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Apa Reference Writing

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Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. • Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. • Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. • Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. • Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. • Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. • Indentation *: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent." • Underlining vs. Italics *: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals. • The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication.

Articles in Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers
References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.
Journal Article, one author
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences.Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.

Journal Article, two authors
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process

in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and

Research, 45(2), 10-36.
Journal Article, more than two authors
Saywitz, K. J., Mannarion, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen, J. A.

(2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents.

American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049.

Magazine article
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience:

Breaking down scientific barriers to the study

of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.

Newspaper article, no author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure.

(1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

Newspaper article, one author, discontinuous pages
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social

status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
For information on articles in press, special issues and supplements, translations, newsletters, etc. please see the APA resources at the end of the guide.

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

No Author or Editor
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993).

Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster.
One Author
Baddeley, A. D. (1999). Essentials of human memory. Hove,

England: Psychology Press.

Two Authors
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts,

myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American

Psychological Association.

Corporate Author, Author as Publisher Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population

by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South

Wales, June 1990 (no. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital

Territory: Author.

Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color:

Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco:

For information on books that have been revised, translated, issued in multivolume sets, etc. please see the APA resources at the end of the guide. Essays or Chapters in Edited Books
References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
One Author
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek,D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Two Editors
Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism

in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M.

Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330).

Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
For information on chapters in multivolume sets, in translation, etc. please see the APA resources at the end of the guide.
Encyclopedias or Dictionaries and Entries in an Encyclopedia
References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
Encyclopedia set or dictionary
Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians

(6th ed., Vols. 1-20). London: Macmillan.

Encyclopedia article
Bergman, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica

(Vol. 26, pp. 501- 508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Technical and Research Reports
References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. Additional information is included when a report is published by the Government Printing Office (GPO) or when it is available from a document deposit service such as NTIS or ERIC.
Government report
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1992). Pressure ulcers in adults: Prediction and prevention (AHCPR Publication No. 92-0047).
Rockville, MD: Author.

Government report, GPO Publisher
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in

serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679).

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Report available from document deposit service
Osgood, D. W., & Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health

problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS)
For information on university and private reports, working papers, proceedings, poster sessions, theses and dissertations, unpublished works, etc., please see the APA resources at the end of the guide.
Audio-Visual Media
References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium in indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed (see example for Audio Recording).
Garmon, L. (Producer and Director), & Apsell, P. (Executive Producer).

(1994). Secret of the wild child [Videocassette]. Boston, MA:

WGBH Educational Foundation.

Audio Recording
Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988). Personality, continuity, and

changes of adult life (Cassette Recording No. 207-433-88A-B).

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Motion Picture
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You

can count on me [Motion Picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

Television Broadcast
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer

news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC:

Public Broadcasting Service.

Television Series
Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New

York: WNET.

Music Recording
Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD].

New York: PolyGram Music.

Electronic Media and Online Sources
APA's recommendations for citing electronic media call for consistent observation of at least two important guidelines: 1) Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited -- whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages; 2) Provide addresses that work. At a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should provide a document or title description, a "date" (either the date of publication, update, or date of retrieval), and an address (in Internet terms, a URL). Whenever possible, identify the authors of the document as well.
Listed below are examples of citation styles for several types of electronic sources.

Internet articles based on a print source (exists in print and online)
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements

in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates

[Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.

Article in an Internet-only journal
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions

to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment,

3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from

Journal article from a database
Borman, W.C., Hanson, M.A., Oppler, S.H., Pulakos, E.D., & White, L.A. (1993).

Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000,

from PsycARTICLES database.

Article from an online encyclopedia
Bergman, P. G. & Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (1994-1999).

Relativity. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved August 4, 1999,

from Encyclopedia Britannica Online on the World Wide Web:

Professional web site
American Psychological Association. (1999, June 1). Electronic preference

formats recommended by the American Psychological Association.

Retrieved July 18, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

Document available on university program or department site
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology

and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining

educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia

University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site:

When citing an entire web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many

essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology


For information on citing electronic versions of newspaper articles and technical, private and government reports; virtual proceedings, papers and poster sessions; online discussion forum and e-mail list postings; computer software, etc., please see the APA resources at the end of the guide.

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