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American Psychological Association (APA) Style is a set of rules that authors must use when submitting papers for publications in APS journals [1]. The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision."[2] The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains guidelines for every aspect of writing, especially in the social sciences, from determining authorship to constructing a table to avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations.
|Contents |
|[hide] |
|1 Early editions |
|2 Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual |
|3 APA Style online |
|3.1 Resources on apastyle.org |
|3.2 Resources on the APA Style Blog |
|3.3 Resources on Social Media |
|4 Errors in the First Printing of the Sixth Edition |
|5 Sections and subsections of papers using sixth edition |
|6 Headings |
|7 Citation |
|8 Reference list |
|8.1 Print sources |
|8.2 Electronic sources |
|9 Statistical expressions in APA |
|10 Graph and table layout |
|11 Other non-print sources |
|12 See also |
|13 Notes |
|14 References |
|15 External links |

Early editions
The Publication Manual was established in 1929 as a seven-page document with a set of procedures to increase the ease of reading comprehension (APA, 2009a, p. xiii).[3] Created under the sponsorship of the United States National Research Council, its originators included psychologists, anthropologists, and publishing professionals.
In 1952, the booklet was expanded and published as a 55-page supplement in Psychological Bulletin with revisions made in 1957 and 1967 (APA, 1952, 1957, 1967).[4][5][6] The first edition covered word choice, grammar, punctuation, formatting, journal publication policies, and "wrapping and shipping" (APA, Council of Editors, 1952, p. 442).
In response to the growing complexities of scientific reporting, subsequent editions were released in 1974, 1983, 1994, and 2001. Primarily known for the simplicity of its reference citation style, the Publication Manual also established standards for language use that had far-reaching effects. Particularly influential were the "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals," first published as a modification to the 1974 edition, which provided practical alternatives to sexist language then in common usage.[7][8] The guidelines for reducing bias in language have been updated over the years and presently provide practical guidance for writing about race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, and disability status (APA, 2009, pp. 70–77; see also APA, 2009b).[9]
Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual
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The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in July 2009 after 4 years of development. The Publication Manual Revision Task Force of the American Psychological Association established parameters for the revision based on published criticism, user comments, commissioned reviews, and input from psychologists, nurses, librarians, business leaders, publishing professionals, and APA governance groups (APA, 2007a, 2007b).[10][11] To accomplish these revisions, the Task Force appointed working groups of four to nine members in seven areas: Bias-Free Language, Ethics, Graphics, Journal Article Reporting Standards, References, Statistics, and Writing Style (APA, 2009, pp. xvii-xviii).
Thoroughly reorganized and updated, the sixth edition was significantly revised to incorporate the technological advances that had affected virtually all areas of scientific communication since the previous edition was published (APA, 2001). Specific revisions in the sixth edition include • expanded ethics guidance on determining authorship, sharing data, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism; • a new section on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS), stressing the need for precision and consistency in reporting methodology and providing practical guidelines for achieving this consistency; • new, simplified heading style for easier comprehension of online articles; • expanded guidelines on reducing bias in language, including a new section on presenting historical language that is inappropriate by present standards; • new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics as well as thoroughly revised and expanded tables of statistical abbreviations and measures; • new procedures and examples for the electronic presentation of data; • new formats for electronic references, with a focus on the digital object identifier, or DOI, as the most reliable way to locate online information; • expanded information about the publishing process, including a new discussion of the peer review process; • all new examples and illustrative material to demonstrate revised standards of style.
APA Style online
There are multiple online aids to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. Among them are the following:
Resources on apastyle.org • Main apastyle.org page • Learning resources page, including links to free tutorials, an online course, and other content arranged by subject • Free tutorials: o The Basics of APA Style o What's New in the Sixth Edition • FAQs about APA Style • Online course: o Mastering the Sixth Edition
Resources on the APA Style Blog
The APA Style Blog is a repository for current information about APA Style. It addresses commonly asked questions from readers as well as areas the manual may not address, such as • how to cite social media, like o Twitter, o Facebook, o Kindles (or other e-book readers), and o Wikipedia articles.
It also answers questions about how to cite regular references as well as electronic references.
Other topic areas include • databases • how to use DOIs or digital object identifiers • grammar and usage questions • Lists, including how to use o lettered lists, o numbered lists, o bulleted lists, and o how to choose what type of list you need.
The categories on the right-hand side of the blog show the different areas that have been explored, and users can also search the site using a Google search box to find answers to their questions.
Resources on Social Media
The APA Style team maintains a Facebook page and a Twitter feed (@APA_Style).
Errors in the First Printing of the Sixth Edition
Despite multiple reviews of the manuscript at the copyediting and proofreading stages by senior editors, staff realized shortly after the manual had gone to press that the sample papers contained errors. They took prompt action to correct the errors and to post the fully corrected papers on the APA Style website where they were made available for viewing and downloading. Staff concurrently examined the rest of the manuscript and found the following additional errors: • In 188 style guidelines, two errors were made, and one of these was a punctuation error. • In almost 1,000 examples provided to illustrate those rules, 36 errors were made (roughly half of these occurred in the sample papers, which were subsequently corrected and posted online). Another 10 occurred in the 374 examples that were provided in the reference chapter. • Five clarifications to text were made. These were not errors but rather clarified and expanded text, for example, adding a second example for both a blog post and a blog comment. • Three pages of nonsignificant typographical errors were corrected. These included such things as changing an em dash to an en dash, changing a minus sign to a hyphen, and correcting for added space that was automatically added when a sample form was reproduced.
In the interest of transparency (and following the same procedure that was followed for the fifth edition), staff posted all of the corrections online in a single document on October 1, 2009, and shortly thereafter alerted users to the existence of the corrections in a blog entry. On the same day the corrections were posted, an individual posting to the Educational and Behavioral Sciences Section listserv (EBBSS-L) of the American Library Association alerted readers to what she described as the "many" errors in the first printing and speculated that "some but not all" would be corrected in a second printing. On October 5, 2009, APA staff responded to the note clarifying that errors were found in the sample papers, that the papers had been corrected and posted online, that the substantive guidance in the manual was correct and accurate as printed, and that a full list of corrections could be found at the APA Style website.
On October 13, 2009, the article "Correcting a Style Guide" was published in the online newspaper Inside Higher Education that included interviews with several individuals who defined the errors as "egregious" (Epstein, 2009).[12] The article, along with rumors spread on various listervs, resulted in exaggerated accounts of both the magnitude and the extent of the errors, with some reports on Amazon.com claiming more than 80 pages of errors had occurred.
APA responded to the increasing confusion by issuing an apology and implementing a return/replacement program for purchasers who wished to exchange their first printing copies for second printing copies of the Publication Manual. The first edition copies returned to APA were destroyed. The second and all subsequent printings of the Publication Manual have been fully corrected.
Sections and subsections of papers using sixth edition
Because of changes in some areas from the fifth edition, such as References, the information listed below should be used with caution as it does not reflect the sixth and most recent edition of the Publication Manual or its corrected second printing.
Papers or articles following the 6th edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style) will typically include the following sections, each of which starts on a new page: 1. Abstract 2. Text (body of paper) 3. References 4. Footnotes 5. Tables (new page for each table) 6. Figures (new page for each figure, include figure caption below the figure on the same page---this is a change from the 5th ed.) 7. Appendices (optional---may not be present for all papers)
The guidelines for manuscript preparation can be found in Chapter 8 of the 6th edition of the Publication Manual on p. 228. It covers margins, typeface, line spacing, and other matters.
Note that these guidelines are intended specifically for submitting to APA Journals. Many universities have other requirements that add to or supersede the requirements in the APA Style manual.
Headings
The use of headings aids in establishing the hierarchy of the sections of a paper to help orient the reader. Topics within a paper that have equal importance will have the same level of headings throughout the paper. For example, in a paper with multiple experiments, the heading for the Method section for Experiment 1 should be at the same level as the heading for the Method section for Experiment 2.
Headings can also function as an outline to reveal the paper's organization. This is particularly true when the paper is submitted to APA journals. Also, avoid having one sub-section heading in a paper. Use at least two subsections with any given section or none at all.
APA’s heading style consists of five possible levels of subordination. Level 1 is the highest level and Level 5 is the lowest level. Most papers will use two or three levels. Levels are always used consecutively, beginning with Level 1. APA does not use the heading "Introduction" to begin a paper, as the opening of a paper is considered by default to be the introduction. 1. Level 1: Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings 2. Level 2: Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading 3. Level 3: Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period. 4. Level 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. 5. Level 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period.[13]
You can read more about them and see examples in the APA Style Blog category for headings.
Citation
Reference citations in text are done using parenthetical referencing. Most usually, this involves enclosing the author's surname and the date of publication within parentheses, separated by a comma, generally placed immediately after the reference or at the end of the sentence in which the reference is made. However, it is also common for the authors to be the subject or object of a sentence. In such a case only the year is in parentheses. In all cases of citation, author name(s) are always followed immediately by a year, and years are never presented without author name(s) immediately preceding it. In the case of a quotation, the page number is also included in the citation.
Reference list
The APA style guide prescribes that the Reference section, bibliographies and other lists of names should be accumulated by surname first, and mandates inclusion of surname prefixes. For example, "Martin de Rijke" should be sorted as "de Rijke, M." and "Saif Al-Falasi" should be sorted as "Al-Falasi, S." For names in non-English languages, follow the capitalization standards of that language. For each of the source types below a hanging indent should be used where the first line is flush to the left margin and all other lines are indented.
Print sources
Book by one author • Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego, CA: Halstead.
Book by two authors • Kurosawa, J., & Armistead, Q. (1972). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: McMaster University Press.
Chapter in an edited book • Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London, England: OtherWorld Books.
Dissertation (PhD or masters) • Mcdonalds, A. (1991). Practical dissertation title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Article in a journal with continuous pagination (nearly all journals use continuous pagination) • Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146. • Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 470–500. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.4.470
Article in a journal paginated separately Journal Pagination • Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.
Article in a weekly magazine • Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28–31.
Article in a weekly magazine with DOI • Hoff, K. (2010, March 19). Fairness in modern society. Science, 327, 1467–1468. doi:10.1126/science.1188537
Article in a print newspaper • Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). "Never gonna give you up," says mayor. Toronto Sol, p. 4.
Electronic sources
For electronic references, websites, and online articles, APA Style asserts some basic rules, including to • direct readers specifically to the source material using URLs which work • include retrieval date ONLY when content is likely to change (e.g., wikis) • include all other relevant APA Style details for the source
Online article based on a print source, with DOI (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database) • Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Externalizing psychopathology in adulthood: A dimensional-spectrum conceptualization and its implications for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 537-550. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.537
Online article based on a print source, without DOI (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database) • Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–127.
Online article from a database, no DOI, available ONLY in that database (proprietary content—not things like Ovid, EBSCO, and PsycINFO) • Liquor advertising on TV. (2002, January 18). Retrieved from http://factsonfile.infobasepublishing.com/
OR
• Liquor advertising on TV. (2002, January 18). Retrieved from Issues and Controversies database.
Article in an Internet-only journal • McDonald, C., & Chenoweth, L. (2009). Leadership: A crucial ingredient in unstable times. Social Work & Society, 7. Retrieved from http://www.socwork.net/2009/1/articles/mcdonaldchenoweth
Article in an Internet-only newsletter (eight or more authors) • Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., Thyme, E. J., . . . Bradford, J. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the Beaten Path, 7. Retrieved from http://www.newsletter.offthebeatenpath.news/otr/complaints.html
Article with no author identified (the title moves to the "author" position) • Britain launches new space agency. (2010, March 24). Retrieved from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/technology/1031221/britain-launches-new-space-agency
Article with no author and no date identified (e.g., wiki article) • Harry Potter. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 28, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Potter&oldid=380786432
Entry in an online dictionary or reference work, no date and no author identified • Verisimilitude. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/verisimilitude
E-mail or other personal communication (cite in text only) • (A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001)
Book on CD • Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York, NY: Random House/Listening Library.
Book on tape • Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]. New York, NY: Random House/Listening Library.
Movie
• Gilby, A. (Producer), & Schlesinger, J. (Director). (1995). Cold comfort farm [Motion picture]. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal.
Statistical expressions in APA
Some of the more common examples are given below. Italics and spaces need to be carefully noted.
Note on Probabilities There are two ways to report statistical probability: pre-specified probability given as a range below the chosen alpha level and exact probability given as a calculated p-value. Since most statistical packages calculate an exact value for p, the Publication Manual recommends that exact p-values should be reported. • Example: p < .05 • Example: p = .031 (preferred) Exceptions, where a pre-specified probability range may be preferred, include large or complex tables of correlations or when the p-value is particularly small (e.g., p < .001).
Reporting F-tests General format: F([df-between], [df-within]) = [F-obtained], p = [p-value], [eta-squared obtained] = [value]. • Example: F(2, 50) = 9.35, p < .001, η2 = .03. If a p-value is not significant, then the letters ns are substituted, or the precise p-value is substituted prefaced by an equals sign. • Example: F(2, 50) = 1.35, ns. • Example: F(2, 50) = 1.35, p = .18. (preferred) If an F-value is less than 1, thereby implying that it can never be statistically significant, then neither the F-value itself, nor the associated p-value, is reported. • Example: F(2, 50) < 1. • Example: F < 1.
Reporting t-tests General format: t([df error])= [t-obtained], p = [p-value], [Cohen's d obtained] = [value]. • Example: t(9) = 2.35, p = .043, d = .70.
Reporting χ2 tests General format: χ2([df error], N = [total sample size]) = [Chi-squared obtained], p = [p-value]. • Example: χ2(4, N = 24) = 12.4, p = .015.
Graph and table layout • Graphs o should not have tick marks for the measures o should have titles for the x and y axis o should not have an outline around the graph o should not have minor lines on the chart o The legend should either not exist if the graph is simple or should be inside the chart o need to be on a figure captions page, with an explanation of the data represented o do not have page numbers, and should have penciled in, on the back the top and the figure caption that corresponds to it. • Tables o do have page numbers o do not have vertical lines
Other non-print sources
No personal communication is included in the reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with citation style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
See also
|[pic] |Wikiversity has learning materials about APA style |

| |
|Style guides |
|ACS Style Guide |
|AMA Manual of Style |
|The Associated Press Stylebook |
|The Chicago Manual of Style |
|Turabian |
|The Elements of Style |
|The Elements of Typographic Style |
|ISO 690 |
|MHRA Style Guide |
|MLA Handbook |
|MLA Style Manual |
|The New York Times Manual |
|The Oxford Guide to Style/New Hart's Rules |
|The Publication Manual of the APA |
|Yahoo! Style Guide |

• Citation • Comparison of reference management software
Notes
1. ^ http://www.apa.org/pubs/authors/instructions.aspx# 2. ^ apastyle.org APA Style 3. ^ Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). 2009. Washington, DC 4. ^ American Psychological Association, Council of Editors. (1952). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 49(Suppl., Pt. 2), 389-449. 5. ^ American Psychological Association. (1957). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 6. ^ American Psychological Association. (1967). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author 7. ^ American Psychological Association, Task Force on Issues of Sexual Bias in Graduate Education. (1975). Guidelines for nonsexist language in APA journals. American Psychologist, 30, 682-684. doi:10.1037/h0076869 8. ^ APA Publication Manual Task Force. (1977). Guidelines for nonsexist language in APA journals [Change Sheet 2]. American Psychologist, 32, 487-494. doi:v10.1037/0003-066X.32.6.487 9. ^ American Psychological Association. (2009b). Supplemental material: Chapter 3: Writing clearly and concisely. Retrieved at http://apastyle.org/manual/supplement/index.aspx 10. ^ American Psychological Association. (2007a, April 13–14). Meeting of the Council of Editors[Agenda book]. APA Archives, Washington, DC. 11. ^ American Psychological Association. (2007b, May 18–20). "Meeting of the Publications and Communications Board[Agenda book]. APA Archives, Washington, DC. 12. ^ Epstein, J. (2009, October 13). Correcting a style guide: Scholars turn to style manuals for guidance in authoring error-free manuscripts, but what happens when the manual itself is laden with errors?" Inside Higher Education. Retrieved from [1] 13. ^ "The Owl At Purdue" (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/16/).
References
• American Psychological Association. (2010). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. ISBN 9781433805622 • American Psychological Association. (2001). The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. ISBN 9781557987914
External links • Introduction to APA Style - Hypertextual electronic workshop hosted by the Online Writing Lab (OWL), Department of English, Purdue University. • APA Style—Reference List/In-Text (pdf) • Create References APA - Free Generator APA references • APA "Citation Styles" Online Guide - Resource hosted by the Department of English, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. • Apacite – "A BibTeX style which closely follows American Psychological Association style citations, providing a very good match." • APA.cls – Resource compiled by Athanassios Protopapas, Institute for Language and Speech Processing (ILSP), Athens, Greece. • APA Guide Basics Summary (pdf) - Webpage summary of APA Rules. • APA Style - APA Style Online home page. • CiteFast - Free Citation Generator • "Citation Machine" – Citation style generator (APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian). • Amacite – Automatic citation style generator and library for books powered by Amazon.com (APA, MLA). • "KnightCite: A Project of Hekman Library – APA, MLA, and Chicago Style citation generator hosted by Calvin College. • "NoodleBib Express" – Style advice, citation creator (APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian). • Psychology with Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide (for the 5th edition of the APA Manual) (February 1, 2007 - Version 5.014). - Teacher's Guide compiled by Mark Plonsky, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point.
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...Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS RUNNING HEAD: Yes, it will say, ―Running head: . . . .‖ Use an abbreviated form of the title (not exceeding 50 characters, which includes spaces). The abbreviated title is in capital letters. This will appear in the top left corner of every page —1 inch from the left margin and ½ inch from the top. All elements in the dotted boxes are not visible on your final paper. 1 in. Margin. All written material is within 1in. margins around all sides of the page, on every page. Only the header is outside the 1 in. margin. 1 PAGE NUMBERS: A page number will appear on every page in the top right corner of every page—1 inch from the right margin and ½ inch from the top. Sample APA Paper for Students Learning APA Style NOTE: Information that is required varies from class to class – consult your instructor for which details they require. 1 in. Margin. This information is centered (left to right), double spaced, and can start in the upper half of the page. Your Name The Name of the Course 1 in. Margin. Your Instructor’s Name The Date NOTE: This paper is printed doublesided to save paper. A proper APA paper should not be double-sided. 1 in. Margin. Running head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS Abstract 2 Section title. You may not have to include an abstract with your paper; if in doubt, ask your instructor. The abstract is a single paragraph in block format (without......

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...Sample APA Paper 1 Use an ab bre v iated title as a hea der on each pag e Start the page numbe rs on the title Sample APA Paper Ivy Tech College Libr arians Title Author I n st ru ct or’ s Name Cou r se and Numb er Due d a te Cente r this information from top to bottom and left to right Instructor’s Name Course XXX-XX February 18, 2004 *In APA us e a traditional fon t type (i.e. Times New Roma n or Ari a l), either 10 or 12 font size and doubl e sp ace the entire do cu m ent Sample APA Paper 2 Cente r the title on the first page of the te xt. Note that it is in the s a me font s i ze as the pa per i t self and there is n o bo ld print, etc. Sample APA Paper Subject he adi ngs may be u s ed if they fit with the style of the pape r Introduction *In APA s e t the margi n s to one inch Approximately 14 million women in the United States are battling with the disease Anorexia Nerv osa, AN, which is des cribed as “one of the least understood and most i n tractable of all ment al illnesses ” (Schindehette, Sandler, Nelson and Seaman, 2003, p. 136). Many of the victims of this disease will battle it for the rest of their lives. Howeve r, if AN is diagnosed early, during the teen years, it is possible to cure it wit h appropriate treatment (Cooper, 2001). Therefore, adolesc ent wo men struggling wit h AN need effective treatment, and today, after four......

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...Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Library APA Style Referencing Examples (6th edition) This brochure is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a comprehensive guide. This brochure contains examples of references in APA style. The most common kinds of references are illustrated here. V. Books With Editors Duncan, G. J., & Brooks, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. VI. Books With Edition Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. APA Style Reference Examples Online guidelines for commonly asked questions, complex expression of writing and tips on specific questions are available from http://apastyle.apa.org VII. Chapter in an Edited Book O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer. Print Resources (6th Edition) Books VIII. Dictionaries Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. • Names are listed last name, then initials. Separate names with a comma, and use & before the last author, e.g. Helfer, M. E., & Duncan, G. J. • Use Ed. for ONE editor, Eds. for MULTIPLE editors, e.g. (Ed.). / (Eds.). • Capitalize first...

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...APAStyle IN-TEXT CITATIONS A Quick Guide Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries This is an APA style guide for the most commonly used citation formats. Examples are adapted from the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition. Anonymous or unknown author: (Short Title, year, pp.); (“Short Article,” year) Citation: It was found that dogs bark when they feel threatened (“Characteristics of Dogs,” 1991). Reference: Characteristics of dogs in their natural habitats. (2005, July 13). New York Times, p. B13. One author: (Author, year, pp.) Citation: The author found that cars go fast (Smith, 2000, p. 123). Smith (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast. Reference: Smith, A. (2000). Cars go fast. New York, NY: Good Publishing, Inc. Two authors: (Author1 & Author2, year, pp.) Citation: The study found that dogs bark (Smith & Jones, 2005). Smith and Jones (2005) found that dogs bark. Reference: Smith, B. B., & Jones, B. B. (2005). Noises that animals make in their natural habitats. Journal of Animal Science, 4(2), 15-27. Three – five authors: First cite: (Author1, Author2, & Author3, year, pp.) Next cite: (Author1 et al., year, pp.) Citation: The authors found that cars go fast (Smith, Jones, & Rogers, 2000, p. 123). The authors found that cars go fast (Smith et al., 2000, p. 123). Smith, Jones, and Rogers (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast. Smith et al. (2000, p. 123) found that cars go fast. Reference: Smith, A., Jones, A., & Rogers, A. (2000). Cars go fast. New York, NY:...

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...or group on a task to achieve the same goal. Some ways collaboration can add value in a learning environment are by giving students a different perspective on the topic they are working on. Collaboration can help students learn to cooperate effectively in a group setting and can teach them the social skills they will need to be successful in everyday life. There are many factors that take part in collaboration, such as personal responsibility, difference in attitudes and difference learning styles. Personal responsibility can influence the work and success of a group if a group member does not take accountability for his or her work. If one or more group members are not taking accountability they will not put in the same amount of effort as someone who does have personal responsibility. This can cause a lot of frustration and tension among the group which will negatively affect the outcome of the project. When working with a group there are going to be different attitudes and learning styles among the team mates. A few communication strategies that can be used when collaborating are; making sure everyone is heard, voicing the importance of achieving goals on time and using a variety of ways to complete the project so that everyone has an equal learning opportunity. Some strategies that can be used to enhance team performance are setting clear timelines for when things are expected to be completed, being flexible when you need to be, making sure to listen to other people’s......

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...include: ● Health claims/how it works ● Requirements of the diet (what foods to eat/not eat, calories, etc) ● Pros and Cons - Do you think people can lose weight on this diet? - Is it a practical diet? Why or why not? - What are the potential problems associated with this diet? - Any interesting facts/thoughts you would like to mention Please find a minimum of 2 reliable (where applicable) sources from medical sources or sites that have credentialed authors. Wikipedia is not a reliable source but may be a good place to find key words and other sources to investigate. Some diets do NOT have professional/medically-backed sites. Do the best that you can- I know which ones they are! Sources should be cited by the APA format (see attached examples). Print a copy of your summary and source list to hand in to the instructor at the BEGINNING of class on the due date. Print another copy for you to reference as you tell the class about the diet you researched. Be prepared to answer questions. Your heading at the top of your paper should look like this... NAME DATE/ TIME Begin typing your fad diet information here.... Alexandria Lewis 8.29.15/ 11:00 Class Tapeworm Diet How It Works How would you like to ingest a tapeworm? By eating raw meat or, swallowing a pill? Neither way sounds very exciting, but some people actually do this to lose a little bit of weight! It is said that tapeworms reduce the calories that you absorb without......

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...APA Style The main scholarly association for academic psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed standardized methods for citing print and electronic sources used in research. Below are instructions according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/. Instructions Alphabetize each entry in a works cited list by the first letter, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch. Names: Use initials for first and middle names. Titles: For articles, chapters and books, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns. Fully capitalize periodical titles. Dates: Publication dates use the order year, month day. The access date uses the order month day year. If no publication date is available, use "n.d." in place of date. The following examples are citations from EBSCO databases. If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available. Different styles may apply when citing print and other sources. Journal Article Pattern: [Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of article]. [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier] Example: Silva, L. (2007). Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. Information Systems Journal...

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...Writing in the style prescribed by the American Psychological Association (2001), Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA 5th), can be a daunting experience for both graduate students and faculty members. Green and Gold (1996) suggest that an additional guide can be helpful, minimizing the need for searching through the sometimes confusing and highly detailed text of APA 5th. This paper should help you submit your assignments in the proper format. First, this paper will describe the mechanics of APA formatting. Second, this paper will describe some of the usage requirements of APA formatting. Third, this paper will describe the parameters of referencing material that comes from another person’s work. Finally, this paper will provide the grading criteria for APA formatting of your written assignments. Mechanics of APA Formatting There are several components that are mechanical issues of APA formatting. The most common errors students make are in the margins, running head, and headers (Green & Gold, 1996). This section will help to clarify any mechanical problems you may encounter while writing your papers. Title Page The title page for my course is different from the suggestions in the APA 5th. The title page on papers submitted for SEC370 requirements must include the following information: (a) the header area information, which includes the shortened head with a page number, (b) the running head, and (c) the center section, which includes the......

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...more . . . Getting Started with APA Citation Style What is APA Style? American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of several styles for academic writing. This guide covers frequently used citation forms. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (BF 76.7 .P83 2010) is a comprehensive resource, available at most UBC Libraries. General Rules • Formatting: The preferred APA font is a serif typeface such as Times New Roman with 12-point size. Double- space between all lines of text, including the reference list. Have uniform margins of at least 1 in. (2.54 cm) on all sides. • Hanging indents should be used for the reference list entries. This means that all lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one half inch from the left margin (in Word 2007 use Paragraph>Special>Hanging). • Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author. Use only the initial(s) of the author's given name, not the full name, with a space between the initials. • If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order (oldest first). Add a lower case letter (a, b, etc.) after the year, within the parentheses. • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article or book title. Proper nouns are also capitalized as well as the word following a colon (subtitle). Journal titles should have......

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...Creating a document that follows the APA style can be difficult without some helpful and informative resources especially if you have been taught a different style in previous years of education. Because I learned to compose in MLA style, I am very grateful for websites and books dedicated to helping students create APA formatted projects. Recently, I researched the book Pocket Guide to APA Style and several APA “help” websites and decided the old fashioned book was best for me because it teaches you all the steps and has a great sample paper for guidance. The OWL website (www.owl.english.perdue.edu/) had a very helpful side pan containing reference links to APA formats of almost every type of assignment. However, the directions could be more clear and I dislike using the search box on OWL because it takes you back to a Google search. At www.apastyle.org I found their “Quick-Answer” section interesting because it covered APA format guides for most projects including citing Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and blogs. Sadly, I discovered I would have to pay if I wanted any of the full APA guide books. The next site I visited, www.citationmachine.net, is unique because it gives a “most cited’ list that contains websites most used and cited for research but the site is not easy to navigate. The website www.bibme.org is basically a bibliography generator and can come in handy if you’re in a pinch. However, if you are trying to learn APA style as I am, this site does not contain any......

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...Running head: APA STYLE FOR RESEARCH REPORTS 1 Natural Ethics, Unnatural Law Hoang Le Bristol University University APA STYLE FOR RESEARCH REPORTS 2 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to describe and model APA-style of writing for research reports. Each section of an APA-style paper is described and is written according to the APA-style guidelines to allow you to use it as a model. The Abstract summarizes the main points of the paper in 120 or fewer words. The Introduction should describe the research topic and hypotheses and the support for these hypotheses. The Method is written in subsections: Participants, Design, Materials, and Procedure. The study should be described in enough detail to replicate it. The Results section describes the data and any statistical tests used. The Discussion restates the hypotheses, giving evidence if they are supported. APA STYLE FOR RESEARCH REPORTS 3 Introduction to APA Publication Style for Research Reports in Psychology It is important for businesses to be legally right. But it is even more important for businesses to be ethically right. History Laws are made by people. As such, it is subject to only two factors: the lawmaker’s sense of justice and his/her personal’s interests. History has proven the law as a method to, most importantly, protect the......

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