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Ap Psychology Unit 5

In: Other Topics

Submitted By vmiranda23
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Consciousness
Our awareness of our environment and ourselves. Example: I am conscious I where I live. Definition: Knowing your surroundings.

Circadian rhythm
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle. Example: body knows when to wake up and to sleep and eat. Definition: 24-hour body clock.

REM sleep
Rapid eye moment sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occurs. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. Example: body moving without control. Definition: twitching during sleeping.

Alpha waves
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. Example: sleepy. Definition: relaxed, about to fall asleep.

Sleep
Periodic, natural loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. Example: body resting. Definition: natural body resting.

Hallucinations
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. Example: seeing unusually things. Definition: seeing objects that don’t exist.

Delta waves
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. Example: snoring. Definition: Deep into sleep.

NREM sleep
Non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep. Example: no REM sleep. Definition: no rapid eye.

Insomnia: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. Example: kids cannot fall asleep easily. Definition: problems in staying or falling asleep.

Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. Example: exorcisms. Definition: sleep attacks that cannot be controlled.

Sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. Example: choking in your sleep. Definition: sleep disorder.

Night terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by a high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. Example: scared during sleep right after falling asleep. Definition: sleep disorder of nightmares.

Dream
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it. Example: your own movie. Definition: imagination during sleeping.

Manifest content
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content). Example: remembering your sleep. Definition: knowing specific details of your dream.

Latent content
According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Example: what is dreaming. Definition: the definition of dreaming.

REM rebound
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep). Example: waking repeatedly. Definition: increase of deprivation.

Hypnosis
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Example: controlling. Definition: controlling a person under unconscious.

Posthypnotic suggestions
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors. Example: during hypnosis session. Example: finishing the hypnosis.

Dissociation
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. Example: half conscious and half not. Definition: allows thoughts and behavior while half consciousness.

Psychoactive drug
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods. Example: Medication to help your mood. Definition: psychological medication.

Tolerance
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect. Example: getting use to it. Definition: Taking a stronger medication.

Withdrawal
The discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. Example: feeling bad using illegal drugs. Definition: discomfort of addictive drugs.

Physical dependence
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued. Example: needed physiological drug. Definition: prescribed medication

Psychological dependence
A psychological needs to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions. Example: helps release negativity. Definition: prescribed drugs that help relieve problems.

Addiction
Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences. Example: cocaine and heroine are addictions so are video games. Definition: when you can’t stop having it.

Depressants
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce activity and slow body functions. Example: under the influence of alcohol. Definition: not being you, you lose mind control. Barbiturates
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Example: reduce happiness. Definition: depressed over drugs

Opiates
Opium and its derivatives, (such as morphine and heroin); they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. Example: forgetting about pain. Definition: makes pain not painful.

Stimulants
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up the body functions. Example: being hyper-activate. Definition: drugs that can cause hyper-activity.

Amphetamines
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes. Example: stronger than energy drinks. Definition: Drugs that can cause personality changes.

Methamphetamine
A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. Example: also know as Meth. Definition: powerful drug and can cause personality changes.

Ecstasy (MDMA): a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produced euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health-risks. Example: being synthetic and not really bad. Definition: made-made and not strong to pass out.

Hallucinogens: Psychedelic drugs, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images. Example: LSD. Definition: causes hallucination.

LSD: a powerful hallucinogenic drug. Example: Acid. Definition: is a Hallucinogen drug.

Near-death experience
An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations. Example: overdose of cocaine. Definition: also dying caused by drugs.

THC
The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations. Example: ingredient in marijuana. Definition: THC ingredient in weed that causes hallucinations.

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