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Ap Euro Notes

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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY NOTES- Filled with silliness and inside jokes, enjoy at your leisure :)
If something is in [] brackets, it is only written in there for our pleasure, ignore it if you are looking for actual information.

Key:



7: The Renaissance and Reformation- 1350-1600

UMSUniversal o Georgio Vasari- Rinascita=rebirth (like Renaissance) painter/architect
Male Suffrage o Individualism: People sought to receive personal credit for achievements, unlike medieval ideal of “all glory goes to god”
Names
Ideas o Renaissance: Began in Italian city-states, a cause de invention of the printing press, laid way for Protestant Reformation
Events
Books/Texts Italy: City states, under HRE (Holy Roman Empire) o For alliances:
 old nobility vs. wealthy merchants FIGHT
P-Prussia
 Popolo: third class, “the people”, wanted own share of wealth/power
R-Russia
A-Austria
 Ciompi Revolts: 1378 Florence, Popolo were revolting [eew], brief period of control over government
B-Britain


Milan taken over by signor (which is a tyrant)


o

Under control of the Condottiero (mercenary) Sforza- Significant because after this, a few wealthy families dominated Venice (e.g. Medici)

Humanism: Francesco Petrarch (Sonnets), came up with term “Dark Ages”, began to study classical world of rhetoric and literature



Cicero: Important Roman, provided account of collapse of Roman Republic [like
Edward Gibbon], invented Ciceronian style: Latin style of writing which humanists followed •

[Even though they weren’t in Rome, Humanists did as the Romans do]



Despite being accused of following Pagan culture, Petrarch talked a lot about universality 

Civic Humanists: Politicians/ diplomats, utilized public education for common good



Plato: Studying Greek allowed enlightened people to observe platonic ideals [also, big fat weddings]





e. g. Platonic view of human potential: observed by Pico della Mirandola, who gave oration on the dignity of man

Castiglione: wrote The Courtier, about what we would call a “renaissance man”: knew languages, classical literature, and artsy stuff

-12009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Lorenzo Valla wrote about Donation of Constantine: Document where Constantine took control of the Christian empire, said it was a fake because the word fief was not invented yet.





Leonardo Bruni [like Carla Bruni]- created education for women, though




Analyzed The Vulgate Bible, said Jerome mistranslated from Greek! [silly
Jerome]

Left public speech out of curriculum, because “women had no outlet to use these skills” [oh. Silly women.]

Christine de Pisan wrote The City of Ladies, countered notion of inferiority, [but this was soon proven false.]

o

Middle Ages: Paintings were fresco [fresca] on plaster, Tempera on wood

o

Renaissance Art



Chiaroscuro: [Not at all like Mr. Carrasco]: Contrast between light/dark to make 3D images 

Single-point perspective- everything converges to a point at infinity


More realism than in Dark Ages art



Filippo Brunelleschi- dome at cathedral of Florence



High renaissance- Rome replaces Florence as center of art



Religious people in Florence do not like new style, but Popes (Julius II) liked “to beautify [bootify?] their city”



Late Renaissance/Mannerism- distorted figures and confusing themes reflected growing crisis in Italy



High Renaissance Artists




Raphael- from Urbino, commissioned for Vatican palaces, images of Jesus and
Mary, School of Athens shows Plato + Aristotle [kissing?] in single point perspective •

Michelangelo- David commissioned by Florence as propaganda work against
Milan [maybe it was the genitalia.], Sistine Chapel for Julius II, tomb for Julius II

• o Leonardo da Vinci- Military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, inventor,
Mona Lisa

[Splinter- Trainer of the Ninja Turtles]

Northern Renaissance


Questions concerning religion- study early Christian authors

-22009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Erasmus + More- Christian humanists criticized church, horrified that Martin Luther did not find ways to better the Catholic church





Albrecht Duror- woodcuts in support of Luther’s revolution



Chaucer- Canterbury Tales based The Decameron





Sir Thomas More- Utopia, meaning ‘nowhere’, executed for not recognizing
Henry VIII as head of the church of England ([ut he could have just forgotten his glasses]





Desiderius Erasmus- coined “Where there is smoke there is a fire” in his book Adages, also wrote Praise of Folly= Satire to criticize church, wanted to reform church instead of abandoning it like [Lex? No.] Luther

William Shakespeare- [about whom we know nothing] only primary school education, examined human psyche and dramatic intensity in his work, contemporaries= Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson, [wooer of beautiful
History teachers]

Art

Printing Press with movable type- Johannes Gutenberg, 200 bibles, went broke after making his bibles as ornate as handwritten ones, sillllllllly



Informed people of religious debates

• o Movable type created rapid spread of information

Made churches’ monopoly over bible interpretations VEXING

Protestant Reformation [complex and compelling!]


Humanism- led individuals to question traditional ideas of salvation [but not salivation] 

Problems facing El Churcho



Black Death- “ferocious outbreak of the black plague”, [not related to black people] •

Anticlericalism- movement disrespecting clergy arising from poor performance of clergymen during the plague, and in fact, that such a plague could befall so many people



Pietism- [DELICIOUS] direct relationship between the individual and god, reducing the need for a hierarchical church



Babylonian Captivity and corruption in general within the church



Poorly educated lower clergy, often a result of simony- the sale of church office -32009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



John Wycliff- had some no nos:


No no: wealth of church



No no: transubstantiation- the belief that bread and wine are Jesus’ body and blood [Wait, did Catholics support heathen cannibalism? What.]



No no: indulgences- selling of salvation by the church/no waiting in
Purgatory, began during crusades to get knights [but was a popular sin for ages] •

“urged his followers (known for unclear reasons as the Lollards) [lololol] to read the bible and to interpret it themselves”



Translated bible into English



Jan Hus- Bohemia, Rector of University of Prague said bible was > church, called before council in Constance, promised safe passage there, but burnt at the stake
[medium-rare]



Martin Luther [not to be confused with Martin Postumus] [actually, feel free to confuse him with Martin Posthumus. Next time you see Martin, ask him about sacraments.] - does not like indulgences, 95 Theses @ Wittenberg a response to



Albert of Hohenzollern- had to raise ten thousand [ which is over 9,000] ducats, so hired Johann Tetzel to sell indulgences, Tetzel: “As soon as gold in the basin rings, the soul to heaven rings.”

o

Pope Leo X: “Not interested in a squabble between monks”, ignored
95 theses



Luther cont’d- Dominicans wanted to charge Luther with Heresy because of the 95 Theses, Address to the Christian Nobility= secular gov’t can reform church, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church= attacked sacraments,
Liberty of a Christian Man= bible is the sole [SOUL HAHAHA] source of faith, a bolt of lightning almost strikes him-> he becomes a monk [what the hell?]



Pope Leo X- issued a papal bull [Toro!] demanding Luther recant or be burnt,
Luther burns bull, excommunicated [by PETA]



Frederick, elector of Saxony- German prince, sympathetic to Luther’s ideas



Diet of Worms [Eww]: Council of German nobility, HRE emperor Charles X asked Luther if he repudiates his books, to which he said he doesn’t accept authority of the pope, only God.



Exiled, hidden for a year in Wartburg Castle [filled with toads, very unpleasant] by Frederick of Saxony



Luther Cont’d Cont’d: reduced sacraments from 7 to 2, which were baptism and communion, had several children with an ex-nun, family placed at center of religious faith.

-42009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Why did the Reformation succeed?





Luther was not critical of—even encouraged—princes to confiscate Catholic land •



German Peasants’ Revolt- Result of worsened economic condition, 12 articles interpreting Lutheranism as a message of social egalitarianism, to which Luther wrote “Against The Robbing and Murderous Hordes of Peasants”

Charles V: Couldn’t control huge empire w/ Spain, New World, The
Netherlands, Southern Italy, The Habsburgs, so he didn’t do anything when the Protestants got revolting [it’s because they never brushed their teeth], eventually fought protestants in [best word ever, by the way] Schmalkaldic
Wars but was forced to sign Peace of Augsburg, which recognized
Lutheranism in territories owned by a Lutheran.

Radical Reformation



Anabaptists- denied Baptism [go figure] o o

Rebaptism became a capital offense in HRE, darn.

o

Anabaptists took over Munster and created an “Old-Testament-style theocracy”: men allowed to have multiple wives.

o



Believed baptism would only work on adults because they knew what they were doing.

More normal people [mainstream Christians] then captured it back.

Antitrinitarians- denied Trinity [Really?] o 

Were hunted down

Zwingli and Calvin



Zwingli- Denied Sacraments, called last supper “a memorial of Christ’s death”, did not have actual presence of Christ [wait, explain this. Was he just like… in the bathroom or something? “Hey guys, Jesus isn’t coming… Should we start without him? …Sure!” Disciples are meanies, QED.] o o





Swiss patriot
Died leading Zurich’s troops against Swiss Catholics

John Calvin- Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion: Predestination, No free will, Geneva= New Jerusalem, No taverns, Penalties for having gypsies read your fortune (not joking.)

[Black or Blonde? English-] The English Reformation

-52009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



"Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France,
Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland"- [Epitaph courtesy of Wikipedia when researching earlier. I want such a title.]

o

Tried to divorce Catherine of Aragon, even though previous pope had given him special dispensation to marry her in the first place. Pope refused, Henry began reformation of parliament.



Reformation Parliament:


Gave bribes of land from monasteries (because he dissolved them) as a reward for passing certain acts, passed: o

Act of Supremacy: King of England is supreme head of Church of England

o

Henry can marry Anne Boleyn

o

Act of Succession: Children of Anne Boleyn are rightful heirs (ouch for Catherine)

o

Had been sleeping with Anne Boleyn, gotten her pregnant, therefore
“act in restraint of appeals” declaring the King decided spiritual cases within the kingdom rather than the pope.

o

Anny Boleyn gave birth to Elizabeth Tudor, so he beheaded her.



Edward VI- Short reign, tried to institute Protestant theology into Church of
England.



Mary Tudor- Also short reign, wife of “phonetically catholic” Philip of Spain, tried to bring back Catholicism.

o


Burned several hundred Englishmen at the stake []

The Counterreformation- Also known as the Catholic Reformation


Index of prohibited books- Included Erasmus, Galileo [what, physics? Never heard of it…]



Papal inquisition- Put heretics to death [heretic is a freaking awesome word.] •

Council of Trent- Papacy controlled church council, enhanced papal power o •

Council placed limits on simony, mandated education, caused intensely polar interpretations of the world, Baroque art and music created. [If it ain’t Baroque, don’t fix it!]

Ignatius Loyola- founded Jesuits, Religion was a “spiritual conversation with
God”, not within Bible but within oneself. Spiritual exercises.

-62009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



8: The Age of Expansion and the Rise of Monarchical States

o

Portuguese & Spanish Empires



Bartholomew Dias: sailed around Cape of Good Hope, southern tip of Africa. [Cape of Hood Hope: common typo?]



Vasco de Gama: reached coast of India



Christopher Columbus: Sailed to Canary Islands, from there to Bahamas




Noted in his diary that Indians were friendly and gentle, therefore easy to enslave [Not a cool guy]

Magellan circumnavigates globe



Cortez- Mexico, in Aztec Empire o Conquered Tenochtitlan with help of Aztec slaves



Montezuma- gave gold, in return Spanish seized the capital and took him hostage. [Really, Spain? Really?]



Pizarro destroyed Incas in Peru

o

o

Captured Inca emperor Atahuelpa, ransomed him for gold, ruled through him, then killed him. [Yep, this again.]

Spanish created Haciendas, plantations, through encomienda system of forced labor [for some reason, Alex prefers to italicize rather than bold]

Development of Monarchical States


Reversal of parliaments from Middle Ages to create absolute monarchies





Jean Bodin- Monarchies have to be absolute
Louis XIV- France, Stuart Monarchs- England

Nation-States



Bureaucratization- established office of intendant, tax collector on behalf of monarch o



Need for money led to corruption seen in sale of royal office (except in
England)

Permanent mercenary army

o

Swiss phalanx- army of pikemen [not Pokémon] [Pokémon is in the
Mac dictionary] who killed horsemen, later had gunpowder. Created a

-72009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

need for money in monarchy, need which could only be fed by an absolute monarchy.




Monarchs need taxes to pay for permanent armies, which were used to suppress peasants angry at taxes—vicious circle

Italy



Treaty of Lodi- Balance of power among major Italian city-states, created alliance between enemies Milan and Naples [YOUR NAPLES ARE SHOWING]



Ludovico Il Moro- became despot in Milan, fought Naples [which are showing] and invited French to satisfy longstanding claims to Naples [which are showing]

o

o



Recognizes what he had done, joined an anti-French alliance to expel
French and reinstate Medicis

o


Charles VIII immediately did so, when he gets to Florence he meets
Savonaroli, a radical Dominican preacher who had just expelled
Medicis and established a Puritanical state

Medicis burn Savonaroli at the stake (with support of Pope) in revenge.

Nicola Machiavelli- The Prince [Story about a prince on a white horse, saves a princess and then marries her to gain control of her country, institutes harsh rule] Spain- [Dominion of JULIA LOPEZ]



Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castille

o

Consolidated peninsula- called Reconquista



 o Included Religious Uniformity, led to Spanish Inquisition
[Nobody expected it] [I’d prefer a new edition of the Spanish
Inquisition than to ever let a woman in my life]
Spanish Inquisition: Anti-Jew, Anti-Moor

Charles V (Ferdinand &Isabella’s grandson)- married into becoming
HRE, abdicates and gives throne to brother Ferdinand (also controls
Habsburg lands)



His son Philip receives Spain, southern Italy, The Netherlands, the New World



Duke of Alva’s Council of Troubles: tried to enforce
Catholicism for Philip in Netherlands, also sent Military hero Don Juan to fight, later sent Spanish Armada



Results: Council failed, Don Juan failed, Protestant
Wind blew Armada away [WOOOOOOOSH]

-82009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



o

Cervantes- Don Quixote [Donkey Hotay], bemoaned lack of chivalry [French for Being a Horse] in Spain
El Greco revealed that powerful Spain could not maintain European position

The Holy Roman Empire



10th and 11th centuries- most powerful state, grew weaker with papal conflict


Despite lack of army, popes supported by German Nobility, giving them strong sway over emperor

o

Golden Bull- 7 German princes given right to elect emperor



Charles V- powerful Habsburg, attempted to establish genuine imperial control, used Lutheran reformation as a weapon against German princes



Peace of Augsburg- Princes given the right to decide religion of territory aka
Ecclesiastical Reservation, Catholicism or Lutheranism

o



Problematic for Frederick III of the Palatinate (an elector state) who was a Calvinist

Thirty Years War- about thirty years long.



Began in Bohemia, Ferdinand of Styria is crowned king



Protestant angry with his intolerance defenestrate his catholic advisors in
Prague



[Turkey Baster Turkey Baster la la la la la]



HRE Emperor Mathias dies, Ferdinand elected emperor o A few hours later, he learns he has been overthrown in Bohemia



Frederick, a Calvinist (!) is the new king in Bohemia



Ferdinand had no army, so he borrowed the Duke of Bavaria’s army [what?
You can do that?]



Battle of the White Mountain- Bavarian forces win a major victory, [create cream] •

Frederick is now sad, called the winter king because he only ruled for winter



Private armies want to keep fighting so they can have $$$, so war continues



Duke of Bavaria fears Habsburgs-> Ferdinand must find new army

o

Albrecht von Wallenstein- VAST MERC ARMY 125,000

o

Major victories in the north for Ferdinand

-92009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Edict of Restitution- outlawed Calvinism, required Lutherans to turn over all property seized since 1552



Gustavus Adolphus- King of Sweden, entered war due to Edict, claiming to defend Protestant rights, actually nope, just wanted German territory



Cardinal Richelieu- Absolutist, Decided to support Swedish army [financially because he didn’t want Habsburgs to be strong



Peace of Westphalia- 30 yr war over o o

Emperor still leader of Germany

o o HRE maintains divisions

Reaffirmed Peace of Augsburg (princes choose religion of territory,
Calvinism added as a choice now)

France- [Dominion of Funny Bear (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5H59Py7KApU) and
Gerard Giblin]



Henry II- dies in a jousting tournament from a lance to the eye, [he should have seen that coming…] -> Francis II is king



French Wars of Religion


Began when Duke of Guise saw a group of Huguenots worshiping in a barn, got mad, HAD THEM SLAIN



Huguenots- French Calvinists [HUGE KNOTS]



Catherine de Medici o After Henry II dies, Francis II was too young—Catherine was a regent

o

January Edict of 1562- Huguenots [HUGE KNOTS] gain freedom of worship o

Peace of Saint Germaine-Laye: Protestants can fortify cities (Catherine allied with Catholics, but did not want the protestants to be sad, so this is what they get)



Guise==catholic, militant [geese]



Bourbon—Calvinists [ALEX WHAT UP WITH THE ITALICS]

o

Admiral Coligny (Advisor to Charles IV, so Catherine didn’t like him) &
Prince of Conde—both converted for political opportunities

o

Henry of Navarre (Bourbon prince) marries Charles IX’s sister, shifting power to Bourbons—Catherine de Medici doesn’t want either to have power, so she convinces Charles IX to do St. Bartholomew’s
Day Massacre- burning all Huguenots

- 10 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

Coligny dies, Navarre’s life spared—he promised to convert

 o Henry III (Not Navarre) wanted to defeat powerful Catholic League
[Geese], made Navarre his heir, Huguenots then helped him attack them o

Peace of Beaulieu- complete religious freedom for Protestants. [THIS
IS NEW. NO REALLY.]

o

Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV of France when Henry III assassinated 

Everyone supports him because of common enemy of Spain



Until revolution, all French kings are from Bourbon dynasty



Converts to Catholicism to be of the majority group, but so
Huguenots would not get mad he created:



Edict of Nantes- Huguenots can worship and assemble, and maintain fortified cities

NAVARRRRRRR



Politique- the idea of putting the interest of the state before religious unity- Henry III and Henry IV was one of these



Royal Absolutism-



Henry IV tries to revitalize kingdom torn apart by war

o o Limited nobility in parliament

o


Duke of Sully + HIV [Henry the fourth, silly]- established government monopolies over things people like, such as salt

Assassinated, 9 year old son Louis XIII takes throne, but like most nine year olds, is a relatively weak King.

Louis XIII

o

Needed strong minister… Bonjour, Cardinal Richelieu!




Brings France into thirty years war -> increased gov’t power




Richelieu beats up Huguenots [HUGE KNOTS] and takes away
Edict of Nantes [that was fast.]

Dies, replaced by Mazarin

Louis XIV

o

Five years old. Anne Of Austria, his mother, selects Cardinal Mazarin to be regent

- 11 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Less sure political hand than Richelieu. This led to a lot of rebellions called the Fronde.

o

Mazarin dies, Louis decides because of the Fronde to rule without an advisor [he is a teenager and believes the world revolves around him]

o

Louis told people that the monarch had the “divine rights,” backed it up by the Old Testament.



Bishop Bossuet said that the king was chosen by god (only god could judge the behavior of the king) [Louis was probably sitting in a corner, going, “don’t judge me!”]

o

May or may not have said “l’état c’est moi,” (I am the state)

o

Builds Versailles to demonstrate his power, wanted to safely ignore the people 12 miles away from Paris
“While it cost a huge amount of money to maintain Versailles,
Louis thought it was worth it. Instead of plotting against the king, the aristocrats were involved with court intrigue and gossip and with ceremonial issues such as who got to hold the king’s sleeve as he dressed” [Best review book ever?]



o

Jean-Baptiste Colbert= minister, instituted mercantilismbuilding up gold by exporting goods, an economy based on exports. Organized factories and abolished tariffs.





o

Five Great Farms- large regions where one does not have to go through customs
French East India Company, west coast of Africa, posts in
India, much of the Caribbean, Québec, = French international mercantilist empire of supreme power.

For real this time. Revokes the Edicts of Nantes, demolishes Huguenot churches, takes away Huguenot’s civil rights. They ran away to
England and the Netherlands, and since France was at war with
England and the Netherlands, they fought against France. [Stupid, stupid Louis]

 o Treaty of Utrecht- Bourbons lead Spain

England



War of the Roses- Series of civil wars to determine whether York or Lancaster would rule England.


Result: Lancaster (Henry VII, a Tudor) will be king.



After Henry VII dies, Henry VIII becomes king [surprise surprise]

- 12 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Henry VIII believed his sovereignty would be ineffective if England was under religious jurisdiction of Rome-> created Church of England



TUDOR: Queen Elizabeth—Henry’s daughter with Anne Boleyn



Called The Virgin Queen- used marriage as a diplomatic tool, used rulers made them think she would marry them  powerful alliances [writing that in italics makes it look like the name of a boat]



Mary Stuart of Scotland- her legal heir, also Catholic o Kept her under house arrest, she was afraid Mary was plotting against her o

Treaty of Burwick- Let it be known that James (Mary’s son) will be king of England instead (he was Protestant), in your face Mary Queen of Scots
Knock knock





Who’s there o Mary Queen of Scots o •



Elizabeth beat Spanish Armada England remains Protestant and free of foreign dominance

STUART: James VI- Absolutist, didn’t call parliament for awhile, eventually he called it because he needed money


Puritans- thought monarch shouldn’t be head of church o 

Bye bye, your head!

So James persecuted the Puritans

STUART: Charles I



Lent support to Armenians (sect of Anglican church, believed in predestination), named William Laud the Archbishop of Canterbury [unrelated to the eggs] [wait, those are Cadbury Eggs. Never mind]



Requested a forced loan from nobles, they didn’t want to pay so he threw them in jail

o

They put forward Petition of Rights, forced him to sign:


No forced taxation without Parliament



No free man could be imprisoned without due cause



No quartering of troops in private homes

- 13 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





No martial law against civilians

John Eliot- Three Resolutions [this formatting is intense]

o o Any of King’s advisors who recommend he raise funds outside of
Parliament are also “capital enemies of the state”
“capital

o

Anyone who paid tonnage and poundage (duties the king imposed without parliament) was betraying the liberties of England

o


Anyone suspected of practicing Catholicism is a “capital enemy of the
“capital
state” state” Response: King dissolved parliament

Personal Rule of Charles: Charles governing England sans Parliament o To get money: collected ship money: used to be where coastal towns paid extra tax to pay for shipbuilding, but now errrybody in the club getting taxed.

o

Insisted that Calvinist Scotland adopt Church of England and prayer book The Book Of Common Prayer

o

1640: Charles called parliament because he thought they would give him money to put down Scottish rebellion- “Short Parliament”

o

Dissolved it because they refused to give him funds before addressing their own needs.

o

Formed an army because he was still angry at Scots [then he banned kilts] 

JK, Scots win





Scots refuse to leave after invading England
Made Charles pay a lot of money to them

Charles has to call Long Parliament to pay for it o o

Met for 20 years

o

Impeached Charles’ ministers

o



Size matters

Abolished prerogative courts (king’s courts) such as Star Chamber

Grand Remonstrance- A lot (240) of things that Parliament are moaning and whining about o Says Parliament has to approve minister

- 14 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o o No ship money

o



Church of England reformed by committee

***Parliament called once every 3 years***

In response: CHARLES INVADES PARLIAMENT

o o •

House of Commons passes Militia Ordinance (very quickly because there were Soldiers at their doors)
Gave Parliament control of the army

[Charles I fled to England, just in case] o 

[jk]

Civil War Happened


Major issues: o Whether England was going to have an absolute monarch or parliamentary monarch

o

Anglican or Presbyterian [See Lizzy Pelletier]

o

Cavaliers vs Roundheads




Roundheads==parliament, Scots, townspeople, puritans



Parliament won because of alliance with Scots



Gen Cromwell (Lord Protector) created “New Model” army




Cavaliers==King Charles, Nobility, Anglicans

Parliament tries Charles for treason, executes

Commonwealth


Abolished monarchy + house of lords



No more Anglican church, now puritan republic o o

Independents wanted state church and religious freedom

o


Puritan Rules of Behavior: simple clothes, no entertainment, no alcohol, no dancing, [no fun.]

Presbyterians wanted state church and NO DISSENTERS

Parliament: No mo army o Cromwell says nope

- 15 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Wants to conquer Ireland and Scotland [didn’t these guys just help you? Not cool.]



Parliament gives no money to Army


Cromwell disbands Parliament o o



This is a new thing. We have never seen this before. Really.
The only important thing he does is separate
England into military districts

Cromwell dies, monarchy back



STUART: CHARLES II

o

Treaty of Dover [come on Dover. Move your bloomin’ arse!]- Charles would convert to Catholicism when conditions permit, made between
Charles and French Louis XIV
Charles gets a lot of money from Louis. This was good for him because he was getting a lot less English money to support his lavish lifestyle





STUART: James II

o

repeals Test Act (didn’t allow Catholics to be officials/military, swear oaths for transubstantion), [also, AP Test Act]

o

Declaration of Indulgence


No more religious tests for office holders



Allowed freedom of worship



Parliament Reaction: Not worried because they thought the throne would go to James’ daughter: Mary the protestant


Sneaky James marries, makes a bebby, New James the
Catholic
o



Parliament responds by inviting Mary the protestant and her new husband, William of
Orange to invade England, no opposition

ORANGES: William and Mary

o

Bill of Rights of 1689


Limits power of monarchy: monarch is subject to law, must be protestant, include parliament in lawmaking [monarch butterflies still free to do as they please]

- 16 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




No church courts



Parliament consent for taxes required



You can petition the king



Parliament consent required for army



People can have guns



“Freedom of Debate” in parliament [because until now, they coincidentally agreed on everything]



King can’t just take people’s stuff without having a trial. Then he can.



Excessive bail, nono.



o

Elections to parliament free of royal interference

Parliament has to be held frequently.

Act Of Toleration- a compromise bill




o

Non-conformists (protestants who were not in the church of
England) given right of public worship, Unitarians or Catholics were illegal.
Test Act remained

The Mutiny Act [mutated knee act]




Queen is now STUART: Anne. Nothing changes.

o

Act of Settlement- preventing catholic Stuarts from getting on the throne 

o

Basically, this said that if Queen Anne dies without an heir, the throne goes to the Protestants in Hanover. Specifically, George the first.

Act Of Union- formed Great Britain out of England and Scotland.
Only done so that Scotland would not go to war with England allied with France.


o

Authorized martial law to govern the army. Had to be re-passed every year (parliament had to be summoned yearly for this)

Scotland gives up their parliament, allowed to maintain a
Presbyterian church.

The Netherlands- a center of commerce and trade.


Dutch War Of Independence

- 17 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




They closed the Scheldt river as part of the peace of Westphalia.




City of Antwerp was sacked.

Lead to the center of trade being changed to Amsterdam.

The Golden Age



Dutch east India company



Higher standard of living



Religious tolerance



“The Dutch proved to be nimble businessmen”



In the Spanish inquisition, Jews fled to Netherlands [one could say they were orange Jews]



Franz Hals- great portrait painter from Haarlem (yes, it’s spelled like that.)



Jan Vermeer- painted scenes of everyday Dutch life




Bank of Amsterdam

Rembrandt Van Rijn- painted The Night Watch- baroque art period

Political decentralization




Stadholder= male head of the family

• o House of Orange- noble house who got power from revolting against Spain.

William of Nassau (he’s William of Orange, guys) = stadholder of the family
Orange beats up France. He also became the king of England.

Life in Modern Europe


Growth and population- Population doubled in France between 1450-1550



Price revolution- population growth put pressure on basic commodities. Prices had to increase like 500% because supply was less than demand.



Rural life


Gentry are people from towns and cities. o •

These guys begin to enclose their lands aka. Fence off land that used to be open.

English Poor Law-The state provides for the poor

- 18 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





3-field system- the rotation of crops in agriculture 1/3 lay fallow (they didn’t use it), 1/3 crops, 1/3 animals [baa baa moooo]
Primogeniture- the oldest male child gets all the jaunt.

City life






Guilds continue to play a role in production of commodities.
Cloth production done on a large scale. Capitalist entrepreneur would provide funds and organization of every stage of production. This made specialized guild-members sad.

Family life


No more than 3 or 4 children (usually)



Marriages were arranged by parents, or formally improved, because they involved a transfer of property o Married couples are full-fledged members of society

o

“Single adults were looked on as potential thieves or trouble-makers if they were male, and as prostitutes if they were female.”

o

There was a dowry



Tasks divided by gender & age, child labor was normal. Men do work, women cook, clean and make bebbies.



For Protestants, the house became central rather than the church. o •

Paternalism increased because father is now the only person between the family and god

9: The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment o Before the scientific revolution



The view of scholasticism-combination of Christianity and ancient authors, such as
Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle.



Four Elements: earth, air, fire, water o Earth is the heaviest element and the earth is the center of the universe •

o

Alchemy could define chemistry of the time
Didn’t care about astronomy, believed in the works of Ptolemy (the heavens move around the earth)

The Copernican revolution

- 19 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Tycho Brahe- the movement of the sun revolved around the earth but the other planets revolved around the sun. he taught Kepler. [fun facts about Brahe, courtesy of Mr. Willard: Brahe lost his nose in a bar fight over a math question, and fixed it with many metal noses that he would replace from day to day. Also, he had a pet dwarf who he would bring out at parties. The dwarf would go under the table and “do things with his hands”]



Johannes Kepler- planets go in ellipses.



Galileo Galilei- invented the telescope. The moon has mountains, and it’s made of the same material as earth. Jupiter has moons, and stars are far away. He also stated that the acceleration of gravity was constant for all masses.



Giordano Bruno argued that there were many worlds in the universe, the papal inquisition executed him.

 o Nicolas Copernicus wrote Concerning The Revolutions Of Celestial Spheres. A heliocentric universe, where the planets move about the sun. The orbits were circular.

Isaac Newton wrote Principia, examined the relations of different forces, invented differential calculus, and discovered that white light was a mixture of different lights.

The impact of scientific revolution on philosophy





Rene Descartes- “I think therefore I am,” wrote Discourse on Method, challenged major classical beliefs. He invented logical proofs (if P then Q), he tried to make logic and philosophy be done with math because it was incorruptible [see: Robespierre in relation to math]



Blaise Pascal [the fireman] Pascal’s wager= it is better to bet that god exists than to bet that he does not, since if he does you will go to heaven, and if he doesn’t then you don’t lose anything.



Thomas Hobbes believed that life was nasty, brutish and short. Wanted absolutism
(man formed states with a sovereign that has complete power, the subjects would never rebel) because man naturally wanted to destroy each other.



o

Francis Bacon [a delicious man] argued to examine evidence from nature when making thesis.

John Locke- social contract between the people and the state, where the people have certain inalienable rights [no ET allowed]: of life, liberty, and property. If a government infringes on these rights, man has the right [nay, the responsibility] to rebel. Another idea was Tabula Rasa- there is no predestination or original sin; people were born with a clean slate.

The eighteenth-century Enlightenment



Immanuel Kant- idea that individuals should not believe an idea simply because authority says it, people should use reasoning to solve problems.



Philosophers are thinkers and would often speak at salons.

- 20 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Republic of Letters was an international community of philosophers who communicated en français [M. Giblin].



Voltaire was a philosophe. And a deist- believed that god created the universe and the laws of science, those laws are still being followed.



Écrasez l’infame (crush the horrible thing) was anti-religion



He wrote Candide- humans cannot expect to find happiness by associating with specific philosophical systems. People should try to find a private comfort. 

Baron de Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Laws, wrote about separation of powers and checks and balances. Also said that slavery was unnatural and bad.



Diderot wrote Encyclopedia, a collaboration of all the knowledge and information that was prominent at the time



Rousseau was the most radical philosophe, antagonized Voltaire; believed in direct democracy vs. the other philosophes who believed in a constitutional monarchy.
Ideas became prominent after his death, especially in the French Revolution.

• o Social Contract- Everyone has a duty to their country, a perfect society would be controlled by the “general will” of its populace

The Spread of Enlightenment Thought





David Hume- Atheism, doubt on religion. Questioned assumptions around cause and effect. 

EDWARD GIBBON- Wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, [which was mean], criticized Christianity, saying it “weakened the vibrancy of the empire and contributed to its downfall”

 o Cesare Baccaria- Crimes and Punishment, about changing jurisprudence, the theory and philosophy of law. He believed everyone should have basic rights.

Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations: Free market, laissez-faire, invisible hand

Women and the Enlightenment




Marquise de Pompadour- Louis the XV’s mistress, helped Diderot avoid censorship

 o Organized salons, where philosophes hung out

Mary Wollstonecraft- Women should vote, and hold public office.

European powers! In the age of enlightenment!



Enlightened Absolutists- Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria,
Frederick II of Prussia



Prussia and Austria

- 21 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Frederick William (The Great Elector) worked out agreement with the
Junkers (Prussian nobility)—they could have serfs, and would pay him money for the privilege



Son Frederick III became Frederick I of Prussia (because Prussia became a
Kingdom?) Also was Frederick the Great, an enlightened absolutist o o



Freed serfs on Royal estates, but not the Junkers’ serfs, because he liked the Junkers.
Abolished capital punishment, decreased amount of corporal punishment on serfs

Austrian Empress Maria Theresa begat Joseph II, who was a fan of religious toleration o


Issued Edicts of Toleration, granting Jews, Lutherans, Calvinists freedom of worship

Wars of Austrian Succession

o

HREmperor Charles VI has no male heir, issues Pragmatic Sanctionsays there can be a female heir

o

Therefore, Maria Theresa is crowned, but France and Prussia begin to seize land (violating the sanction)

o

Frederick I takes advantage of this and seizes Silesia, the richest part of Austria

o

Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle- Austrian throne will go to Habsburgs— ended the war

o

Result of the War: Prussia gains power

o

Diplomatic Revolution: alliance between Austrians and French, meant to weaken Prussians


Great Britain allies with Prussia



Leads directly into Seven Years War





Ultimately won by Prussians and British because Russian
Czar Peter III didn’t want to have so much conflict so he protected the Prussians
British allies defeat the French in the French and
Indian War in America

Russia—[The Fatherland]



Ivan the Terrible expanded territory under the control of Muscovy [what the hell?], Russia entered into a period of time known as THE TIME OF TROUBLES

- 22 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

[When I find myself in times of trouble, FATHER STALIN comes to me], ended with the selection of a czar from the Romanov family.



This was Peter the Great! o o

Taxed nobility by the number of serfs they had

o

Established monopolies on commodities like salt (See HIV)

o

Table of Ranks—each government position had a graduated ranking, social mobility

o

Established St. Petersburg, a “window on the West”, built in the newest styles from France [if you haven’t gotten the hint, Peter was a big fan of the West]

o

Conscripted serfs into the army, built the first Russian navy, defeated the Swedes in the great Northern war

o



Forced nobles to shave their beards (as was the style in the west)

Catherine the Great codified Russian law and had an affair with
Stanislaw Augustus Poniatowski, he “somehow became” the King of Poland shortly afterwards.

Poland



Lithuanian grand-duke Jagiello married Polish queen JadwigaPolishLithuanian Commonwealth o Defeated the Teutonic Knights at Battle of Grunwald



When Poniatowski becomes King, he “displayed an independent streak that
Catherine the Great did not expect from her former Lover”



Prussia, Russia, Austria forced Poland to accept a partition o •

Poland loses 30% of its territory

Poland had Europe’s first written constitution o Reduces the power of nobles who appealed to Russians for assistance

o

Russia and Prussia partitioned again, which removed the constitution and removed a lot of land



Tadeusz Kosciuszko leads a Polish revolt forcing Poniatowski to abdicate




Third and final partition wiping Poland off the map.

Great Britain


Tories

- 23 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o


Wanted prerogative rights of the monarch

Whigs o More enlightened, liked religious tolerance

o

Had a certain leader
Do you remember his name?





It is Edmund Burke! o Argued that parties were essential to parliamentary government and political stability.



You should have learned all of the American Revolution stuff in APUSH



American Revolution spurred a movement of parliamentary reform in Great
Britain

o

John Wilkes, member of the House of Commons and part time pornographer*, arrested for publishing a satirical attack on King George
III
*Perfect example of social mobility.

 o 

Wanted greater freedom of press and UMS

France


Jansenists- Catholic sect which believes in predestination o Parlements==Provincial law courts made up of nobles, block Louis XV from supporting a papal decree banning Jansenists
Louis XV abolishes parlements






Louis XVI brings them back

10- The French Revolution, Napoleon, the European Reaction o Background [Wallpaper?] of the revolution


Major problem facing ‘80s France [‘fro’s?] was financial—they were kinda bankrupt,
Budget:


50% Paying debts and interest



25% military o •

Funding American revolution, skirmishes with British

6% Royal Life [whig powdering?] [intentional misspelling. They powdered
Edmund Burke] [he was a whig leader]

- 24 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




19% infrastructure [not that much. Sad peasant.]

Estates General



First Estate- Church and Clergy o o


Wealthy churchies, but there were also poor churches who felt aligned for the third estate
Tithe- church tax

Second Estate- Nobles and Aristocracy o o



Only 3% of population
Feudal privileges: Controlled mills and winemaking, would often charge their own fees for use of the mills effectively making it difficult for peasants to use their grain

Third Estate- Peasants and Bourgeoisie (the educated upper middle class, lawyers and doctors and thinkers)

o

o



Abbé Siéyès- Qu’est-ce que le troisième état?, “What is the third estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up till the present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something. ”
Were always overruled in EG because 1/3, when gov’t needed money they always raised taxes

[Fourth Estate- Batman] [He was Robin the Pierre]



Role of Enlightenment? INSPIRATION.



Causes





o

Failed harvests in 1789 makes poor people poor
Louis fires Minister Finance Necker who wanted to subsidize grain and tax nobles, Peasants sad

Louis called Assembly of Notables (leading aristocrats and churches), asked if they wanted to pay a land tax [they obviously said yes.], instead suggested that they would have a greater share in governing [ok, sure guys], called for an Estates
General

Calling of the Estates General


[Hey, Estates General!]



Everybody complains that the third estate gets a third of the vote, so the King does nothing - 25 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Erryone wanted change, but nobody knew how they wanted it, resulting in thousands of Cahiers de doléances (lists of grievances)


 o Examples of what they wanted: equal tax system and regular meetings of the
EG, limiting the size of sheep herds

King kept everybody waiting

Tennis Court Oath


 o •

The third estate was locked out of the meeting, so they went to a tennis court
(handball) [whatever… it was a court]. They resolved keep convening until there was a new constitution
Declaration of the Rights of Man- Lafayette influenced this, King did not sign: guaranteed Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality (later the French Motto)

[THUNDER]STORMING OF THE BASTILLE AND THE GREAT FEAR

National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, The Directory
Enrage

Jacobins

Cordeliers

Girondists

Feuillants

Royalists

Leaders

J. Herbert

Constitutional monarchy Absolutism

Means To
End

Violence is nice.
Abolish all, kill, then peace.
Radical
intellectuals, radical sandculottes

Violence may be necessary (guillotine)
Leaders
bourgeoisie, intellectuals. Followers sansculottes

Rapid reform, system of laws, wider suffrage

Jaques Brissot,
M&Mme Roland,
Condorcet, A. Sieyes
Keep king as a figurehead, prime minister or president.
Parliamentary system.
Weak executive, strong legislative. Limited suffrage. Reform gradually, use laws. Count Of Artios

Anarchy

J.P. Marat,
G.J. Danton,
C. Desmoulins
Republic. One house, broader suffrage but not for women

Lafayette, Mirabeau

Agenda

Robespierre,
St. Just
Couthon,
“republic of pure virtue” idealism, vague Very slow and careful gradualllllllllllllly change, natural laws.
Some (newer) nobles, some clergy

Violence may be necessary to get back lost power
Upper-class (old wealth) nobles, upper clergy Supporters

Leaders bourgeoisie, intellectuals. Followers
 sans-culottes

Upper bourgeoisie

- 26 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o



Bastille- prison, a symbol of royal despotism, held dissenters. Peasants went and took the gunpowder. When they killed the governor (of the bastille), they put his head on a pike. This was the beginning of VIOLENCE! [bang bang!]



Louis was really scared. He recognized the Commune of Paris (a new government of the city of Paris). New national guard, under the command of Lafayette (a hero of the American Revolutionary War)



The great [grape] fear: violence between the peasants and the nobles. Some aristocrats began to renounce their feudal rights



Poissonards: Women from the fish market (poisson means fish), had knives for gutting, they could gut people like a fish [like Katie Evans]. It was raining, guards of the palace saw them and decided to invite them in and give them food. They found the King and Queen COWERING IN FEAR, Marquis de Lafayette made them compromise (they wanted to kill Marie Antoinette), instead they just had the royal family move to the Tuileries, a lesser palace in Paris.



TURNING POINT: The center of the revolution was in Paris, Nat’l Assembly moved to
Paris as well.



June 1791-King and Queen try to eschape



Dressed like bourgeoisie: went in a carriage, headed towards the Austrian
Netherlands (Varenne) to meet up with the émigrés (nobles who had fled during the Great Fear

o




Count of Artois (Louis XVI’s brother) had led the émigrés.

Were found out by a drunk guy, brought back to Paris and put under Palace
Arrest

Declaration of Pillnitz



Issued by Leopold of Austria



Said they would stifle France, but only if all of Europe came with them



Olympe de Gouge- Wrote The Rights of Women, argued women should have property, education, and the right to divorce.



Civil Constitution of the Church- King is forced to pass this: Church is a department of the state, bishops are elected, clergy has state-funded salaries and all have to swear an oath of loyalty.


Considered by many historians (and Mrs. Lansell) to be the biggest mistake of the revolution.



Created a split in religion when Pope Pius VI denounced the Civil
Constitution.

- 27 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o o •



Refractory Clergy- more devout Catholics, included King and many peasants. Being part of this gave one a reason to be anti-revolution.
Constitutional Clergy- strong revolutionaries—there was no strong reason to be part of this.

Assignats- Government bonds backed by repossessed Church lands—each bill was redeemable for church land, eventually became the currency of the
Republic.

The National Assembly



King has suspensive veto- can delay voting on legislation for 4 years. Also control army and foreign policy.



Passive Citizens- Men who do not pay taxes.



Active Citizens- Men who pay taxes. o Electors- active citizens with high property requirements.



France was divided into 83 Departments (instead of the provinces)



Paris Commune- Municipality of Paris, controlled by the people. Essentially idealistic communism (even though Marx hadn’t come up with it yet?)

o

Controlled by Enragés



Jews and Protestants have full political rights



No slavery

o

Toussaint L
’Ouverture- Enraged at the continuation of slavery in the colonies, led a slave rebellion in Hispaniola (now Haiti)



Brunswick Manifesto- Issued by Duke of Brunswick of Prussia— threatened to destroy Paris if the King or his family were harmed.



Sans Culottes o Stormed the Tuileries and killed 600 Swiss mercenary guards, because they were bored and had nothing better to do.

o

September Massacres- [Raped, killed, pillaged, and burned]



• o Lafayette is somehow No Longer the Commander: he flees and captured by
Austrians and put in Jail until Napoleon comes and Frees Him.
Paris Commune forces the National Assembly to create a new Legislative Body using UMS: this was called the National Convention

European Reactions to the French Revolution

- 28 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



 o William Pitt the Younger [dumbest name ever], British PM, hoped that the war would finally end the rivalry between the two nations.
EDMUND BURKE- Wrote Reflections on the French Revolution, opposed the French
Revolution, predicting it would become more violent [Well done, Edmund Buuuuurke!]

THE REIGN OF TERR[i]ER [Puppies?](Actually TerrOr)



Montagniards- Radical Jacobins- named because they chose to sit above all the others in the National Convention



The Plain- Girondists, moderates. Believed in Laissez-Faire, supported a strong legislative government.



Committee of Public Safety- Comprised of Danton, Carnot, and Maximilien
Robespierre [who is incorruptible, right?]



Vendée- Area of France which uprose because the Revolutionary Tribunal
(specifically Carnot, head of the military) created a Levée en Masse, or mandatory draft on every male 16-25. This angered the peasants because it took away their strong men right before the harvest.



Law of Maxim- Froze wages and prices. Price controls benefited the Sans-Culottes.



Law of Suspects- Empowers the Revolutionary Tribunal (Committee of Public
Safety) to arrest anyone suspicious or suspected.





Banned women from politics
Censored the press

Jean-Paul Marat- Journalist, published names of dissenters, stabbed by Charlotte
Corday






The day after he died was Bastille Day, so he was considered the martyr of the revolution and statues were made in his honor.
Jacobins used his death as justification of the terror

Jacobins tried to create a Republic of Virtue, where they removed all traces of the old regime.


Created a new calendar



Removed all traces of religious symbols



Created the Cult of the Supreme Being- a religion celebrating virtue,
Roman influence. Worship every 10 days (weeks were 10 days long in the revolutionary calendar) o •

Supreme Being was pretty much Robespierre.

Guillotined political enemies, circa 20,000 people.

- 29 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o



Many were Girondists.

Desmoulins (a Cordelier) wrote for a newspaper, in which he called for the end of the terror and therefore was arrested by Robespierre


Danton supported his theory (was also a Cordelier) and was arrested too



No Cordeliers are left, so only the Jacobins are in power.



Robespierre’s popularity wanes o Robespierre says he has a list of all the traitors in the National
Assembly and that he will read it the next day

o

Overnight they decide he is a traitor
He is arrested





He tried to shoot himself and fails o 

Thermidorean Reaction- People get mad, 100 leading Jacobins are guillotined



The White Terror- Any association with Jacobins or Robespierre would get you guillotined.

o o They execute him

Napoleon was arrested, but he managed not to get guillotined.

The Directory



The Council of Ancients- People aged 40+: They voted on legislation which the
Council of 500 created. They had 3 year terms.



The Council of 500- General assembly: had to be aged 30+. 2/3 of them had to have been in the National Convention.


• o Royalists were upset because they had left the National Convention earlier.
Tough luck, guys!
2/3 law reaction: Royalists are protesting over the 2/3 law, peasants are generally angry over bad harvests and such so royalists let them fight too.

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE



Paul Barras was about to be in the directory.



He has a mistress: Josephine Beauharnais



Barras introduces her to Napoleon and they marry, but not through the church
(this will piss off the Pope later).

- 30 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o



Two days after their honeymoon, Napoleon goes back to Italy and
Josephine goes back to Barras.

Barras hears about the 2/3 reaction and he calls on Napoleon.

o

The Day of the Sections: Napoleon gets 40 cannons.

o

Puts them in an arc around the palace, facing down.

o

Cannons were loaded with a “whiff of grapeshot”


Great success for Napoleon.



Napoleon’s army invades Italy



Napoleon is named Commander of the Interior of Italy




Treaty of Campo Formio- land restored to status ante bellum (before war)




He says he is “liberating them from Austrian rule”

Napoleon enters into diplomacy himself

Napoleon goes to Egypt



Supply lines are cut at the Battle of Aboukir by British Admiral Nelson



Brings scientists to Egypt to make discoveries

o

Discovers Rosetta Stone

o

Scientific discoveries used as propaganda to misconstrue the war as a success 

Very few actual military victories



Soldiers beset with Bubonic Plague



Morale low





Supply lines were cut

Eventually he leaves his troops there alone, when revolution breaks out again in France

Napoleon eats the Directory- COUP D’ETAT: Joins Abbé Siéyès, creates the Executive
Council with him, Siéyès, and Ducos (18th of Brumaire)



Napoleon is First Consul, has his constitution passed by plebiscite- vote over all of France



Council of State- Cabinet



Council of Tribunes- Debate legislatures [masterfully.]

- 31 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




Legislative Assembly- no discussions for you, could only vote yes or no

Napoleonic Reforms


Napo plebiscites into consul for life



Concordat of 1801 with Pius VII- Catholicism is the cool, church gives up claims on the lands sold as assignats, still tolerant to protestants and Jews, no more revolutionary calendar o Peace pope [Ben and Jerry’s?]



Price controls curb inflation



Encourage textile metal, shoes, and hat industries, etc



Built roads and canals



System of free public schools, meritocracy [No dumbs allowed.]



Encouraged émigrés to return with amnesty and take oath of loyalty



Peasants keep assignats and land they have captured during rev.



Job meritocracy



Napoleonic Code- new code of laws o Universal codified law accessible to all, centralized

o

Safeguarded rights of property holders

o

Property divided amongst all sons (no mo’ primogeniture)



o

Allowed for wealth to spread rather than horded
Thus state is more powerful than all because no one gains too much power

Paternal system at home




Women can’t divorce, own/transfer property
Father can send son to jail

Plebiscites himself into emperorship



Treaty of Luneville- (fighting with those pesky Austrians) reaffirms Campo Formio, except France now expands towards the Rhine



Coalitions:



First: BRA vs France

- 32 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Second: PRAB vs France

o o France at peace: Treaty of Amiens

o



Trafalgar: Nelson dies, but French fleet destroyed

French need $$, sell Louisiana

Third: BRA(P) vs. France o Napo defeats Austrians at Ulm, Russians at Austerliz

o

Napo abolishes HRE and creates Confederacy of the Rhine, a week loose grouping of German states

 o Prussians join Coalition, try to gain control over Confederacy of the Rhine, Napo defeats them at the Battle of Jena

Tsar Alexander I and NapoTreaty of Tilsit



Peace between Russia and France [hah.]





Prussia is reduced in size, and ally of France

Russia agrees to abide to the continental system

Berlin Decree introduced the Continental System:


ban British goods from import into French controlled countries and allies



ended up weakening the internal economies, created angry angry citizens, not enlightened (no free trade)



England responds with Orders in Council: all neutral ships had to stop in
Britain, naval blockade around Europe

o o Milan Decree: Napo forbids ships from British inspection

War with SPAIN


Revolt against incompetent Charles IV brings incompetent Ferdinand VII



Napoleon puts brother Joseph on throne



Spanish try to expel non-Catholic French, French become brutal to Spanish

o o Francisco Goya’s paintings show French soldiers shooting at innocent
Spanish, Giant with people running from it, Satan devours his child

Invasion of Russia


Russia leaves Continental System



Napoleon creates Grand Army of 600,000

- 33 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Russians retreat as French advance, Russians burn Moscow so that French can’t ransack it


Hurt Russian peasants, [vodka solves all problems.]



 o Winter eats Napo’s army, only 40,000 return to France (Russians fought some too.)
Duke of Wellington pushes French army through Spain, Napo abdicates

Congress of Vienna: PRAB (Talleyrand watched for France, but had no say)


Successes



Restored Spanish, Naples [which are showing], Sardinia, Papal States, Prussian and Austrian Monarchies o Austria gets Venetia and Lombardy until Italian Unification




Britain gets Ceylon, Cape Colony [where one is only allowed to wear capes], maintains Malta, Helgoland, becomes protectorate over Ionian islands and
Duchy of Hanover



Creation of German Confederation to replace Confederation of Rhine
(Germany has less power since it is divided)



Sweden restored and enlarged, retains Norway




Formed Kingdom of Netherlands (More kingdoms more division of land, more distribution of power)

Russia takes Finland [Schlip schlap.]

Failures


Did not address liberalism



Did not address nationalism



Did not address industrialization o o

Britain doing its own thing now

Alliances



Holy [owie] Alliance: PRA (nobody really followed it though)




Quadruple Alliance: PRAB (also never really followed through)




Christian [Bale] states won’t fight each other

Collective Security

Both created by Alexander I, he’s the only one that tries to abide by them

- 34 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

Hundred Days




Napo comes back, Louis XVIII flees again




Napo gone in France White Terror against Jacobins and supporters

Defeated at Waterloo [H2OToilet] by Wellington

11: Europe from 1815 to 1871

o

Conservatism: rejection of reform


Edmund Burke






Reflections on the Revolution in France [he was in the pool.],
Attack on Rights of Man: they are dangerous to social order, tradition is important when it comes to authority, gradual political change good, reactionary change bad

Joseph de Maistre: Émigré during French revolution


Church should be foundation / society, authority comes from god



Monarchs should be stern with people who advocate political reform [go to your room.] o o

“First servant of crown should be the executioner”

Nationalism: people’s identity is defined by connection to a nation




National Conscription creates feelings towards nation rather than town

 o Reaction to expansion of France

Grimm Brothers- published German folktales, led to intense nationalism [by Hansel and Gretel, om nom nom]

Liberalism: protecting the rights of individuals by limiting the power of the state


Comes from enlightened ideals, such as natural rights, constitutions, parliamentary government 

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations


Break control of state over economy o Boo mercantilism



Coined Laissez-Faire



Advocated for invisible hand (market forces will decide flow of goods and services) [or, you know, ghosts]

- 35 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Balance between supply and demand

Thomas Malthus: Essay on Population


Eventually, supply for food9hrs per day, 12-18 couldn’t work >12hrs/day.

- 40 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Luddite- followers of fictional leader Ned Ludd, refused to embrace new technologies. o



Sought to create cooperative societies

Socialism



Karl Marx- Writes of scientific socialism with Friedrich Engels

o

Communist Manifesto: Capitalism leads to creation of the proletariat
(working class) which would one day rise and remove the capitalists that exploited them



During the period of removal, the Dictatorship of the
Proletariat, the gov’t would be communist



Marx and Engels form The Communist League based on the
Communist Manifesto

o o First International: Organization to advance the working class

o o Das Kapital: Capitalism extracts profits from labor

Marx dies, Engels creates Second International, a loose confederation of Marxist groups

National Unification


Crimean War: between Russians and French/British/Ottomans





Charge of the Light Brigade (a poem by Tennyson) captured British stupidity.
Florence Nightingale revolutionized field nursing in the army

Unification of Italy (Resorgimento)



Pope Pius IX, a conservative: Revolutionaries don’t try to unify with him



Mazzini romanticized Italian nationalism



Count Camillo Di Cavour- entered Crimean War on the side of France, established good relations o •

France was interested anyways, since Austria was a traditional enemy and they controlled Italy

Napoleon III and Sardinia conquer some land back o Popular Rebellions in Italy: Tuscany, Parma, Modena are all revolting, and then they plebiscite to join Sardinia


P.S. Plebiscite is actually a noun, not a verb.

- 41 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




Cavour afraid that Garibaldi would unify Italy under himself and not
Piedmont/Sardinia, so he blocked Garibaldi



Victor Emmanuel: First king of Italia



o

Giuseppe Garibaldi- was in Mazzini’s Young Italy, led 1000 red shirts to
TERRIFY his enemies [Wouldn’t you be terrified by a bunch of floating shirts?]

Revolutionaries hostile to Catholic church, banned Catholics from national elections (although the Catholics ignored it)

German Unification



Prussia enjoyed economic power through creation of Zollverein: a union which made it so you didn’t have to go through customs when going through German states




Austria, excluded from this union, lost power.

William I of Prussia made Otto Von Bismarck his prime minister


Bismarck made a speech: Prussia would gain power through blood and through iron (through military and through industrialism) o Parliament refuses to pass his budget, but Bismarck ignores this and collects taxes and implements reforms anyway

o

Germans defeat Danes through alliance with Austria

o

Germans ally with Italy and defeat Austrians in Seven Week War


Able to declare war on Austria over the issue of Holstein being under Austrian control after the war

o

o

Annexed several German states that had assisted Austria

o



Ignored the advice of King and Generals, who wanted a victory parade in Vienna: treated Austria with leniency to keep it out of his upcoming war with France

Northern Prussia created the Northern German Confederation;
Southern Prussia remained independent, but created military alliance.

The Story of Spain


Bismarck set up the kingship of Spain so a kinsman of the Prussian king would be invited to take the throne, knowing Napoleon III would disagree.



William I of Prussia withdrew his cousin’s name



Bismarck rewrote the Ems Dispatch telegram to make it seem as through
William I insulted France.



Outraged French public orders Napoleon III to declare war on Prussia

- 42 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o o 

Prussia DESTROYS them
William I is proclaimed at Versailles the German Emperor

German Empire



Enemy of France, who lost Alsace and Lorraine



Tensions with Great Britain over colonial empires in Africa



Kulturkampf- Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church o All church appointments controlled by the state




Bismarck called for censorship of Socialists o o

Bismarck backed away from this because of Catholic resentment As a result, Socialism became taboo and people became more interested in it

France



Georges Haussmann- Cleaned up Parisian slums



Brought fresh water into sewers, removed cholera.

• o Built wide avenues

That is all this section has about France.

Great Britain



Great Exhibition of 1851- raunchy show by the queen of England


Displayed enormous industrial prowess of Britain



John Paxton- Constructed first prefabricated building, called the Crystal Palace



PM Benjamin Disraeli passes Second Reform Bill, extends the vote to urban heads of households

• o PM William Gladstone extends this to rural areas

Russia


Alexander II


Freed serfs, but they had to buy their freedom



Introduced zemstvos, district assemblies which would deal with local issues.



Assassinated by revolutionary organization People’s Will

- 43 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

Austria

 o Austria and Hungary were united by Grand Emperor Franz Joseph

Ottoman Empire


Sultan Abdul Mejid


Tried to adopt Western war-waging methods



Introduced equality before law and freedom of religion






Young Turks- Revolutionary group which pushed reform into gov’t and created constitutional monarchy
Sultan Abdul Hamid II crushed constitutional monarchy

Chap. 12: Europe from 1871-1914 o Second Industrial Revolution


Steel




Henry Bessemer- The Bessemer process for producing steel in high quantities •

William Siemens- Even cheaper way of producing higher-quality steel




Late 1850s- “The age of steel”

Strength and durabilityRevolution in architecture and shipbuilding

Electricity




1881- Power station built in GB



Electric lightsSafer cities, expansion of “night life”




Thomas Edison- Incandescent lamp

Electric tramways, city transportation increases

Transportation


Rail network expands



Suez canal built by French (British gain control of it) o •

Halved the amount of time needed to transport goods between Britain and India

Speedy clipper ships cross Atlantic Ocean faster, but by end of century are replaced by steamships

- 44 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Trains, steamships now use ice-making machines to protect perishables and transport them around the world o •

Karl Benz- Internal combustion engine, powered by gas

o



US, Australia, Argentina become providers of European provisions

1903- Henry Ford, Model T

Orville, Wilbur Wright- fly airplanes in 1903

Communication and Education



Universal public education people want to write letters



1830- Telegraph invented o •

1876- Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone o •

By 1850 Europe covered in telegraph lines

By 1900 huge telephone boom

Social o o



Telephones and Telegraphs used to organize social events [much like
Facebook]
They would use new technology such as the phonograph and motion pictures Other Scientific Developments

o

Synthetic dyes- revolutionized textile industry

o

Man-made fertilizers [eeeeeeeeew]- increase crop yields

o

Alfred Nobel- dynamite


Used to blast through “inconvenient spots of nature” such as hills or rocks

o

Faraday- properties of electromagnetism

o

Joule defines many laws of thermodynamics

o

Mendeleev- develops the periodic table

o

Rontgen- discovers X-rays

o

Becquerel discovers radioactivity, Marie Curie isolates radium

o

Ernest Rutherford- defines atomic structure

- 45 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

Planck- theories of quantum physics, energy flow in the unit quanta

o

Albert Einstein- Undermines Newton’s concept of universe




Philosophy

o


Theory of Relativity where time, space, movement are not absolute Nietzsche- Ubermensch==“superman”, questioned the ideas of the enlightenment, it is necessary to break free from morality and religion

Psychoanalysis

o

Sigmund Freud- Studied the subconscious, created a list of Freudian symbols 




Said that violence lies at the core of humanity
Continuous progress is unlikely

Advances in Medicine

o o Pasteur explained vaccines, developed pasteurization of milk

o


Morten develops anesthesia

Semmelweis revolutionized giving birth, said that doctors and nurses should wash their hands prior to delivery

Darwin

o

Charles Lyell claimed that geological evidence proved that the earth was older than the Bible said

o

Charles Darwin- The Origin of the Species, coined term “natural selection”, The Descent of Man said that humans evolved from simpler forms of life

o

Herbert Spencer- Survival of the fittest






Labeled Social Darwinism when applied to people, used to justify that Europeans were superior to Africans and Asians
Brought about a new wave of anti-Semitism

Social Class and the Second Industrial Revolution o Age of the Middle Class


Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Teachers, Manufacturers,
Merchants

- 46 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

Families considered “middle class” had at least one servant and a taste for consumer goods, would go traveling





o

Socialism



Edward Bernstein challenged Marx’s basic ideas in
Evolutionary Socialism, he and his followers labeled revisionists






Thought that capitalism was not about to collapse, so
Socialism should focus on progressive developments within capitalism [where have we seen that in the past eleven weeks?] rather than a revolution

Karl Kautsky- Strict following of Marx’s laws


o

Thomas Cooke popularized travel among middle class when he organized trips to “the great exhibition in
London”

Said the socialist movement could be passive because it was inevitable

Joseph Proudhon- Even more radical, system of anarchism, possession of property is theft, society should follow the laws of nature instead of authority

Social and Cultural Developments


Religion


Secular rulers use religion to maintain social order



Catholicism

o

Spain declares it to be the national religion

o

Pope Pius IX forced to flee Rome because of revolution [it’s hard out here for a pope]



Wrote Syllabus of Errors where he cited liberalism as an error of modern life



Doctrine of Papal Infallibility- on matters of faith, the pope is always right

o

Bismarck tried to control Germany through Catholicism and the
Kulturkampf, stopped after he noticed that taking control of religion was having little effect

o

Pope Leo XIII- issues Rerum Novarum, reaffirmed right of property, bashed socialism, said Christianity and the church had as responsibility towards the poor

- 47 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Catholic Social Movement in Italy and France
Protestants gave to the poor

The Bible as History

o

David Friedrich Strauss- search for “historical Jesus”




Wrote The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined

Religion for the Working Class o Working class has less of a connection to religion

o

French peasant girl Bernadette sees vision of Virgin Mary, people flock to her
In some areas, small religious revivals




Judaism and Zionism o Anti-Semitism



o

Stems from Social Darwinism
Jews created department stores, putting small shopkeepers out of business

Dreyfus Affair



Alfred Dreyfus convicted of crime he did not commit because of anti-Semitism



Emile Zola writes “J’accuse,” an attack on anti-Semites in the system o o 

In Russia there were pogroms- political tools for redirecting the anger of the people from the throne to a scapegoat (the Jews)
Theodore Herzl- leading advocate for Zionism, writes The Jewish
State arguing Jews must have a state of their own

The Rights and Role of Women



Cult of Domesticity- in Victorian period, woman expected to exhibit certain traits such as sexual purity, religious piety, and to run the household and raise the children



Limit to women’s education and work o Women begin to be allowed to attend universities in 1860s and 1870s

o

Still not allowed to practice medicine or law

- 48 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Certain occupations almost completely female: primary school teacher, nurse, secretary, librarian

Women struggle for increased rights o Feminist movement


In Greece, feminist newspaper

o o •

Suffragists- women who worked peacefully to get the vote
Womens’ Social and Political Union- formed by Emmeline
Pankhurst, would heckle political speakers, break church windows, commit arson

Culture Changes o New Women





Birth control leads to promiscuity
More professional opportunities

Emergence of Social Sciences


History [Dominion of Mrs. Lansell the Chic]

o

Leopold von Ranke analyzes Roman history




Anthropology: Study of humans o •

Used as proof for inferiority of non-Europeans

Sociology o 

Tries to represent the past as it actually was, using original sources Inspired by the growing tendencies of governments to keep statistics on the condition of citizens

The Arts



Romanticism- Rejection of cold rationalism of neoclassicism, placing higher value on emotions and feeling



Romanticism in Literature

o

Jean-Jacques Rousseau- Emile, a story of a young man who learns from nature

o

Wolfgang von Goethe- Sorrows of Young Werthe Main character kills himself when his love for a woman when his love is not returned.

- 49 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

Became so popular than young men across Europe began killing themselves. [This was the start of “don’t try this at home”]



Also wrote Faust, a man sells his soul to the devil to achieve material success [based on a true story]

o

Wordsworth and Coleridge: ignore rules of punctuation, reject classical form.

o

Sir Walter Scott- Ivanhoe, Victor Hugo- Hunchback of Notre Dame


Glorified the medieval past

o o Lord Byron challenged the political status quo

o


Percy B. Shelley wrote of Prometheus challenging the established order Georges Sand challenged oppression of women

Music

o

Beethoven breaks with tradition by adjusting the length of composition, putting vocal soloists at the end of a final movement


First composer to earn his living from proceeds off of performances rather than patrons

o o Berlioz- Set Faust to music, attempted to tell the story without text or singers o

Chopin- Influenced by peasants in Poland

o

Liszt- Wrote music based on traditional gypsy music (see Vivi
Tuckwaite)

o

Verdi- Writes Carmen, seduction of a young soldier by a ruthless gypsy o

Stravinsky- would write jarring music, rejecting every element of classical ballet

o

Eugene Delacroix- Captured overthrow of Charles X

o

Millet- showed peasants growing out of the earth like grain

o

Daumier- Political cartoons on the July Monarchy

o



Schubert- invented the lied, or art song, a solo voice performing the melody and a piano as the accompaniment

Photography

Art

- 50 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Louis Daguerre- Discovered a way of developing photographs called the Daguerrotype



George Eastman- Introduced flexible film and box cameras


o

Made photography popular and cheap

Realists


Credo of Realism: That which cannot be seen with the eye is outside the frame of the painting



Painted the world around them without any illusions



Courbet- Showed peasants in grim reality



In Literature




George Eliot- Middlemarch, a beautiful woman marries a hideous old man hoping he will give her knowledge and she will be able to broaden her view of the world.



Flaubert- Madame Bovary, marriage is not a fairy tale



Tolstoy- Anna Karenina, a bored woman engages in an affair which leads to dangerous results; also War and
Peace, about Napo’s invasion in Russia, ordinary people can get caught up in events over which they have no control •

o

Charles Dickens- Hard Times, in which the working man struggles with forces out of his control

Dostoyevsky- Sentenced to 10 years in Siberia for being in an illegal political group, wrote Crime and
Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov about psychological and moral obligations of man

Post-Realist Art: Impressionists and Expressionists



Manet- Broke with tradition, painted nudes (in the past, these were only acceptable from classical mythology)





Decides not to show paintings, but Napoleon III shows them in the Salon des Refusés, exhibition of the rejected Impressionism- Focus changes from “look at what is here” to
“look at how I see it”, use of new painting styles to dramatically represent light and texture.

- 51 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Renoir- captured everyday scenes



Degas- Showed “behind-the-scenes” world of ballet and horseracing •

Cezanne- Challenged traditional perspective and use of color, tried to make impressionism into something durable. Used different forms in geometry to abstractly draw landscapes and still lifes of fruit. Considered the father of modern art.



Van Gogh- Early on, painted dark scenes such as The
Potato Ears showing the economically struggling, later painted landscapes of flowers and trees using contrast of light and dark, cool and hot.



Edvard Munch- [Om nom nom nom] The Scream, sought to reveal emotions rather than portray how things looked on the surface



Klimt- Avant-garde, rejected values of society and shocked viewers through vibrant use of color





Monet- Tried to capture different kinds of light in landscapes, used a variety of brushstrokes in one painting to identify motion

Picasso- Cofounder of cubism (with Braque), drew heavily on Cezanne’s use of geometry, viewed subjects from multiple angles (came from brief work with sculpting) to represent them from all sides.

New Imperialism


Conquest and establishment of colonies in Africa and Asia



Technological Advances

o

Breach-loading rifles, allowing user to fire lying down

o

Suez Canal allows for rapid transport

o

Steamships eliminate reliance on wind power

o

Telegraph between India and London

o

Discovery of quinine (treated malaria)



Social Imperialists- view imperialism as a means of getting rid of overpopulation •

Nationalism- method of increasing power by establishing colonies

- 52 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Spread of Christianity o •

To those lower than us supreme European Christians

Social Darwinism

o o •

White races were destined to have sovereignty over inferior people of
Asia and Africa- Noblesse Oblige
Berlin Conference discusses the moral imperative behind imperialism

Balance of Power o All countries wanted to be able to keep each other in check



All of Africa was divided among European powers, except Ethiopia [Ezra] who defeated Italians, and Liberia who was a US ally



British dominance over India

o o British establish central government and significant English forces in the area

o



Indian Mutiny (Sepoy Rebellion)

British invest in irrigation systems, railways, cities

China- an informal empire of Britain: Britain has influence over the economy without political control o After fighting Europeans the Chinese were forced to grant European control over treaty ports



French seize control of Indo-China



US seizes the Philippines in Spanish-American War



Japan gains control over Korea



Leopold II of Belgium cruelly enslaved, maimed, killed millions in pursuit of profits in Congo o Forced to concede control to the Belgian government



Britain and Russia- struggle in “Great Game” over “generally worthless territory of Afghanistan”



Britain and France almost go to war over Fashoda in Sudan, France and
Germany over Morocco



Kaiser Wilhelm II pushed Bismarck into retirement because Bismarck only interested in Europe and not Africa

- 53 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



13a: World War I

o

Triple Entente- BFR

o

Triple Alliance- GAI

o

Causes


Political and social tensions in



Britain and Ireland— after the famines, Ireland wanted independence though unionists in Ireland wanted to maintain union o o


Britain full of labor conflicts over stagnation of wages
Signed the Entente Cordiale with France, resolving colonial issues

France o o



Dreyfus Affair revealed French anti-Semitism and the extent to which may French despised the Republican form of government
Growing question of whether Catholic Church should be in French life and government

Russia

o



Russo-Japanese war revealed complete bankruptcy of Russia, leading to revolution and creation of Duma, parliament, which Czar Nicholas II agreed to

Germany o Worker agitation on the rise, Kaiser afraid of socialist revolution

o

Bismarck created Dual Alliance with Austro-Hungarians but signed
Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to make it clear that the Dual
Alliance was defensive and not meant to show hostility to Russia.




Austria-Hungary

o o Kaiser Wilhelm II is an idiot and does not renew Reinsurance
Treaty, making Russians fearful

Magyarization- dominance of Magyar language, creates hostility

Increased Militarization


Britain has most powerful navy, Germany most powerful army; the two respect that




Germany begins to encroach on Britain’s navy

Germany built a fleet of powerful ships known as dreadnoughts, making British fleet obsolete - 54 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

Crisis in the Balkans



Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria assassinated by a Bosnian serf in Sarajevo



o

Assassinated by member of Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group with strong ties to Serbian officials
Austrians issued an ultimatum designed to provoke war with Serbia

The Course of the War


Russia guarantees to protect Serbs



Austria backed by Germany



Russia starts mobilizing so Germany declared war on them



Jean Jaurès- socialist, spoke out against war as a pacifist, was then shot


French join the war against Germany and Austria



Everyone thought this would be a short war, because the Austro-Prussian and FrancoPrussian war had been short



New technologies-Machine guns, barbed wire, mines, powerful artillery, airplanes
(used for covert ops, not for attack)



Schlieffen Plan- Germans would advance through Northern France


Expectation that France would soon be out of the war



German Military transported East by rail to attack Russia



Swept through Belgium, breaking the promise of Belgian neutrality o Great Britain enters war



German troops threaten Paris; French government flees [to England?]



Battle of Marne- French army counterattacks, stops Germans



Trench Warfare





At first, rapidly dug ditches; as stalemate continues, fortifications built
Trenches surrounded by barbed wire to trap attacking soldiers

Poison Gas


Used by both sides



Gas masks used as protection o Even so, modern warfare had become increasingly inhumane

- 55 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Britain launches attack on Turkey, organized by Churchill [World’s biggest badass]


Churchill reasoned that knocking Turks out would allow Britain to send supplies to Russia through Black Sea o 

Turks were well-entrenched and the attack failed

Germany launches huge military offensive against Verdun, a French fortress




o

French defended it under General Philippe Pétain
If French were to lose Verdun, this would cause a great disaster in French public opinion

The End of the War



Zimmerman Note from Germany to Mexico encouraged Mexico to attack the US, enraged American public.


German U-Boat sank the Lusitania because it had British people and a lot of ammunition, but a bunch of Americans died so the US public was again outraged 

Germans tried to quickly hold Paris but lack of materials leads to eventual retreat as
Americans show up.



Prince Max Von Baden contacts Woodrow Wilson to settle an armistice based on
Wilson’s 14 Points with a League of Nations



Kaiser in Germany feared there would be a revolution like Russia’s Bolshevik
Revolutionhe abdicates


o

A republic is established which signs the Armistice

Versailles Treaty and the Costs of the War


23 million died in the war; soon after, outbreak of influenza in which 30 million die



Hundreds of towns in France and Belgium destroyed



Everyone in Europe now heavily in debt to US



Treaty of Versailles


Had 14 points & provisions to create a League of Nations



French leader Clemenceau wanted to cripple Germany because France had lost proportionally the most people



British PM David Lloyd-George also wanted to see Germany punished
(wanted naval superiority)

- 56 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Final treaty forced Germany to accept all responsibility for the outbreak of the war o o Germany had to pay huge reparations that it couldn’t actually afford

o

Had to return Alsace-Lorraine

o


What Hitler most disagreed with: said this was Germany’s biggest shame in history

Would be demilitarized

Other results


Czechoslovakia created



Hungary independent



Romania created



Serbia gains land, becomes Yugoslavia



Poland independent



Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland created from western Russian Empire o •

o

Started out as democracies, all but Czechoslovakia become dictatorships because of social issues

Britain had promised a land for the Jews in return for aid in the war, but actually nope I don’t think so

Russian Revolution



During WWI Czar Nicholas II took personal command of the army, left wife
Alexandra in control of the state






Alexandra was under the influence of Russian monk Rasputin, who she thought could control her son’s hemophilia
Rumors were going around that the (German-born) empress and Rasputin were not only sleeping together, but also trying to get Russia defeated

Provisional Government



In Petrograd (former and current St. Petersburg) food shortage, people demonstrate against gov’t and troops called out to put down the demonstration (they joined them instead)



Czar abdicates, provisional government (members of the Duma) take control



Menshevik and Socialist revolutionary parties control the government

- 57 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

o



Small minority fall into the superrevolutionary group Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, claiming that a small group of “professional revolutionaries” could seize power on behalf of the working class.
Provisional government decided to delay the breaking up of great estates, which were to be broken up because of the war. The peasants decide to take them anyway.

The Triumph of the Bolsheviks


Bolsheviks build more and more strength, especially from workers

o

Led primarily by Leon Trotsky

o

Controlled key positions in the cities such as power stations, communication centers



Provisional government collapses, Bolsheviks gain power



Lenin believed this would be the first in a series of communist revolutions, accepted the peace with Germany, believing it would soon disappear and their territorial settlements would no longer matter

o

1917- Germans and Bolsheviks sign treaty of Brest-Litovsk removing
Russia from the war




Would have given Germany huge pieces of Russian land had
Germany not been defeated by the Allies

13b: The Interwar Years o The German Weimar Republic



Led by Friedrick Ebert, put down a rebellion by radical Marxists by using the old imperial officer corps



Military couldn’t put down rebellion alone, so Ebert gave approval for the formation of the Free Corps, voluntary paramilitary groups



Kappa Putsch- an attempt to overthrow the democratic state, a strike by workers put an end to it



Germany suffers from terrible inflation, exchange rate of 11 million marks to the dollar o 

Much worse than Great Depression

Stresmann- worked on getting economy back on its feet, died in 1929


Worked out agreements on reparations to make them less damaging to
German economy

- 58 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



o

Germany signed the Lucarno Agreement with France accepting the borders and French control over Alsace-Lorraine
Entered Germany into the League of Nations

The Soviet Experiment



Bolsheviks Communists; for 3 years fought White Forces, anti-communist




Russian communists founded Third International or Communist International




Launched Red Terror against their opponents

Known as Cominterm

Marxists turned to Soviet state for guidance





Most Socialists horrified by oppressive nature of Lenin’s regime
Led to a split between Socialists and Communists

Russian Civil War (Communists vs. White Forces)



Imposed War Communism, tight control by government



Rebellion by sailors at Kronstadt naval base, brutally crushed



Lenin replaces War Communism the New Economic Policy, NEP


Heights of industry in government hands, also some private enterprise



Economy makes quick recovery



Trotsky, leader of left opposition, argues for industrialization



Bukharin, leader of right opposition, wanted to continue NEP and focus on Russia



Lenin- Idealist, Stalin- Pragmatist- interested with improvements rather than debates



Stalin works with Bukharin to work Trotsky out of authority


Soon outs Bukharin as well



Series of Show Trials, former opponents tortured until they confess all sorts of crimes against the state



Set up detention camps in Siberia



Destroys anyone he perceives as disloyal to the state



Insecure about exiled Trotsky, sends an agent to assassinate him



Adopts the policy of the left opposition, turns Russia into an industrial nation

- 59 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o

Five Year Plan: centrally controlled plan for industrial expansion


Forcibly collectivized Russian agriculture

o

Hurt Kulaks, wealthy peasants

o

Sent people to kill any peasant who refused to join the collective farm, those who weren’t shot died of starvation


o

Destroyed crops rather than turn them over to communist state

The Great Depression




John Maynard Keynes- it is necessary to create government expenditure in public works to get the economy moving again (Keynesian economics)

 o Vienna’s most powerful bank, Credit-Anstalt, collapsed, causing domino effect

Countries raise tariffs, lowering free trade

Fascism- To destroy the notion of individual and push for a common community



Favored the idea of a strong leader, Il Duce for Italians, the Fuhrer for Germans



Corporatism- association of employers and worked within each industry, would fix any issue including wage issues



Against the political emancipation of women, hated modern art, despised religious factions and the Jews



Fascism in Italy


Held the Entente powers but received less of Austria-Hungary than they had hoped •

Benito Mussolini- once a socialist, broke with socialists when Italy entered the war

o

Founded the National Fascist Party, with paramilitary squads known as the Blackshirts to fight leftist opposition

o

Demanded that Victor Emmanuel III name him and other fascists to cabinet posts

o

Organized blackshirts to march on Rome to help convince Victor
Emmanuel

o

Victor Emmanuel named Mussolini as PM

o

Banned all non-fascist political activity

o

Signed Lateran Pact with the papacypapacy recognized the Italian state - 60 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



German Fascism


Adolf Hitler

o

Joined the German Worker’s Party, a socialist group, launched Beer
Hall Putsch in Munich, hoping to stage a socialist revolt in Germany


Goes to prison and writes Mein Kampf, outlining his extremist views •

Paul von Hindenburg- President of Weimar republic, selected Bruning to be leader of the Catholic party



In 1930 Nazis hold 130 seats of the Reichstag



Hindenburg removes Bruning, puts Franz von Papen in his place



Next election: Nazis have 196 seats, come into control



Hindenburg invites Hitler to become chancellor



Someone sets the Reichstag on fire in 1933, Nazis blame Communists, saying there is a communist plot o o

Nazis don’t get the vote, but Hitler passed the Enabling Act, giving the Nazis the authority to control the state and combining Chancellor +
President = The Fuhrer

o

Bans all political parties except Nazis

o

The SA, Nazi political army, provided an important role in coming to power, so Hitler organizes The Night of the Long Knives, in which he murders their previous ally and head of SA Ernst Rohm

o o Hitler encouraged Reichstag to grant him emergency powers

Create a ministry of propaganda under Goebbels, creating such organizations as Hitler’s Youth

Western Democracies in Crisis


Great Britain





Labour Party emerges
Now has high unemployment, urban slums, labor disputes

France


A number of parties on center left work together to block a fascist victory



The leader of the socialist party, Leon Blum, becomes PM and solves labor issues which have plagued France for decades

- 61 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus




Matignon Agreement-allows workers to bargain with employers, reduces work week to 40 hours, grants right to fully paid vacations

Spanish Civil War




A group of army officers under General Francisco Franco take control of
Spain



Germany and Italy support Franco, but Franco is not a fascist, just a conservative •

German and Italian planes bomb civilian population in Guernica to incite fear
(Picasso painted this)



Spanish make pact with Soviets, Soviets give them arms in exchange for
Spanish gold





Popular affront created against Spanish Fascists

Nationalists capture Madrid, triumphed over the republic

13c: World War II o Invasions


Austria




Anschluss: peaceful annexation of Austria, majority of Austrians celebrate by greeting Hitler in Vienna and attacking Jewish neighbors

Czechoslovakia



Neville Chamberlain [world’s greatest pansy] had a policy of appeasement
(Britain will do nothing in response to annexation so as not to have another world war) o Italy annexes Ethiopia, Britain does nothing

o

Germany threatens to invade Czechoslovakia unless Sudetenland is turned over to them



Chamberlain agrees (Munich Agreement)



In return, Hitler promises to respect Czechoslovakia’s sovereignty •



A year later, Hitler violates this agreement

Chamberlain returns to Britain promising “peace in our time”
[that worked out]

- 62 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Winston Churchill replies to this statement: “You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor and you will have war.”

Poland


Chamberlain works out an agreement with France which states that if
Germany invades Poland they will intervene, but being Chamberlain, of course nothing will happen. o •

Soviet Union had tried to join in on this, but was rebuffed because they didn’t trust Stalin (wanted Poland to itself)

Germany enters into a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union in which they will defend each other, also, split up Poland (9/1/39) between the two,
Russia gets the lands it lost in Versailles



Blitzkrieg warfare: swift tanks, warplanes



Winter 1939-40 called Phony War (no warfare going on)



April 1940 Germans attack Norway and Denmark to secure iron



May invade Belgium and Netherlands, then attack France



Fall of France


Blitzkrieg attacks and quick defeats in Scandinavia make French military scared. [like most things]



French military strategies seem obsolete



Maginot Line- series of strong defenses, thought it was impenetrable but
Germans went around



British retreat at Dunkirk, Belgium because they see impending French fall



New government formed under Pétain (Vichy Government) o • o Decided to pull France out of the war

Charles de Gaulle goes to London and calls for anti-Vichy army

Germany Against Great Britain


Hitler sees Britain as Aryan-like, thought they would join him after the fall of France



Winston Churchill replaces Chamberlain [thank god.], gives stirring speeches that state that GB will stay in the war


So Hitler decides to attack

- 63 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus





Britain has better planes and radar, cracked the enigma (a system for encrypting messages used by the Nazis)

 o Germans have more planes, trained pilots, led by Goering who raids British cities
(rather than bases where the British air force was, which gives them time to recover from earlier base attacks)

Hitler gives up on conquering GB, tries to attack Soviet Union

Holocaust



Soon after taking power, Nazis implement Nuremburg Laws, a set of laws that deprived Jews of citizenship and forced Jews to wear Yellow Stars of David on their clothing, restrictions on marriage, on employment, and on education



Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass- Germans attack synagogues, stores, homes, several hundred people killed, a large scale pogrom, many Jews shipped to concentration camps



The Jewish Question- What is to be done with the Jews? Answered by Adolf
Eichmann, who facilitated the creation of ghettos (enclosed living facilities where
Jews were forced to live) and concentration camps



Concentration Camps•

After conquest of Poland, largest concentration of Jews in the world now under
German control



At the Wannsee Conference, Hitler organizes the Final Solution: a method to more efficiently exterminate Jews and homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, gypsies, communists, prisoners of war, political opponents (concentration camps) •

Jews would be sorted upon arrival into workers and those immediately condemned to die in gas chambers

o

Doctor Mengele, known as the Angel of Death of Auschwitz, was one of many doctors who would perform experiments on Jewish guinea pigs



Auschwitz was the largest of these, having killed between 1.1-3 million Jews



Poland was the site of many camps to hide the Final Solution



9-11 million killed in the Holocaust, of which 6 million were Jews (2/3 of European
Jews exterminated)



Most Europeans either compliant or unaware.


Initial reports doubted because of huge numbers



Allied leaders preferred using planes to attack to reduce their own casualties rather than to attack railways which transported the Jews to these camps

- 64 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



o

Vichy officials rounded up Jews and turned them over before the Germans even asked

Turning of the Tide



Operation Barbarossa: German attack on the Soviet Union




Germans reach Stalingrad and Leningrad but cannot take the cities




Soviet forces caught unprepared

Soviet Union enters into Allies

War in North Africa


Italians enter war on Germany’s side as France collapses, attempt to push
British out of Egypt



Germans put Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) in Egypt, success



Battle of Alamein 60mi from Alexandria o o



British led by Montgomery push Germans and Italians back to Tunisia
US joins and helps Brits

US Involvement


Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, Hitler declares war on US



Push Axis out of Africa, attack Italy, Italy KO’ed in 1943



Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt organize D-Day in Tehran



Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Nagasaki



Japanese surrender unconditionally 8/14/45 VJ day



Germans lift siege of Leningrad, give up on Soviet Union



Hitler commits suicide


o

Germany surrender unconditionally 5/8/45 VE day

Aftermath



50-60 million casualties, majority civilian, majority Russian



Cities destroyed, firebombing of Dresden and other cities in Germany and England



Jews that survive death camps are displaced



Soviet POWs return, rearrested by Stalin (who thought they must be spied because they didn’t die in battle)

- 65 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Germans forced from their new homes in Poland and Czeckoslovakia



Allies decide to put Europe into Denazification



Nuremburg Trials of 11 people who committed war crimes during the war,
Crimes against Humanity concept o o




Many Nazis escape to Middle East, South America
Lower level Nazis received little punishment by claiming that they were just following orders

Americans transfer this process to Germans, who end it

14. Postwar Europe o European Stability





Revanchism: Political revenge based on the atrocities of war, for example the expulsion of Germans from Poland and Czeckoslovakia



Democratic Governments emerge

 o Atlantic Charter calls for the replacement of the ineffective League of Nations with the [moderately less ineffective] United Nations

Social Contract between workers and employers: Workers promised full employment, living wages, social welfare

Beginning of the Cold War


Causes:




Revisionists blame the United States trying to make the world safe for
American trade [“democracy!”]




Traditionalists blame the brutal Soviet dictatorship

Post-Revisionists say the responsibility lies with both

Yalta Conference on the Future of Germany


US, Great Britain, Soviet Union



Temporary Division of Germany into four parts o Fourth part for France, insisted GB

o

In the Soviet section, non-right-wing parties are re-established

o

Walter Ulbricht leader of German Communist Party (KPD) hopes that Germans will not want to go back to the Weimar and will try a new system of government

- 66 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

Unfortunately, because of the Soviet Union’s mass rape, dismantling of factories (so that the parts could be sent back to
Russian territories), and failure of land reform, Communists were not well liked



o


Ulbricht merges KPD with Social Democratic Party (SPD), in effect creating a one party state

Reparations: o Occupying powers would collect reparations from their own zones, but
Soviets get bonus 25% from all zones because of sacrifice

o

Gen Lucius Clay of America ends collection of reparation, soon followed by GB and Francegoods stop flowing into Soviet Union




Declaration of Liberated Europe- new gov’ts would be democratic with free elections

Increased Tensions outside Europe


During the war, Britain and Soviets occupy Iran. Britain leaves at the end of the war, Soviets don’t (and want oil), Truman sends warships to Persian Gulf,
Stalin leaves



Stalin tries to intimidate Turkey into giving him naval bases, but Truman scares him away there as well



In the US, George Kennan sends the Long Telegram o Soviets are our ideological enemy and we will never coexist

o

Containment: US must prevent Soviet Union from expanding communism 



Truman Doctrine: we must support free people who are under outside pressure

 o Greece: Communist-led insurgency quashed

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): US, GB, France,
Italy, others to counter the threat of Communism

Soviet Dominance over Eastern Europe



Percentages Agreement: divided Eastern Europe into spheres based on percentages of Soviet Influence (90% in Romania, 50% in Hungary, etc)



Iron Curtain (Winston Churchill)- Barrier between the Soviet Sphere and the free world, served to “keep people in and information out”



Poland

- 67 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Soviets did not move the troops they had in Poland and US+GB did not want to declare war



Communists receive 80% of the vote no multiparty state



Soviet Union tried to establish People’s Democracies in Eastern Europe (proletarian governments that would evolve into Communism)



Marshall Plan offered money to democracies, Stalin sees this as a threat, terrorizes non-Communist politicians in Hungary



Czechoslovakia






President Benes not Communist, but has pro-Communist foreign policy in order to keep independence
Czech Commies form People’s Militia to intimidate Benes into forming new gov’t dominated by commies

Yugoslavia: Civil war led by Commie Josip Tito against royalist Chetniks, they win


o

Stalin doesn’t like Tito because Tito is independent of the Soviets

End of Imperialism


Israel [land of fantastic dairy]




UN forms partitioned Palestine into Jewish (17.5%) and Arab (80%) homelands (The rest was occupied by Egypt)




Holocaust makes Zionist demands heard in UN after Britain withdraws from
Palestine

The Jewish state of Israel founded, immediately attacked by 8 Arab states, surprisingly wins in a year

Egypt



Abdul Nasser president of Egypt, tries to nationalize Suez Canal (which was under British control) o o



Britain, France, Israel surprise attack on Egypt
US and Soviet Union assert dominance and demand they pull out

Africa


Ghana [Land of Adoley], Nigeria [Land of the venerable Olubusayo Ayobami
Ayumi Awe], Sierra Leone, Uganda, Kenya declare independence



Brits in Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) declare independence and create white supremacist government

- 68 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Netherlands been fighting Indonesians, but now recognize independence



Indochina (Vietnam)





Ho Chi Minh leads nationalist revolution
France divides Vietnam into communist north and republic south

Algeria


• o France almost gets into civil war about keeping it a colony vs granting independence De Gaulle grants independence

Creation of a European Union



Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)- was supposed to handle the money provided by US through Marshall Plan




European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)- by Robert Schuman, organized coal and steel, thus any war would be impossible because of interdependence




Worked on lowering tariffs, eliminating trade barriers

Renamed European Parliament

Treaty of Rome establishes the European Economic Community (Common
Market) lifting almost all trade restriction




Maastricht Treaty leads to development of the Euro (except in UK where they didn’t want to give up the pound)



EEC changes name to European Union

• o European Single Act- bankers/insurance, capital, labor can freely move between member nations

European Constitution for increased efficiency, France votes no.

Post WWII Developments in Western Europe


Great Britain



Churchill and the Conservative Party replaced by Attlee and the Labour
Party



Economic and Social Reform

o

Sir William Beveridge says that adults should pay weekly benefits for sick, unemployed, retired, widowed

- 69 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o


Labour Party creates social welfare program with National Health
Service (NHS), free healthcare

Nationalization of Industries o o

Age of Austerity until 1954 when rationing comes to an end

o


Gov’t buys Bank of England, railroads, iron, electricity, steel

Politics of Consensus: Both parties agree we should provide social services and manage economy, but the difference is how.

Economic Decline o o

Little central economic planning like in France

o


Reliance on older technology in factories that is more expensive

Higher wages with less gains in productivity = inflation

Violence in Ireland o o

Bloody Sunday: Brits fire on civil rights marchers and kill 13 Catholics

o


Northern Ireland gets angry, Britain send troops

Irish Republican Army creates more violence towards Brits

Margaret Thatcher and onwards o First female prime minister

o

Thatcherism: tight control over money supply, cuts in public spending, cut in taxes for high earners

o

Reduce power of unions

o

Resigned, replaced by John Major who continued her policies and signed Maastricht Treaty





Tony Blair and Gordon Brown follow (though both are Labour rather than Conservative)

France


Propagandized Vichy years through myths that the French tried to resist the
German occupation and few complied



Charles de Gaulle steps away when the Fourth Republic will not establish strong presidency (repeating the mistake of the 3rd Rep)



De Gaulle returns, establishes Fifth Republic through plebiscite [these are still around?] with powerful presidency

- 70 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



France refuses to sign Limited Test Ban Treaty, tests H-bombs



Jean Monnet introduces Monnet Plan o Establishes Commissariat General du Plan (CGP), a group of professional businessmen to run the economy

o

Increased foreign investment

o

Americanization [coincidentally enough]- consumers buy cars, TVs, dishwashers •



Mitterrand, a moderate Socialist, becomes president and focuses on social reform and reducing unemployment



Replaced by Jacques Chirac, who tries to fix problems of racism and labor strikes, provides tax cuts and creates job programs




Students and workers demonstrate for wage increases and working conditions, de Gaulle resigns

Replaced by Nicolas Sarkozy, a buffoon married to supermodel Carla Bruni, who has large cheekbones

Italy



Christian Democrats are the new party versus Communists



Communists led by Antonio Gramsci who encouraged flexibility



Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI) created during fascist years, controls airlines, shipbuilding, chemical industry

o


Southern Question: what to do with the impoverished south? o •

Fiat is the only private automaker

Land reforms broke up large estates, but there is still a gap

1970s high unemployment, inflation, los of workdays to strikes

o

Communist Terrorist group Red Brigade kidnaps Prime Minister
Aldo Moro, murders him





PM Silvio Berlusconi controlled media
Romano Prodi is new PM

Germany


US and Britain introduce new currency in their ones without Soviet approval o Soviets blockade East Berlin

- 71 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

o


US sends supplies by air (Berlin Airlift)

US, France, and Britain combine their zones to create Federal Republic of
Germany with Bonn as the capital

o

Soviet Union decrees that Eastern Germany would be German
Democratic Republic



West Germany rearms, enters NATO



Khrushchev’s ultimatum: leave Berlin and allow it to be controlled by East
Germany
o



East Germany begins construction of Berlin Wall (most of the educated elite had left for West Germany) o •

US response, nope, we’re prepared for another Berlin Airlift

Good fences make good neighbors: Berlin Crisis ended

Political, Social, Economic Reform

o

Konrad Adenauer is the new Chancellor




Paid compensation to Jewish victims of Holocaust, Israel

 o Head of Christian Democratic Union

Followed by Gerhard Ritter

Increased wages come from higher productivity
Spent on cars, vacations



o

Willy Brandt became leader of Social Democrats, chancellor

 o o

Ostpolitik- policy of contacting Soviets, de facto recognition of
German states

Brand succeeded by Schmidt (Social Democrat), Kohl (Conservative)

Collapse of the Communist Bloc



Imre Nagy leads revolution in Hungary, Soviets crush



Khrushchev placed missiles in Cuba, scares the US, shoots down American Spy plane over Russia, also scares US


Successor Brezhnev strengthened KGB

o

Prague Spring- a reform movement in Czechoslovakia

o

Brezhnev Doctrine- Soviets will support any communist state threatened by internal strife, used to crush the Prague Spring

- 72 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Pope John Paul II is polish yay nationalism



Solidarity, a new union tries to reform trade in Poland



New leader Gorbachev opposes Brezhnev Doctrine



Romania: Dictator Ceausescu is brutal, his gov’t collapses, he’s executed



Collapse of Soviet Union




Gorbachev has rivalry with Yeltsin, Yeltsin stages a coup [but she is in college] •


Gorbachev accepts need for glasnost (openness in debate) and perestroika,
(economic restructuring)

Coup fails, Gorbachev resigns and Soviet Union is dissolved

A new Russian Republic


Yeltsin wins election, moves to free-market capitalism



Mafia and corruption a problem



Yeltsin chooses Vladimir Putin (former KGB) to be prime minister [and soon possible mastermind of free world] o o



Putin dissenters suspiciously die (notably Alex Litvinenko)
Oil prices went up in 2004, Putin popular because of Russian economy boost Ethnic Warfare in former Yugoslavia



President Milosevic and Bosnia’s Serbs remove Muslims o o


Serb shelling of Sarajevo
Dayton Accords brokers peace for a time

Kosovo o Milosevic assaults Kosovo, home of Ottoman Turks’ descendants


NATO bombs Serbia until they retreat



Milosevic gets sent to War Crimes Tribunal in return for economic assistance to Yugoslavia

- 73 2009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus

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...In the 14th century, a new disease emerged which would later be named the “Black Death”. It originated within central Asia or Northern India, from historians believe. Either way, the disease created panic everywhere in Europe. In October of 1347 traders from Genoese came to the port of Messina. These traders brought the plague along with them. 7 infective waves occurred in Europe between 1347 and 1400, killing between 25 – 50 million people. During this dark era, people were scared and running amuck, no faith, religious or medical professionals did not understand the plague going into other people after infecting others. They believed that the world was nearing its end. People reacted to the plague with mass fear. For instance, the French Author Nicolas Versoris explains Paris’s situation; “… the rich fled” (Doc 3) while the poor were “porters and wage-earners, who had lived there in large numbers” (Doc 3) were left to die. Nicolas may have been an early noble that would have tried to escape the plague, somewhat pathetic. Those who were poor and infected were confined to their homes or villages; “Whatever house the pestilence visited was immediately nailed up… many died of hunger in their own houses… all roads and highways were guarded so that a person could not pass from one place to another”(Doc 5) as stated by Heinrich von Staden, a rich traveler, may have seen such events. The beliefs of people quickly fell and people lost faith; “what if the sickness should come into......

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Ap Psych Notes Module 13

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Euro

...Euro – Main Points: * The introduction of the Euro implied the beginning of a new era for economic policymaking in Europe, with a new environment calling for new arrangements for economic policy coordination. And the significance of the euro's launch goes far beyond its economic dimension. Its introduction in 1999 was the crowning achievement of a hugely complex political, legal, and technical process. * The level of economic integration between nations is also rising. The most well-known example of this is the European Union (EU). Forms of economic integration * The first level of formal economic integration is known as a free-trade area or agreement (FTA). Under a FTA all members remove tariffs on the products traded with each other, while maintaining their individual tariffs with the rest of the world. One of the issues with this form of integration is that non-member counties will export their products to the member country with the lowest external tariff and then into any of the other member countries with higher external tariffs, this practice is known as transhipment (Appleyard, Field & Cobb, 2006: 376). * The second form of economic integration is known as a customs union (CU). A CU retains all the elements of a FTA but in addition involves the abolishment of their individual external trade policies. This is done by establishing a common external tariff (CET) which removes the possibility of transhipment by non-members. Members of a CU also......

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The Euro

...THE EUROPEAN UNION CURRENCY: THE EURO ACCOUTING I The euro, in application of the Maastricht Treaty, entered circulation on January 1 2002. It is the official currency of 16 of the 27 member states of the European Union (EU). That union is made of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The euro has become the second largest reserve currency and the second most traded currency after the U.S dollar (wikipedia). The creation of a single currency born out of a political concern turned out to be a good and strong monetary decision. According to the European Commission (website) the euro has provided many advantages and benefits over the previous situations where each member state had its own currency. Not only are fluctuations risks and exchange cost eliminated and the single market strengthened, but the euro also means a closer cooperation among member. Others assets are more choices and stable prices for consumers and citizen, a greater security and more opportunity for business and markets, an improved economic stability and growth, more integrated financial markets and a tangible sign of an European identity, a stronger presence for the E.U in the global economy making the euro a rival for the dollar. With all those benefits the euro is not without its critics. They were those who feared a lost of national identity because they had to relinquished their...

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