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APA STYLE GUIDE
Based on Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2009)

Reference Citations in Text References
  Print Sources (paper) Articles, books, reports, government documents, corporate author, etc. Electronic Sources (online/web) articles, ebooks, reports, broadcast, data, blogs, wiki, podcasts, etc.,

More Help with APA APA Web Sites and Tutorials PDF version (5th Edition) Return to Library Home Page

American Psychological Association or APA style is widely accepted in the Social Sciences. For more information consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association located on 2 North Reference and in Dictionary Stands on all floors: BF 76.7 P83 2010. Publication Manual sections are noted in square brackets [ ].

CITING REFERENCES IN TEXT [6.11-6.22] Throughout the body of your paper, briefly note the author and date of research that you mention. Enough information is needed to identify the correct source in the References list at the end of your paper. For more information and examples, see Table 6.1 in the 6th ed. Publication Manual.  Author and Date Cited in Text (no parenthetical citation necessary) In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin's most effective metaphors.  Author Not Cited in Text As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989).  Author Cited in Text Gould (1989) attributes Darwin's success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor.  Direct Quotation with Name of Author Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological–and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life" (p. 14).  Direct Quotation without Name of Author

Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological" (Gould, 1989, p. 14). For each of the samples above the correct "References" APA style format would be: Gould, S. J. (1989). The wheel of fortune and the wedge of progress. Natural History, 89(3), 14-21.  Quoting references that cite other works [6.17] To cite secondary sources, refer to both sources in the text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used. For instance, suppose you read Feist (1998) and would like to paraphrase the following sentence within that book: Bandura (1989) defined self-efficacy as "people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives" (p. 1175). In this case, your in-text citation would be: (Bandura, 1989, as cited in Feist, 1998). Feist (1998) would be fully referenced within the list of References. Bandura (1989) would not be listed. Remember to use the examples in this handout to cite and reference your quote correctly. Return to top of the page REFERENCES For more information and examples, see sections 6.22-6.32 in the 6th ed. Publication Manual:        Begin your list of references on a new page, headed with the word “References” centered at the top. Use “Reference” if there is only one. Alphabetize the list by author's last name. If there is no author given, start with the first significant word in the title. For article titles, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and proper names. Periodical titles should be written in full with both capital and lower case letters. References are to be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented. Double space the entire document.

Example: Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. Return to top of the page PRINT SOURCES: JOURNAL ARTICLES (periodical articles published in journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.)

Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume (issue), pages.  One Author [6.27] Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924. Note: Include issue number if the journal is paginated separately by issue. [6.30]  Two to Seven Authors [6.27] Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.  Eight or More Authors [7.01.2] Note: Include all authors up to and including seven. For eight or more, include the first six, then an ellipsis, followed by the last author's name. [6.27] Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., ...Griffin. W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.  Magazine Article [7.01.7] Rodgers, J. (2006, July). Extreme psychology. Psychology Today, 39(4), 86-93.  Review of a Book [7.06.45] Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information by J.S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304.  Daily Newspaper Article, No Author [7.01.10] Note: Use p or pp before page number. If the article had more than one page but not continuous then the citation would be "pp. A12, A14."  New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, p. A12.  Letter to the Editor, Newspaper Article[7.01.15] Berkowitz, A.D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter

to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p B20.  Entire Issue of a Journal[7.01.12] Barlow, D.H. (Ed.). (1991) Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3). Return to top of the page PRINT SOURCES: BOOKS AND REPORTS Format: Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.  Book [7.02.18] Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.  A Book by More than One Author [7.02.24] Levison, M., Ward, R. G., & Webb, J. W. (1973). The settlement of Polynesia: A computer simulation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  Edited Book [7.02.22-24] Ruiz, V. L., & Sánchez Korrol, V. (Eds.). (2006). Latinas in the United States: A historical encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.  Corporate Author as Publisher [7.02] American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.  Anonymous Author [6.27] Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities.  Chapter in a Book [7.02.25] Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.



ERIC Document [7.09.62] Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ED346082)



Government Report [7.03.31] National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Return to top of the page

ELECTRONIC (BROADCAST, ONLINE and WEB SITES) Many scholarly publishers have been assigning unique identifiers to each published article. The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an alpha-numeric code registered to each scholarly article in order to assign a persistent link to the article. The DOI has replaced the database name and URL in the list of references. Because the link is to the final version, do not include a retrieval date. Since DOI numbers are complex, copy and paste DOI into the reference. APA recommends that the DOI be included for print and online citations. Citing electronic sources is similar to citing print sources; citations direct readers to the source or as close as possible. Where do I find a DOI?      It may be part of the citation or abstract of a record. It may be found on the first page of an article, especially in pdf format. Use DOI Lookup (http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/). Cut and paste a citation into CrossRef Simple Text Query (http://www.crossref.org/SimpleTextQuery/) Verify a known DOI by using CrossRef DOI Resolver (http://www.crossref.org/05researchers/58doi_resolver.html)

Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pages. doi: unique identifier  Full-Text Article with DOI assigned Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.750 Stevenson, W., Maton, K. I., & Teti, D. M. (1999). Social support, relationship quality, and well-being among pregnant adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 109121.

doi: 10.1006/jado.1998.0204  Full-Text Articles without a DOI [6.32] If no DOI has been assigned, provide the home page URL of the journal, book or report publisher. If you are accessing through a database, you may need to do a web search to locate the URL. It is not necessary to include the name of the database. There is no period at the end of a reference citation ending with a URL. Francis-Smythe, J., & Robertson, I. (1999). Time-related individual differences. Time & Society, 8, 273-292. Retrieved from http://intl-tas.sagepub.com Senior, B. (1997). Team roles and team performance: Is there really a link? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 241-258. Retrieved from http://bpsjournals.co.uk/journals/joop 

Online Newspaper Article [7.01.11] McHugh, P. (2005, March 17). Feeling down? It might help if you just take it outside. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from http://sfgate.com



Research or Technical Report from a Web Site [7.03] NAACP. (n.d.). Juvenile justice fact sheet. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from http://www.naacp.org/advocacy/research/facts/Juvenile%20Justice.pdf ACLU. (2007, November 29). FBI Improperly Using Patriot Act Surveillance Powers, ACLU Charges. Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nationalsecurityletters/32904prs20071129.html



Article from Web Site or E-journal [7.01.3] Takase, A. (2007). Japanese high school students' motivation for extensive L2 reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 19(1), 1-18. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2007/takase/takase.pdf



Television Broadcast [7.07.51] Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.



Electronic Book from Web Site [7.02.19] O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135  Electronic Book from Database [7.02.19] Gates, J.M. (1999). Consider the Earth: Environmental activities for grades 4-8. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com  Wiki [7.11] Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from The Psychology Wiki: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Psychometirc_assessment  Data set [7.08.54] Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and criss-crosing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/  Blog post [7.11.76] bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php  Audio podcast [7.07.50] Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2006, October 13). Understanding autism. Shrink Rap Radio [Audio Podcast]. Retreived from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/ Return to top of the page MORE HELP WITH APA Can't find the right rule? If you do not find a rule in this guide to fit the specific citation situation you are working on, you need to consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Copies are available at all dictionary stands on all four floors in the Library, in Reference (BF 76.7 P83 2009), and in the Reserve Book Room for a 2 hour check out period. Reference examples are in Chapter Seven. It is impossible to have an example for every type of source available. If you are unable to find the perfect example, remember, that the purpose of listing references is to allow readers to retrieve and use your sources. Find the closest example; and put as much infomation as you think necessary in your citiation to ensure that the source can be retrieved in the future. Students may also seek assistance with papers for any class in any department, or for preparation for writing exams at the CSUS Writing Center. The Writing Center is located in Room 128 of Calaveras Hall. Also consider taking one of the drop in classes in the Library. Classes are held throughout the

year. Check at the Reference Desk (2North) for a schedule of workshops or on the Library Instruction web page Examples are also available from the web sites listed below. Return to top of the page APA WEB SITES and Tutorials      Basics of APA Style Tutorial Quick Guide to APA Format (6th edition) This is a short video by Deborah Metzger, CSU Sacramento Science Librarian APA Style for Electronic Sources/Trinity University OWL at Purdue/APA Format Frequently Asked Questions about APA Style Return to top of the page

PDF VERSION OF APA STYLE GUIDE   PDF Version of the APA Style Guide ( 5th Edition) APA (6th Edition) / Alvin Sherman Library, Research and Information Technology Center, Nova Southeastern University Return to top of the page A Sacramento State Library Research Guide compiled by Leilani Hall, Science Reference Librarian; Leilani@csus.edu Last updated 9/09…...

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Template for Apa Style Essay

...APA Style Document Template This document is to demonstrate that studying the subject CORE101 introduces the APA Style of Writing and that students can format an Assessment document that adheres to APA formatting. This section is the Abstract which is a short summary about the essay. Abstracts Word limits vary for this section but typically range from 150 to 250 words. Introduction. This section informs the reader about what the Whole essay is about, and is possibly the most important part of the essay. This section is not actually titled Introduction it is in fact titled the actual full title of the essay this section is normally about 10% of the total word count. The first few sentences should clearly state the problem you are addressing, and it should state your aim is either it be to resolve or argue. One useful representation for the introduction is an upside-down triangle. The top (or the start) is very broad and general, and as you proceed, you will become more specific in what you are discussing, until the last point of your introduction is mentioning with pin-point accuracy exactly what the current essay will be arguing. Body. This is the Bulk of your essay where you demonstrate you argument. This section is normally 80% of the total word limit. This means you need to be concise and precise in the language you use. You will often hear your lecturer, and read in essay structure material, that your body must be logically ordered. This means that each......

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Apa Style

...Writing in the style prescribed by the American Psychological Association (2001), Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA 5th), can be a daunting experience for both graduate students and faculty members. Green and Gold (1996) suggest that an additional guide can be helpful, minimizing the need for searching through the sometimes confusing and highly detailed text of APA 5th. This paper should help you submit your assignments in the proper format. First, this paper will describe the mechanics of APA formatting. Second, this paper will describe some of the usage requirements of APA formatting. Third, this paper will describe the parameters of referencing material that comes from another person’s work. Finally, this paper will provide the grading criteria for APA formatting of your written assignments. Mechanics of APA Formatting There are several components that are mechanical issues of APA formatting. The most common errors students make are in the margins, running head, and headers (Green & Gold, 1996). This section will help to clarify any mechanical problems you may encounter while writing your papers. Title Page The title page for my course is different from the suggestions in the APA 5th. The title page on papers submitted for SEC370 requirements must include the following information: (a) the header area information, which includes the shortened head with a page number, (b) the running head, and (c) the center section, which includes the......

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