of genetically modified organisms for agriculture, and even the investigation of genealogical questions * DNA evidence was used to solve a double murder in England * Showed that two murders could have been committed by the same person * Showed the innocence of someone who confessed to one of the murders * Showed the absence of a match in 5,000 men tested when the murderer persuaded another man to donate blood in his name * Showed a match with the murder and DNA found with both victims * Biotechnology: The manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products * Grew out of discoveries made about 60 years ago by American geneticists Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum * Performed a series of experiments with E.coli that demonstrated that two individual bacteria can combine genes * Genetic engineering involves manipulating genes for practical purposes * Gene cloning leads to the production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA * Recombinant DNA is formed by joining DNA sequences from two different......

Words: 3278 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Ap Biology Response to Scientific Paper

...Dear The Editors, I read your article “Fight the GM Food Scare” multiple times and felt as though I was being coerced to believe questionable information. It is understandable to want to hide who you are when writing such a controversial article, but not from such a respected scientific magazine. Science is always backed up by details, data, and citations from where they came from. I saw a lot of data and details, however no citation. An article based solely on opinion can go without citation, but only until real facts and statistics come into play. There were a lot of ‘international teams of researchers’, but no names. Monsanto should be one of the names listed. The article gave off a sneaky feel to it because of the fact that there were no names or places to look up the information you did not want the reader to be aware of. So, with that in mind, it would make sense why you would not put the name Monsanto in your article because they are building up a very bad reputation. By taking away the name and not providing any information to allow someone to look further into the specific example, you have forced the reader into one belief. Which you stated was one of the reasons that made all these anti-GMO groups putting labels stating nutritional information the makers of a bad idea, insinuating that they are bad. As a reader of Scientific American magazine, I was surprised to see this article written with hypocritical statements and no names, making me believe that the...

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ap Biology Diffusion + Osmosis Lab

...Diffusion And Osmosis Introduction: There are several valuable aspects of this lab that must be understood before it is conducted. The first of these concepts is called diffusion. Molecules are constantly moving and as they are moving they tend to move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration. Diffusion can be defined as the net movement of molecules from higher to lower concentrations. One example, of diffusion is when an item like perfume is opened in a room. Shortly after it is opened the smell can be detected throughout the entire room. Diffusion can occur through a membrane such as that of a cell which explains how something can enter the cell. One special type of diffusion is called osmosis or the diffusion of water. Osmosis describes how water moves through a membrane from areas that have high water potential to areas that have lower potential. Water potential is defined as the measure of free energy of water in a solution. Biologists use this term to help describe why water moves from one area to another. Water potential can be affected by two major aspects pressure and the amount of solute. Water potential can be calculate by the pressure potential added to the solute potential. In order to calculate the solute potential one must multiply the ionization constant, the molar concentration, the pressure constant, and the temperature. When looking at a solution one can categorize it into several different relationships......

Words: 3633 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Ecology

...between the main drivers of affliction (insatiability, numbness, and scorn) and natural devastation, biology ministers view ecological activism as well inside their domain as Buddhist monastics. Drawing on Buddhist standards and practices, biology ministers have adjusted conventional customs and services to attract regard for ecological issues, bring issues to light about the estimation of nature, and move individuals to participate in preservation endeavors. Services, for example, tree appointment ceremonies (buat ton mai), in which trees are honored and wrapped in saffron robes to imply their consecrated status, are a piece of a bigger push to cultivate a preservation ethic established in Buddhist standards and supported by Buddhist practices. Ministers, for example, Phrakhru Pitak Nanthakun, Phrakhru Manas Natheepitak, and Phrakhru Prajak Kuttajitto have sorted out a wide assortment of grassroots protection activities, including tree appointments and planting services, the making of untamed life jelly and hallowed group gardens, long-life functions for biologically debilitated locales or regular substances, and activities in feasible group advancement and characteristic cultivating. Nature friars have taken stands against deforestation, shrimp cultivating, dam and pipeline development, and the development of money crops. Phrakhru Pitak, a standout amongst the most dynamic biology friars, has framed an umbrella non-administrative association called Hag Muang Nan Group (Love......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Important Person in My Life

...An important person in your life Everybody has an important person in their life who can motivate, share moment and be there for them when they needed. I think the most important person in the life of everyone is the member of his family.The simple word “family” can conjure up many meanings, images and emotions. They could be warm and pleasant, at the same time they can be sad and dismal. But for most, the word “family” is one of the greatest words in the world, it brings a lot of unforgettable and joyful memories about their childhood and past, enormous number of happy and funny moments, and of course it brings the picture of your family members, whom you truly love, who really mean a lot for you and who are the most influential and important people in your life. Your family members simply cared about you when you were sick even if it meant staying up all the night just to make sure your fever stayed down. There were also times when they let you make your own choices and allowed you to suffer the consequences it brings if you made a bad decision. Sometimes they pushed you in certain directions and had high expectations for you. Your family is not only people that you biologically related to and those who will love you unconditionally, but they are your first friends, whom you can trust and always count on when you need them. Family members have the biggest influence on you, through their love, discipline, encouragement and living. One of the important persons in the......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Seven Oraginational Approaches

...Seven organizational approaches Christine Moore 220 October 9, 2011 The University of Phoenix Seven organizational approaches There are seven organizational approaches to studying the human body. The Body planes and body directions, body cavities, quadrants and regions, anatomy and physiology, microscopic, body systems, and medical specialties. Body plans and directions divide the body into many different sections such as, the front and back, the right and left and the top and bottom. The body direction stands for movement towards and away from the planes. This approach may be used in a MRI in a hospital or treatment facility. MRI’s, are used to help create an image of the body slices. This would also help divide the human body into anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior as well as distal and proximal. The body cavities are surrounded by bones and muscles in order to help support and protect the body’s organs, as well as the structure within the body’s cavities. The abdominal cavity is a part of the reproductive system which is also used for giving child birth. Quadrant and regions helps divide the abdominopelvic area in to either four quadrants or nine regions. All health care specialists’ refer to the quadrants during an internal exam. An internal exam could be done to check many things such as the colon, the pelvic, as well as all internal organs. Anatomy and physiology are used to study the structure of the body as well as how the body functions as a......

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Model Organism

...Model Organisms Model organisms are very important to the scientific community. They are primarily used as a standard for comparison to other organisms. If a model organism is recognized then the organism can be useful for many different fields of research. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a model organism that has been introduced and has several essential attributes. When using a model organisms some qualities that should be chosen are a short life cycle, small adult size that makes it easy to grow in a small space, small genome that is well described genetically, high reproductive outcome, already have a large assembly of mutants, and be able to out cross or be self-fertile. When looking for a model organism consideration has to be taken into account for a few things too. Some of the benefits can become a hindrance. In 2010 a new model organism for studying C4 photosynthesis was suggested, a grass (Setaria viridis), by Brutnell et al. S. viridis is a C4 photosynthesis plant. Because of the C4 functions, it will be useful to aid in further research, with having its genome sequencing known, in comparison to other organisms that are not C4 plants. By having these qualities it makes it a good model organism. Some of these good attributes include its life cycle length. In short-day growth conditions it can be grown to full maturity in about six weeks. As an adult the plant is relatively short, less than 10 centimeters and takes up very little space about 50 plants can be grown in......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Genetic Disaster Approximately 10 billion animals are raised and killed for there meat, eggs, and milk each year. With a steady increase in population that number needs to double to support the predicted 9 billion people by 2050 (United Nations Programmme). With most problems in this modern day of age we as humans turn to science for the solution. Genetic modification also called genetic engineering, is any process of human manipulation in an organism's genetic material in a way that does not occur under natural conditions. Genetic modification in animals negatively affects the public (consumers) by putting the animals' health at risk, introducing diseases, and allowing scientists to by pass what nature naturally intended. The 1980's marked the scientific discovery that specific pieces of DNA could be transferred from one organism to another (Cramer 2001). Although genetic modification dates back to prehistoric times with “natural selection”, the cross-breeding of relative species and specific characteristics and traits being exchanged. This occurred over time as nature intended with the process of evolution letting animals adapt to their surroundings. The difference is we now posses the technology that allows us to make this “natural selection” process happen at an exponential rate. Such speeds of cross-breeding can bring out deformities in the animal for not sufficient time is allowed in the development process. Every organism carries genes inside itself, a gene is a......

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Genetic Engineering Outline

...Composition 1 April, 11th 2013 Genetic Engineering Tentative Thesis:  Even though altering DNA can lead to such horrifying events as genocide or viral diseases, genetic engineering is an important scientific breakthrough because by altering DNA, we can cure many diseases and solve many of mankind's problems. 1. History of Genetic Engineering A. What Led to the need for genetic engineering a. Prehistoric Times-1900 B. Gregor Mandel b. European botanist genetically altering plants 2. Modern Genetic Engineering C. DNA c. Watson & Krick 1. discover DNA a. How it affected science d. Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen 2. recombinant DNA D. Government e. Supreme Court 3. Diamond v. Chakrabarty f. FDA 4. Approval of genetic engineered food 5. Field Testing b. Tobacco c. Tomatoes g. International Bio-safety Protocol E. Advancements & Achievements h. Technology i. Disease curing j. World Hunger 3. Ethical Issues F. Religious k. Are we playing God? G. Environmental l. What’re the long term environmental effects H. Bio Ethics m. What if we make something we can’t control n. Is it possible the technology may be used to create slaves? o. When......

Words: 267 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ecology and Population Growth

...Josh Evans Ecology and Population Growth SCI/230 Karen Anderko There are approximately 6,947,513,231 billion people now in the world, according to the US Census Bureau. The human population changes depending on vital statistics of birth and deaths and also mechanical social factors such as immigrants and emigrants. This information can change by the year, the day, or second. As of this moment there have been 295,320 births and 135,740 deaths with a net population growth of 159, 840 as of this moment today and that number is steady rising by the second. There are several different estimates of the world’s current population that varies depending on the assumptions of estimates in other countries. It is said that world’s current growth rate is about 1.3% and that number has doubled in the last 5 years. It is also said that the population will double again by the year 2054 to about 12 billion people. If this continues than we are going to exceed our growth capacity on earth and the ability to provide for all our basic needs for survival. With the corruption of our environment the capacity that the earth holds actually decreases over time leaving the environment with the inability to be able to support the people living. The survival of the population correlates with the survival of the environment. There are many things that can impact the ecosystem that carries and provide life for so many people. In order for humans and other organisms to survive we have to consume......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Bio 101 Evolution Lab

...Evolution Lab BIO/101 Pooja Thakur 7-23-12 Evolution Resulting From Natural Selection INTRODUCTION The Evolution Lab simulates environmental situations to determine effects on evolution over periods of time. This lab experiments with the evolution of finches on two different islands over 100, 200, and 300 years. By manipulating parameters that influence natural selection, the effects that natural selection have on the evolution process can be studied. HYPOTHESES • The size of the island will influence the population. • The amount of precipitation will influence beak size. • Variances in beak size will influence beak size. MATERIALS The materials needed for this experiment consist of a computer and access to the Evolution Lab on the University of Phoenix student website. In the Evolution Lab there are two islands, Darwin Island and Wallace Island. There are seven variables that can be changed to run many different experiments on both islands. The variables are beak size, variance of beak size, heritability, clutch size, island size, population, and precipitation. METHODS In all of the experiments Darwin Island was used as the control group and Wallace Island was the experimental group. So, in each test, the variables for Wallace Island were altered and the variables for Darwin Island were left alone. The first experiment was to determine whether or not the size of the island affected the population. To do this, the only variable......

Words: 892 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personal Perspective on Changes in Adulthood

...Personal Perspective On Changes in Adulthood Lisa North BSHS/342 September 3, 2012 Stephanie Haywood Personal Perspective on Changes in Adulthood The Early Years My perspectives on lifestyle changes in all phases of adulthood have changed drastically over the years. Different choices, influences, and situations play a part in adult’s choices that they make throughout their early, middle, and late adulthood years. Some of the issues that play a part in the lifestyle changes for adults are married, divorced or single, kids or childless, addictions, jobs, siblings, and childhood experiences. All of the issues help to explain many of the lifestyle changes that adults make over the years. Early adulthood is the years from 20-40 years of age. They can bring many changes in a person’s life. Some may choose to get married, have children, and go to either work or college or attempt to do while others may choose a different route. At this stage of their lives he or she is still attempting to find themselves and to adjust to the “real world.” This is also the time when they move out of their parent’s house and into their own or share a place with their friends. By the age of 40 they should be settled down and have grown up and have become responsible members of society. At this stage relationships between friends and romantic relationships may begin to change also. Friendships from childhood and adolescence could become less important and he or she may begin to......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Essay # 2 By: Kyler Hamilton Tell him about brother john p332-340 The bus to Veracruz p423-426 Theme: Not knowing what to expect, a lingering of the unknown, some break in family, and longing for somewhere to be but not knowing what or where There has always been an unknown factor in what is to come, a mystery of our future and what lies before us. Each excerpt of writing depicts an unanswered question that both speakers would like answered but have their own obstacles to overcome. One issue is a mystery on his past and who his identity really is and the other deals with his own issues on his family and friends. To delve in the mystery’s that haunt them is the key to overcome their shortcomings. In the story “Tell him about brother john” not only was the speaker a main story or the story, brother john was just as important. Both characters share many fundamental themes and concepts such as dysfunctional/ absent family and loss of important person to of their life. Sympathy and empathy it was connects these two characters, a simple understand for the others person loss and situation. In the “the Bus to Verscruz” the speaker is clueless on their situation. The circumstances that brought them there and why are unknown to them. Similar to the speaker in brother john, neither of them don’t know what to do with their own life, and just seems to live day by day. Well the speaker seems to be lost and......

Words: 466 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Sheng 1 Cheng Sheng (Leon) Philosophy 119E Dr. Jeff McConnell Sept. 30th .2013 Seven Threats to Ethics According to Blackburn’s book. The other four alleged threats, which Blackburn has identified, are Evolutionary Theory, Determinism and Futility, Unreasonable Demands, and False Consciousness. When it comes to Evolutionary Theory, it is a belief that some combination of evolutionary theory, biology and neuroscience will support Grand Unifying Pessimism. People are selfish and do not think about others, “ethics is only a fig-leaf for selfish strategies, because of their genes. Blackburn claimed that genes are not selfish. Instead, “they just have different chances of replicating themselves in different environments.” For the part of Determinism and Futility, the idea is that since genes determine it, so we just do as we are programmed, and we cannot kick against nature. As a result, the enterprise of ethics becomes hopeless. It comes up with that we are large mammals, made in accordance with genetic instructions about which we can do nothing. As far as Blackburn concerned, although people’s genetics decide what we do, it also leaves room for us to vary our behavior. Based on the environment, we still have space to follow ethics. Sheng 2 Then, Unreasonable Demands means overblown, and over-demanding version. “It might be the case that some moral theory or other is true, but it will not be a very important moral......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2