Free Essay

Ap Psychology Essay Prompts

In: Other Topics

Submitted By elshadai
Words 3255
Pages 14
AP Psychology Essay Prompts and

Scoring Rubrics

The enclosed document includes an essay prompt for each unit in AP Psychology and a corresponding scoring rubric. The purpose of this activity is to increase the students’ awareness of how AP exam readers grade from a rubric. Emphasis is placed on the definition of terms and the application of those terms. Units include:

Introduction to Psychology


Sensation and Perception



Nature and Nurture of Behavior

Developing Person

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

States of Consciousness

Motivation and Emotion Personality Stress and Health Psychological Disorders Therapy Social Psychology

Unit: Introduction to Psychology

Describe the different perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and mental processes, and explain their complementarity. Your answer should include: ➢ Neuroscience ➢ Evolutionary ➢ Behavior Genetics ➢ Psychodynamic ➢ Behavioral ➢ Cognitive ➢ Social-cultural


Note: The application portion on the rubrics may include a variety of answers. This is simply an example of possible answers. The perspectives have more than one complement.

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Neuroscience |The study of how the neurological system affects such |It is complementary to evolutionary because|
| |things as emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. |the structures and functions of the brain |
| | |that promote survival are the most likely |
| | |to develop. |
|Evolutionary |The study of the natural selection of some traits that |It is complementary to the behavioral |
| |promotes genetic survival. |perspective because some behaviors may |
| | |enhance the chance to survival. |
|Behavior Genetics |The study of how much our psychological traits are |It is complementary to the cognitive |
| |attributed to our genetic make-up or as a result of |process because our thinking, language, and|
| |environmental influences. |intelligence may be the result of our |
| | |ability to adapt to our environment. |
|Psychodynamic |The study of how unconscious drives and conflicts may |It is complementary to the behavioral |
| |influence our lives |perspective in the investigation of how |
| | |much of our behavior is below our awareness|
| | |level. |
|Behavioral |The study of how we learn from the environment around |It is complementary to the social-cultural |
| |us. |perspectives in the investigation of how |
| | |differing situations can influence our |
| | |behavior. |
|Cognitive |The study of how we encode, process, and store |It is complementary to the neuroscience |
| |information. |perspective because our cognitive ability |
| | |is dependent on our brain function. |
|Sociocultural |The study of how behavior and thinking can vary across |It is complementary to the behavior |
| |socio-cultural situations. |genetics perspective because pro-social |
| | |behaviors may influence the genetics of one|
| | |culture as opposed to another. |

Unit: Psychobiology

Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, and describe the sensory and motor functions of the cortex. Your answer should include the description and function of the following: ➢ Frontal lobe ➢ Parietal lobe ➢ Occipital lobe ➢ Temporal lobe


|Lobes |Description |Function |
| | | |
|Frontal |Located behind the forehead and is known especially for the |The fontal lobe is responsible for higher |
| |arch-shaped region at the back of the frontal lobe known as the motor|order thinking and the motor cortex |
| |cortex. |controls voluntary movements. |
|Parietal |Located on the top of the head and is known especially for the |The sensory cortex in the parietal lobe is |
| |sensory cortex which is parallel to the motor cortex and located at |responsible for registering and processing |
| |the front of the parietal lobe. |body sensations. |
|Occipital |Located at the back of the head and includes the visual cortex. |The visual cortex receives and begins |
| | |processing visual information. |
|Temporal |Located roughly above the ears and includes the auditory areas. |The auditory areas receives and begins the |
| | |processing of auditory information. |

Unit: Sensation and Perception

Discuss the different levels of visual information processing and the value of parallel processing. Your answer should include: ➢ Feature detection ➢ Color constancy ➢ Parallel processing


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Feature detection |Neurons that receive information to specific features |Feature detection neurons pass the |
| |such as edges, angles, movements, etc. |information on to more complex neuron |
| | |systems which integrate the information |
| | |into a visual whole. |
|Color Constancy |Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color |The experience of color not only depends on|
| |even in situations where the wavelengths reflected by |the wavelength information but the |
| |the object are altered. |surrounding context. It demonstrates that |
| | |our experience of color comes not just from|
| | |the object but from everything around it as|
| | |well. |
|Parallel processing |The processing of several pieces of information by |The brain divides a visual scene into |
| |integrating the work of different perceptual systems, |subdimensions but works on each aspect |
| |which work in parallel. |simultaneously to produce an integrated |
| | |perception. |

Unit: Memory

Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory, and discuss the biological changes that may underlie memory formation and storage. Your answer should include: ➢ The definition of long-term memory ➢ The capacity and duration of long-term memory ➢ Hippocampus ➢ Long-term potentiation ➢ Activity of the amygdale


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Long-term memory |Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of|Necessary for the storage of information |
| |the memory system. |for future use. |
|Hippocampus |Part of the brain where explicit memories for |Explicit memories of names, images, and |
| |facts and episodes are processed and fed to |events are laid down via a this structure |
| |other brain regions for storage. |in the limbic system. |
|Long-term potentiation |An increase in a synapse’s firing potential |Prolonged strengthening of neural firing |
| |after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be |provides a neural basis for learning and |
| |a neural basis for leaning and memory. |remembering associations. |
|Activity of the amygdala |Structure of the brain which processes emotion |Emotionally arousing events will help make |
| |and boosts the activity in the brain’s |stronger and more reliable memories. |
| |memory-forming areas. |However, prolonged stress can corrode |
| | |neural connections. |

Unit: Learning

Explain the importance of Pavlov’s work, and describe how it might apply to an understanding of human health and well-being. Your answer should include: ➢ The concept of associative learning ➢ The importance of classical conditioning in adaptation ➢ The importance of classical conditioning in objective study of behavior


|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Associative learning |Learning that happens when certain events |Staying away from settings or things |
| |occur together. |associated with a certain unwanted |
| | |behaviors may increase a person’s |
| | |well-being. |
|Adaptation |Learning based on prior experiences. |Associative learning can assist an |
| | |individual in adaptation to their |
| | |environment as well as identifying elements|
| | |of behavior to master their environment. |
|Objective study of behavior |Scientific model which included no |Classical conditioning terminology provided|
| |subjective judgments for explaining |the elementary building blocks in |
| |behavior |understanding more complex behaviors. |

Unit: Nature and Nurture of Behavior

Explain how the peer group and culture influence child development. Your answer should include: ➢ “selection effect” ➢ Parent vs. Peer Influence ➢ Cultural Norms


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|“selection effect” |Seeking out peers with similar attitudes and |Because children tend to select peers with |
| |interests. |similar attitudes and interests initially, |
| | |there may be a greater opportunity for peer|
| | |influence once the commonality has been |
| | |established. |
|Parent vs. peer influence |Parents have more input when it comes to |Parents are important in the formation of |
| |education, responsibility, religion, etc. Peers |basic values and standards of conduct. |
| |have more influence in cooperative and social |Peers are important because the child |
| |activities. |learns how to cooperate and interact with |
| | |follow peers. |
|Cultural Norms |Rules for accepted and expected behavior, that |Knowing the appropriate behaviors in a |
| |is shared by a large group of people. |particular culture free people of that |
| | |culture from fear of embarrassment or |
| | |insult and precludes awkward moments. |

Unit: Developing Person

Describe the early development of a self-concept and discuss possible effects of different parenting styles on children. Your answer should include: ➢ Self-concept ➢ Authoritarian parenting style ➢ Permissive parenting style ➢ Authoritative parenting style


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Self-concept |The sense of one’s own identity and personal |A child’s major social achievement is a |
| |worth. |positive sense of self. |
|Authoritarian Parenting |Parenting style that imposes rules and expects |Children with authoritarian parents tend to|
| |unquestioning obedience. |be more rigid in self-acceptance and the |
| | |acceptance of others. |
|Permissive Parenting |Parenting style in which the parents submit to |Children with permissive parents tend to be|
| |their children’s desires, make few demands, and |more immature with little impulse control. |
| |use little punishment. | |
|Authoritative Parenting |Parenting style that is both demanding and yet |Children with the highest self-esteem, |
| |responsive. The parents set and enforce rules |self-reliance, and social competence tend |
| |but encourage open discussion and allow |to have authoritative parents. |
| |exceptions when making the rules. | |

Unit: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems and how confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving.


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Trial and error |Willingness to try a variety of possibilities in problem|The trial and error method may be used to |
| |solving until success is achieved. |solve a problem when no clear-cut solution |
| | |is favored or several possibilities are |
| | |tried until the very best solution is |
| | |chosen. |
|Algorithms |A step by step procedure use to solve problems. |Although all the steps may be labor |
| | |intensive, this problem solving method |
| | |guarantees a solution. |
|Heuristics |Simple strategy used to solve problems |Heuristics are more error- prone than |
| | |algorithms, but can be used with trail & |
| | |error to hit upon the answer. |
|Insight |Sudden flashes of inspiration. |Sometimes the problem-solving strategy is |
| | |not obvious to us, but the suddenly all the|
| | |pieces come together and a solution |
| | |develops. |
|Confirmation Bias |The search for information to confirms our individual |The reluctance to seek and consider |
| |ideas. |information that might disprove one’s |
| | |beliefs could interfere with effective |
| | |problem solving |
|Fixation |The inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective.|The reluctance to see a problem from a |
| | |different perspective will also interfere |
| | |with effective problem solving. |

Unit: States of Consciousness

Describe the physiological and psychological effects of depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens and drug dependence.


|Term |Definition |Physiological Effects |Psychological Effects |
| | | | |
|Depressants |Drugs that calm neural activity |Slows the sympathetic nervous |Slows the brain activity that |
| |and slow body functions. |system activity including |controls judgment and |
| | |slurred speech, and performance |inhibitions. Alcohol makes us |
| | |deterioration. |more aggressive or helpful or |
| | | |self-disclosing if the |
| | | |tendencies are already present. |
| | | |Disrupts memory processing. |
|Stimulants |Drugs that excite neural |Speeds up the body functions |Energy and self-confidence rise,|
| |activity and arouse body |such as heart rate and |which accounts for why people |
| |functions. |breathing. |use it as a mood enhancer or to |
| | | |improve athletic performance. |
| | | |However when the drug |
| | | |stimulation ends, fatigue, |
| | | |headaches, irritability, and |
| | | |depression may occur. |
|Hallucinogens |Drugs that distort perceptions |Amplifies the body’s sensitivity|As the hallucinogenic experience|
| |and evoke sensory images in the |to colors, sounds, tastes, and |peaks, people frequently feel |
| |absence of sensory input. |smells. |separated from their bodies and |
| | | |experience dreamlike scenes as |
| | | |though they were real – so real |
| | | |that users may become |
| | | |panic-stricken or harm |
| | | |themselves. |
|Drug dependence |Continued use of a psychoactive |In the drug’s absence the user |When the drugs become an |
| |drugs which produces |may feel physical pain and |important part of the user’s |
| |neuroadaptation |intense cravings. |life as a way of relieving |
| | | |negative emotions or as other |
| | | |coping mechanisms. |

Unit: Motivation and Emotion

Discuss the importance of various motives for working, and identify the aims of industrial-organization psychology. Your answer should include: pay, relationships, or identity.


|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Pay |Financial compensation for work done. |Many individuals are simply motivated because |
| | |they need an income to support themselves. In |
| | |general, the amount of pay increases as the |
| | |amount of responsibility increases. |
|Relationships | | |
|Identity |One’s sense of self solidified by testing |People’s quality of life increases when they are |
| |and integrating various roles. |purposefully engaged in a meaningful activity. |
| | |The sense of self-esteem, competence, well-being,|
| | |and sense of identity increase with job |
| | |satisfaction. |
|Industrial-organizational Psychology |The application of psychology’s principles|This branch of psychology applies psychology’s |
| |to the workplace. |methods and principles to selecting and |
| | |evaluating workers, considers how work |
| | |environments and management types influence |
| | |worker motivation, satisfaction, and |
| | |productivity. |

Unit: Personality

Describe the social-cognitive perspective, and discuss the important consequences of personal control (internal/external locus of control), self-control, learned helplessness, and optimism.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Social-cognitive Perspective |Views behavior as influenced by the interaction|We learn behaviors through conditioning, by |
| |between person (and their thinking) and their |observing, and modeling behaviors. However |
| |social context. |how we think about and interpret those |
| | |situations also influences our behavior. |
|Personal Control |Whether we learn to see ourselves as |Individuals with and external locus of control|
| |controlling, or as controlled by, our |perceive that chance or outside forces |
| |environment. |determine their fate. Individuals with and |
| | |internal locus of control believe that they |
| | |control their own destiny. Internals achieve |
| | |more in school, act more independently, enjoy |
| | |better health, and feel less depressed than do|
| | |“externals” In the social-cognitive |
| | |perspective it is preferable to have a greater|
| | |internal locus of control. |
|Self-Control |The ability to control impulses and delay |From the social-cognitive perspective, |
| |gratification. |self-control is a predictor of good |
| | |adjustment, better grades, and social success.|
|Learned Helplessness |The hopelessness and passive resignation a |From the social-cognitive perspective people |
| |person learns when unable to avoid repeated |repeatedly faced with traumatic events come to|
| |aversive events. |feel helpless, hopeless, and depressed, and |
| | |perceive control as external. |
|Optimism |Viewing events in a positive way. |Optimists are able to put a positive spin on |
| | |events in the face of adversity. According to|
| | |the social-cognitive perspective success |
| | |requires enough optimism to provide hope and |
| | |enough pessimism to prevent complacency. |
| | |Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks.|

Unit: Stress and Health

Describe how stress increases the risk of disease by inhibiting the activities of the body’s immune system. Your answer should include: B and T lymphocytes, macrophage, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the fight-or-flight response.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Stress |The process by which we perceive and |The nervous and endocrine systems are |
| |physiologically respond to certain events, |activated during the stress response, which|
| |called stressors, that we appraise as |has an influence on the immune system. |
| |threatening or challenging. | |
|B and T lymphocytes |While blood cells that defend the body by |B lymphocytes are formed in the bone marrow|
| |isolating and destroying foreign |and fights bacterial inflections. T |
| |substances. |lymphocytes are formed in the thymus and |
| | |attacks cancer cells, viruses, and foreign |
| | |substances. However, if these lymphocytes |
| | |react too strongly they may attack the |
| | |body’s own tissues causing such things as |
| | |arthritis or an allergic reaction. Or it |
| | |could under-react and a dormant virus could|
| | |erupt or cancer cells could multiply. |
| Macrophage |Process by which invading cells are |The B and T lymphocytes use the process of |
| |identified, pursued, and ingested. |macrophage to destroy invading cells. |
|Epinephrine and Norepinephrine |When the brain perceives a stressor, it |The greater the stress response, the more |
| |triggers an outpouring of epinephrine and |hormones are released into the bloodstream.|
| |norepinephrine which enter the bloodstream |The stress hormones in turn suppress the |
| |from adrenal glands |disease-fighting lymphocytes. |
|Fight or flight |Adaptive response in which the sympathetic |Stress leads to an aroused, fight-or-flight|
| |nervous system increases heart rate and |response and diverts enerby to mobilie the |
| |respiration, diverts blood from digestion |body for action. Therefore energy needed |
| |and skeletal muscles, and releases stored |by the immune system is now diverted making|
| |sugar and fat in preparation for the |us more vulnerable to foreign invaders. |
| |organism to stand its ground and fight or | |
| |flee a threatening situation. | |

Unit: Psychological Disorders

Describe the various symptoms and subtypes of schizophrenia, and discuss research on its causes. Your answer should include: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual schizophrenia.

|Term |Definition |Application |
| | | |
|Schizophrenia |Split from reality in which the person |Actions profoundly disrupt social |
| |displays disorganized thinking, disturbed |relationships and during the most severe |
| |perception, and inappropriate emotions and |periods, people with schizophrenia live in |
| |actions. |a private inner world, preoccupied with |
| | |illogical ideas and unreal images. |
|Paranoid schizophrenia |Preoccupation with delusion or |Person holds on to the false belief that |
| |hallucination, often with themes of |they will be persecuted like Christ or |
| |persecution or gra ndiosity. |Martin Luther King or they have the false |
| | |belief that they are extremely important |
| | |and powerful. |
|Disorganized schizophrenia |Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or|Often a person cannot filter out competing |
| |inappropriate emotion. |sensory stimuli and jump from one idea to |
| | |another resulting in “word salad.” Or |
| | |their emotions fluctuate between extremes. |
|Catatonic schizophrenia |Immobility (or excessive, purposeless |The person may perform senseless, |
| |movement), extreme negativism, and/or |compulsive acts, such as continually |
| |parrot-like repeating of another’s speech |rocking or subbing an arm. Those who |
| |or movements. |exhibit catatonia may remain motionless for|
| | |hours on end and then become agitated. |
|Undifferentiated schizophrenia |Many and varied symptoms |Person can exhibit symptoms from all the |
| | |different subtypes. |
|Residual schizophrenia |Withdrawal, after hallucinations and | |
| |delusions have disappeared. | |

|Causes |Physiological |Psychological |
| |Dopamine over-activity due to an excess of |Mother whose schizophrenia was severe and |
| |receptors |long-lasting |
| |Thalamus is smaller-than-normal |Separation from parents |
| |Flu – mother suffers from the flu during |Short attention span and poor muscle |
| |the middle of the child’s fetal |coordination |
| |development. |Disruptive or withdrawn behavior |
| |Genetics or inheriting a predisposition |Emotional unpredictability |
| | |Poor peer relations and solo play |

Unit: Therapy

Identify the basic characteristics of humanistic therapy, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy.

|Term |Description |Application |
| | | |
|Humanistic Therapy |The aim is to boost self-fulfillment by |The most widely used is client-centered |
| |helping people grow in self-awareness and |therapy which focuses on a person’s |
| |self-acceptance |conscious self-perception and uses the |
| | |technique of active listening. |
|Behavior Therapy |Uses learning principles to eliminate the |Counterconditioning pairs the trigger |
| |unwanted behavior. |stimulus with a new response that is |
| | |incompatible with fear. |
| | |Systematic desensitization associates a |
| | |pleasant relaxed state with gradually |
| | |increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. |
| | |Exposure therapies treat anxieties by |
| | |exposing people to the things they fear. |
| | |Aversive conditioning associates an |
| | |unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.|
| | | |
| | |Token economy rewards desired behavior |
|Cognitive Therapy |Teaching people new, more constructive ways|Faulty cognitive processes could include: |
| |of thinking. | |
| | |Overgeneralization |
| | |Diminishing the positive |
| | |Emphasizing the negative |
| | |All-or-nothing thinking |

Unit: Social Psychology

Describe Milgram’s controversial experiments on obedience, and discuss their implications for understand our susceptibility to social influence.

➢ The participants were told that the study concerned the effect of punishment on learning. ➢ Participants drew slips form a hat to see who would be the “teacher” and who would be the “student.” ➢ The “learner” was strapped into a chair “wired” to an electric shock machine. ➢ The “teacher” sat in front of the machine with switches labeled with voltages. ➢ The “teacher” was given the task to teach and then test the learner on a list of word pairs. ➢ The “teacher” punished the “learner” for wrong answer by delivering brief electric shock. ➢ After each “learner’s” error, the “teacher” move up to the next higher voltage. ➢ After the eighth switch is activated the “learner” shouts that the shocks are painful. ➢ The experimenter prods the “teacher” to go on saying it is essential to continue, and the experiment requires that the “teacher” must continue. ➢ Milgram’s finding were that 63% complied fully – right up to the last switch.

Obedience was highest when: ✓ The person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure. ✓ The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution. ✓ The victim was depersonalized, or at a distance. ✓ There were no role models for defiance.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

5 Steps to a 5 Ap English Langauge

...Copyright © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN: 978-0-07-180360-1 MHID: 0-07-180360-2 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-180359-5, MHID: 0-07180359-9. E-book conversion by Codemantra Version 1.0 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill Education eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions or for use in corporate training programs. To contact a representative please visit the Contact Us page at Trademarks: McGraw-Hill Education, the McGraw-Hill Education logo, 5 Steps to a 5 and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of McGraw-Hill Education and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the......

Words: 76988 - Pages: 308

Premium Essay


...psychology Course Description Effective Fall 2013 AP Course Descriptions are updated regularly. Please visit AP Central ® ( to determine whether a more recent Course Description PDF is available. The College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of more than 5,900 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education. Each year, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college success — including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement Program®. The organization also serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of students, educators, and schools. For further information, visit AP Equity and Access Policy The College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underserved. Schools......

Words: 8273 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Encountering Social Class Differences at Work

...ENCOUNTERING SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES AT WORK: HOW “CLASS WORK” PERPETUATES INEQUALITY Using a microsociological lens, we develop a theoretical framework that explains how social class distinctions are sustained within organizations. In particular, we intro- duce the concept of “class work” and explicate the cognitions and practices that members of different classes engage in when they come in contact with each other in cross-class encounters. We also elucidate how class work perpetuates inequality, as well as the consequences of class work on organizations and those at the lower end of the organizational hierarchy. By examining microlevel interactions and how they become institutionalized within organizations as prevailing rules and practices, we contribute to both institutional theory and the sociology of social class differences. We encourage future research on social class and discuss some of the challenges inher- ent in conducting it. Several contemporary developments—includ- ing the financial crisis of 2008 (Rajan, 2010), the shrinking of the middle class (Leicht & Fitzger- ald, 2007), and the rise of the “new poor” in America (Cohen, 2010)— have reinjected the is- sue of social class differences and inequality (Stiglitz, 2012) into contemporary discourse. Within organization studies, however, social class has received only scant consideration (cf. Castilla & Benard, 2010; Dacin, Munir, & Tracey, 2010; Scully & Blake-Beard, 2006). While two re- cent......

Words: 21937 - Pages: 88

Free Essay


...Writing Short Arguments by Gilbert H. Muller and Harvey S. Wiener Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Published by Pearson Longman, Inc. Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Custom Publishing All rights reserved. Permission in writing must be obtained from the publisher before any part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system. All trademarks, service marks, registered trademarks, and registered service marks are the property of their respective owners and are used herein for identification purposes only. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 0-536-97722-4 2005240359 AP Please visit our web site at ISBN 0-558-55519-5 PEARSON CUSTOM PUBLISHING 75 Arlington Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA 02116 A Pearson Education Company Research and Writing, Custom Edition. Published by Pearson Custom Publishing. Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Custom Publishing. 1 Reading Arguments ontemporary American culture often seems dominated by argument. Television talk show hosts and radio shock jocks battle over countless issues. Hip-hop artists...

Words: 70562 - Pages: 283

Free Essay

The Thief of Time

...The Thief of Time The Thief of Time Philosophical Essays on Procrastination Edited by Chrisoula Andreou Mark D. White 2010 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The thief of time: philosophical essays on procrastination / edited by Chrisoula Andreou and Mark D. White. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-537668-5 (hardback: alk. paper) 1. Procrastination. I. Andreou, Chrisoula. II. White, Mark D., 1971– BF637.P76T45 2010 128'.4—dc22 2009021750 987654321 Printed in the United States......

Words: 125542 - Pages: 503

Premium Essay


...BELHAVEN UNIVERSITY Jackson, Mississippi A CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES FOUNDED IN 1883 CATALOGUE 2014-2015 EFFECTIVE JUNE 1, 2014 Directory of Communication Mailing Address: Belhaven University 1500 Peachtree St. Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 535 Chestnut St. Suite 100 Chattanooga, TN 37402 Belhaven University 7111 South Crest Parkway Southaven, MS 38671 Belhaven University – LeFleur 4780 I-55 North Suite 125 Jackson, MS 39211 Belhaven University 15115 Park Row Suite 175 Houston, TX 77084 Belhaven University Online 1500 Peachtree St. Box 279 Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 1790 Kirby Parkway Suite 100 Memphis, TN 38138 Belhaven University 4151 Ashford Dunwoody Rd. Suite 130 Atlanta, GA 30319 Belhaven University 5200 Vineland Rd. Suite 100 Orlando, FL 32811 Traditional Admission Adult and Graduate Studies Admission – Jackson Atlanta Chattanooga Desoto Houston Memphis Orlando Alumni Relations/Development Belhaven Fax Business Office Campus Operations Integrated Marketing Registrar Student Life Security Student Financial Planning Student Development Online Admission Online Student Services (601) 968-5940 or (800) 960-5940 (601) 968-5988 or Fax (601) 352-7640 (404) 425-5590 or Fax (404) 425-5869 (423) 265-7784 or Fax (423) 265-2703 (622) 469-5387 (281) 579-9977 or Fax (281) 579-0275 (901) 896-0184 or Fax (901) 888-0771 (407) 804-1424 or Fax (407) 367-3333 (601) 968-5980 (601) 968-9998 (601) 968-5901 (601) 968-5904 (601) 968-5930 (601)......

Words: 151104 - Pages: 605

Premium Essay


...reading and studying focusing on print and online materials ISBN 1-256-09222-3 Keys to Effective Learning: Study Skills and Habits for Success, Sixth Edition, by Carol Carter, Joyce Bishop, and Sarah Lyman Kravits. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. c h a p t e r 7 hanh never had trouble keeping up with her high school reading assignments, but after four weeks of college she is already snowed under. With midterms coming in two weeks, she stays awake at night thinking about how much she has to learn. It seems as if all the reading she has done this term—particularly what she has read on the computer—has gone in one side of her brain and out the other, so she feels she has to start at the beginning. She has the sense that the way she is reading may be a problem, but it worked for her in the past, so why change now? In this chapter . . . you explore answers to the following questions: HOW can SQ3R help you own what you read? p. 190 WHAT improves reading comprehension? p. 200 HOW do you customize a text with highlighting and notes? p. 205 HOW can you read online materials effectively? p. 208 ISBN 1-256-09222-3 © Shutterstock Keys to Effective Learning: Study Skills and Habits for Success, Sixth Edition, by Carol Carter, Joyce Bishop, and Sarah Lyman Kravits. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Habit for Success ask questions Questions are the backbone of learning. They help...

Words: 9955 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

No Paper to Upload

...REGENT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG 2013-2014 (Fall 2013-Summer 2014) Regent University 1000 Regent University Drive Virginia Beach, VA 23464-9800 800.373.5504 PREFACE Regional Accreditation Regent University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award associates, baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate degrees. Contact the Commission on Colleges at 1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, Georgia 30033-4097 or call 404-679-4500 for questions about the accreditation of Regent University. National and State Accreditation Regent University’s undergraduate school is accredited or certified by the following bodies:   Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) ( The Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) The Regent University School of Education's educational leadership and teacher preparation programs and the College of Arts & Sciences interdisciplinary studies program, which are designed to prepare competent, caring, and qualified professional educators are accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council for a period of seven years, from January 9, 2009 to January 9, 2016. This accreditation certifies that the educational leadership, teacher preparation and interdisciplinary studies programs have provided evidence that they adhere to TEAC's quality principles. Teacher Educational Accreditation Council, One Dupont Circle,......

Words: 74326 - Pages: 298

Premium Essay

The Social

...animal Books by Elliot Aronson Theories of Cognitive Consistency (with R. Abelson et al.), 1968 Voices of Modern Psychology, 1969 The Social Animal, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Readings About the Social Animal, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Social Psychology (with R. Helmreich), 1973 Research Methods in Social Psychology (with J. M. Carlsmith & P. Ellsworth), 1976 The Jigsaw Classroom (with C. Stephan et al.), 1978 Burnout: From Tedium to Personal Growth (with A. Pines & D. Kafry), 1981 Energy Use: The Human Dimension (with P. C. Stern), 1984 The Handbook of Social Psychology (with G. Lindzey), 3rd ed., 1985 Career Burnout (with A. Pines), 1988 Methods of Research in Social Psychology (with P. Ellsworth, J. M. Carlsmith, & M. H. Gonzales), 1990 Age of Propaganda (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992, 2000 Social Psychology, Vols. 1–3 (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992 Social Psychology: The Heart and the Mind (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 1994 Cooperation in the Classroom: The Jigsaw Method (with S. Patnoe), 1997 Nobody Left to Hate: Teaching Compassion After Columbine, 2000 Social Psychology: An Introduction (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 2002, 2005, 2007 The Adventures of Ruthie and a Little Boy Named Grandpa (with R. Aronson), 2006 Mistakes Were Made (But Not By Me) (with C. Tavris), 2007 Books by Joshua Aronson Improving Academic Achievement, 2002 The Social Animal To...

Words: 208005 - Pages: 833

Premium Essay

Aau Catalog

...ALLIED AMERICAN UNIVERSITY Personalized. Flexible. Dedicated. Online Programs – Individual Support – Open Enrollment – Ease of Transfer Credits UNIVERSITY CATALOG 2013 Seventh Edition 22952 Alcalde Drive, Laguna Hills, CA 92653 Phone: (888) 384-0849 ∼ Fax: (949) 707-2978 7:00 A.M. – 5:00 P.M. (Monday – Friday) Email: Website: KEY STAFF AND FACULTY Charlotte Hislop, Ph.D. Candidate, President/CEO Bonny Nickle, Ed.D., Provost Eric Sharkey, M.Ed., Director of Education Bill Luton, Ph.D., Director of Assessment and Dean of Business Carlo Tannoury, Ph.D. Candidate, Dean of Computer Information Systems Patricia Drown, Ph.D., Dean of Criminal Justice and General Studies C.J. Bishop, M.B.A., Institutional Research Frank Vazquez, Operations Director Parrish Nicholls, J.D., Director of Compliance Lindsay Oglesby, Admissions Director Abby Dolan, B.A., Registrar Sasha Heard, M.B.A., Student Services Manager Barbara Jobin, B.S.B.A., Career Center Manager Hugo Aguilar, B.A., Chief Financial Officer Richard Madrigal, B.A., Financial Aid Officer As a prospective student at Allied American University, you are encouraged to review this catalog prior to signing an enrollment agreement. You are also encouraged to review the student performance fact sheet which must be provided to you prior to signing an enrollment agreement. This catalog is not a contract between the student, AAU, or any party or parties. Reasonable effort was made at the time this......

Words: 52297 - Pages: 210

Free Essay


...Educational Psychology: Developing Learners This is a protected document. Please enter your ANGEL username and password. Username: Password: Login Need assistance logging in? Click here! If you experience any technical difficulty or have any technical questions, please contact technical support during the following hours: M-F, 6am-12am MST or Sat-Sun, 7am-12am MST by phone at (800) 800-9776 ext. 7200 or submit a ticket online by visiting Doc ID: 1009-0001-191D-0000191E DEVELOPING LEARNERS JEANNE ELLIS ORMROD Professor Emerita, University of Northern Colorado EIGHTH EDITION ISBN 1-256-96292-9 Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, Eighth Edition, by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Vice President and Editorial Director: Jeffery W.  Johnston Vice President and Publisher: Kevin Davis Editorial Assistant: Lauren Carlson Development Editor: Christina Robb Vice President, Director of Marketing: Margaret Waples Marketing Manager: Joanna Sabella Senior Managing Editor: Pamela D. Bennett Project Manager: Kerry Rubadue Senior Operations Supervisor: Matthew Ottenweller Senior Art Director: Diane Lorenzo Text Designer: Candace Rowley Cover......

Words: 244561 - Pages: 979

Premium Essay


...this situation sounds familiar, you may find it reassuring to know that many professionals undergo these same strange compulsions before they begin writing. Jean Kerr, author of Please Don’t Eat the Daisies, admits that she often finds herself in the kitchen reading soup-can labels—or anything—in order to prolong the moments before taking pen in hand. John C. Calhoun, vice president under Andrew Jackson, insisted he had to plow his fields before he could write, and Joseph Conrad, author of Lord Jim and other novels, is said to have cried on occasion from the sheer dread of sitting down to compose his stories. To spare you as much hand-wringing as possible, this chapter presents some practical suggestions on how to begin writing your short essay. Although all writers must find the methods that work best for them, you may find some of the following ideas helpful. But no matter how you actually begin putting words on paper, it is absolutely essential to maintain two basic ideas concerning your writing task. Before you write a single sentence, you should always remind yourself that 1. You have some valuable ideas to tell your reader, and 2. More than anything, you want to communicate those ideas to your reader. These reminders may seem obvious to you, but without a solid commitment to your own opinions as well as to your reader, your prose will be lifeless and boring. If you don’t care about your subject, you can’t very well expect anyone else to. Have confidence that your ideas......

Words: 234754 - Pages: 940

Premium Essay


...Contents Preface Acknowledgments Introduction 1 BRAIN POWER Myth #1 Most People Use Only 10% of Their Brain Power Myth #2 Some People Are Left-Brained, Others Are Right-Brained Myth #3 Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Is a Well-Established Scientific Phenomenon Myth #4 Visual Perceptions Are Accompanied by Tiny Emissions from the Eyes Myth #5 Subliminal Messages Can Persuade People to Purchase Products 2 FROM WOMB TO TOMB Myth #6 Playing Mozart’s Music to Infants Boosts Their Intelligence Myth #7 Adolescence Is Inevitably a Time of Psychological Turmoil Myth #8 Most People Experience a Midlife Crisis in | 8 Their 40s or Early 50s Myth #9 Old Age Is Typically Associated with Increased Dissatisfaction and Senility Myth #10 When Dying, People Pass through a Universal Series of Psychological Stages 3 A REMEMBRANCE OF THINGS PAST Myth #11 Human Memory Works like a Tape Recorder or Video Camera, and Accurate Events We’ve Experienced Myth #12 Hypnosis Is Useful for Retrieving Memories of Forgotten Events Myth #13 Individuals Commonly Repress the Memories of Traumatic Experiences Myth #14 Most People with Amnesia Forget All Details of Their Earlier Lives 4 TEACHING OLD DOGS NEW TRICKS Myth #15 Intelligence (IQ) Tests Are Biased against Certain Groups of People My th #16 If You’re Unsure of Your Answer When Taking a Test, It’s Best to Stick with Your Initial Hunch Myth #17 The Defining Feature of Dyslexia Is Reversing Letters Myth #18 Students Learn Best When Teaching Styles Are Matched......

Words: 130018 - Pages: 521

Premium Essay

Education Diversity

...2 Understanding Diversity in the Classroom CHAPTER LEARNING GOALS After you study this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Explain the importance of understanding classroom diversity. 2. Explain the different group and individual sources of diversity. 3. Describe approaches to teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. 4. Explain the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. 5. Explain the characteristics of students with exceptionalities. 6. Describe the role of the teacher in the inclusive classroom. Imagine You Are the Teacher It Is The First Teaching year at Lincoln Elementary School for Ms. Branson. She has 30 fifth-graders of whom 13 are girls and 17 are boys, 12 participate in the free and reduced lunch program, 5 are English language learners, and 4 have individualized education programs (IEPs). As she plans her lesson on paragraph writing, she is trying to keep the special needs of each of her students in mind. Because Jessica has a hearing impairment, Ms. Branson decides to make a written outline that includes the important parts of a paragraph and examples of good and bad paragraphs. She also decides to go over the outline several times because Fred and Alex have a reading disability. In her plan, there is also a note to herself to find a bigger pencil and wide-lined paper for Suzy, who requires these modifications according to her IEP. Based on past writing experiences, she expects Monica to finish writing her......

Words: 31653 - Pages: 127

Premium Essay

Writing for Success

...examples and exercises, and the text involves students in the learning process through reading, problem solving, practicing, listening, and experiencing the writing process. Each chapter also has integrated examples that unify the discussion and form a common, easy-tounderstand basis for discussion and exploration. This will put students at ease and allow for greater absorption of the material. Tips for effective writing are included in every chapter, as well. Thought-provoking scenarios provide challenges and opportunities for collaboration and interaction. These exercises are especially helpful for working with groups of students. Clear exercises teach sentence and paragraph writing skills that lead to common English composition and research essays....

Words: 171477 - Pages: 686