Free Essay

Apex Services Inc Case Study

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mestema
Words 2055
Pages 9
A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I recommend selecting Proposal 2's client/server model for APEX Services Inc.'s (ASI) client case management software. The proposed system is best suited for achieving competitive advantage via an agile information systems architecture. Before implementing the selected proposal, feasibility analysis should be performed, and detailed system design documents and implementation plans need to be developed. Post-system review should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the new system at enabling ASI's goals.

B. CURRENT SITUATION

APEX Services Inc. is a business in the midst of change. Your company has succeeded in managing 29 group homes, but is now expanding into a new market, with plans for rapid growth in the prison management sector. The recommendations I make will be both to meet the company's information system needs in both the short term, and the long term.

The long term goal of ASI is to gain a competitive advantage over business rivals, and thereby grow market share and profitability. For ASI, the way to achieve that goal is to develop agile information systems that can rapidly adapt to novel operating environments, as well as fluidly scale to meet the needs of additional contracts. Each managed site will have unique requirements, and ASI's information systems must be able to meet the requirements of each site in a timely, cost-effective fashion.

ASI's goals are best served by Proposal 2's client/server model. This model has superior efficiency compared to Proposal 1's centralized design, balancing the information processing between the client and server hardware, thereby yielding savings on hardware costs. Furthermore, servers can be added as necessary to accommodate special functions required by individual prison sites, or as required to support an expanding workforce. The cost efficiency and agility offered by Proposal 2 will improve ASI's competitive advantage in the long run.

C. ANALYSIS

Before moving forward with implementing an information system, ASI needs to analyze the feasibility of the planned system. Technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility are all part of developing an acceptable information system.

Technical feasibility determines if the hardware and software components needed for the system are currently available, or if components can be developed to meet the system's needs. ASI needs to discover if the servers, clients, software interfaces, network infrastructure, applications, and database required by the proposals can be acquired.

Economic feasibility quantifies the fiscal suitability of an information system. The goal is predicting whether the benefits of implementing the system will be a net gain over the costs of implementing the system. ASI needs to know that investing in developing a proposed system will be profitable in the long run.

Legal feasibility studies the impact current and proposed laws have on an information system, and the probability of legal consequences incurred by developing the project. ASI will need to pay particular attention to regulations governing the handling of inmate data, as well as what level of access to data and the Internet inmates are allowed.

Operational feasibility is concerned with logistical considerations of implementing a new system. Assessing if users will accept the system, or if corporate politics will halt the implementation are key considerations.

Schedule feasibility determines if the project can be completed in time, and within budget, to meet the goals and requirements of ASI, and its customers. Ensuring the project is complete on time for the head office move in six months will require detailed, accurate planning.

ASI will need to study these areas of feasibility to ascertain if a proposed project is an acceptable candidate for implementation.

D. SYSTEM DESIGN

i.
ASI has many options available for evaluating the proposed information systems, with the goal of selecting a system to implement. A group could be appointed from within ASI to evaluate the proposed systems, with the responsibility of reaching a consensus on the most suitable proposal.

Cost/benefit analysis evaluates the proposed systems in purely monetary terms, with the goal of determining which proposal will maximize profit. However, quantifying the value of some benefits may be difficult.

If a baseline level of productivity is known, proposed systems may be evaluated by predicting their expected output levels and comparing them to the baseline, and to each other. This evaluation technique works best when making iterative changes to an established system.

If prototypes of proposed systems are available, they may be compared under identical conditions with a benchmark test. This is appropriate when comparing system components, such as equivalent workstations, or firewalls, but enterprise-level information systems may not be directly comparable.

I recommend that ASI develops a point evaluation system for comparing proposed systems. Factors in the suitability of a system can be assigned a weight, and each proposed system's factors can be assigned a value based on how closely they match the goals of the project. Each factor's score is multiplied by the predetermined weighting, and a total score for each proposal is determined by adding each of its weighted factors together. This evaluation technique avoids many of the other techniques' shortfalls, and will provide a fair comparison between proposed systems.

ii.
The government will provide a high-speed Internet connection that terminates at the wood-framed administrative offices. I recommend running network cable throughout the administrative offices to ensure a reliable, high-speed intranet LAN connection for the servers and workstations located within. The wired LAN would also allow for wired access to the Internet connection, eliminating the susceptibility to interference of a purely wireless network.

Wireless access points could still be implemented within the administrative building as a convenience for mobile users, and clever network design could allow connections through those wireless access points to be subject to stricter security rules. This may be desirable to prevent wireless users from accessing the administration's intranet.

I recommend using WiFi to provide Internet access to the concrete prison buildings. A high-gain directional antenna can be used to wirelessly bridge from the wired network in the administrative building to the inmate housing. This bridge would also be disallowed access to the administrative intranet. The bridge can then be used to distribute that signal to lower powered omni-directional wireless hotspots within each concrete building, fulfilling the contracted provision of Internet connectivity to the inmates.

Wireless service for the prison buildings is convenient, as additional cables do not need to be run to provide Internet access if additional inmates are housed on site; all that is needed is a computer with a wireless network interface card. Current WiFi specifications can provide a high-speed Internet connection for multiple users, and the bandwidth provided to the inmates can be scaled up by adding more dedicated wireless bridges, if necessary.

E. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Once a proposed system has been chosen for implementation, a detailed implementation plan is required for success. Hardware components required by the system must be acquired. For ASI, this includes purchasing networking hardware and cables for the Fraser Valley prison; and purchasing the new server(s).

Necessary software is acquired next. This category is wide-ranging, including licenses for off-the-shelf applications to operate the server, fees for custom-built user interfaces, and free update patches for software already licensed by ASI.

Users will require training so as to fully benefit from the new information system. The planned changes include custom software for log files, client cash accounts, and prison management capabilities. Employees will need to know how to access ASI's online policy manual, and how to send and retrieve email via the new corporate email system.

ASI's plan includes the recruitment of a network administrator. He will need to be hired, and familiarized with ASI's current and proposed network topography. Furthermore, training will be necessary for ASI's custom applications.

The administrative building site at the prison needs to be prepared for the imminent installation of system components. The new networking and server hardware may merit secure, locked cabinets. Office furnishings should be arranged in their intended configuration in anticipation of the system rollout.

Current data formats must be converted to formats useful for the new system. ASI's company policy manual , the paper payroll forms, and existing log files must be converted to a form needed in the new system.

Once the preparations are complete, the system hardware components can be installed on site. Cabling must be run; workstations, servers, and networking devices must be installed and connected; and each component should be verified as operating as intended.

The next phase is system testing. Each component application (e.g., the corporate email server, and the prison management application) must be tested, the system of components as a whole must be tested under normal and high-volume workloads, and user-determined acceptance tests should be run to ensure the delivered product matches the original system goals.

Once the system has been tested as acceptable, the start-up process begins, bringing the information system fully online and operational for ASI's daily business activities. ASI should consider a phase-in approach for system start-up, gradually implementing components of the new system, while still operating sections of the old system to ensure continuous service during the cutover to the new system.

Finally, a formal user acceptance document must be signed by ASI, wherein ASI indicates that the new information system is accepted as implemented. This document typically reduces the liability of third parties contracted to implement the system, so it should only be ratified when ASI is truly satisfied with the implementation of the new system.

F. POST-SYSTEM REVIEW

After the new information system is operational, ASI should analyze the system's performance, measuring it against the original project goals, and ASI's corporate goals. Compare the functionality of the completed system with system design document. Verify that each planned change has been accomplished, and each component system is functioning as intended: online policy manual; corporate e-mail; custom logging, cash accounting, and prison management software; internet service for inmates; and client case management software.

The ultimate test is evaluating if the implemented information system meets the organizational goal of attaining competitive advantage over business rivals. Determine the completed project's success at providing an agile information system that can rapidly adapt to novel operating environments, as well as fluidly scale to meet the needs of additional contracts.

If the system is satisfactorily agile, determine if any concrete benefits have been realized from implementing the system, such as additional contracts for managing prisons. When evaluating an information system, always relate the success of the system to its success in achieving long-term corporate goals.

G. PRIVACY ISSUES

i.
The proposed system has a lot of potential for privacy breaches. Many users with very different security needs will be using the same information system. Furthermore, that system will contain sensitive information about users of the system, such as employee payroll data, and inmate rehabilitation data. Access to all components of the system needs to be stringently secured and monitored.

Employee users must only have access to areas of the database necessary for their job functions. The wireless network supplying internet access to the inmates should be kept on a separate subnet from the administrative subnet, with access denied at the network hardware level. User accounts should enforce mandatory strong passwords and password changes. Audit trails and system logging should be enabled and actively monitored for unusual actions. System users should be educated on the importance of maintaining the secrecy of their user names and passwords, and the importance of respecting the private data of all users of the system.

In addition to the importance of internal security, the system is also connected to the Internet, so great care must be taken in securing the system from intrusion by unauthorized external users. The whole system should be segregated from the Internet by a robust enterprise firewall to prevent malicious connections. Each individual computer should maintain the latest software patches, and run security software with up-to-date malware definitions.

ii.
CGAs must adhere to the Code of Ethical Principles and Rules of Conduct (CEPROC). CEPROC requires CGAs to honour the trust bestowed upon them by others. This trust precludes a CGA from disclosing confidential information gained in the course of his professional relationships, except as necessitated by mandatory disclosure compelled by law, or when required to do so as the proper performance of CGA member duties.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Change

...needs of training and human resource practitioners and gives them products to do their jobs better. We deliver proven ideas and solutions from experts in HR development and HR management, and we offer effective and customizable tools to improve workplace performance. From novice to seasoned professional, Pfeiffer is the source you can trust to make yourself and your organization more successful. Essential Knowledge Pfeiffer produces insightful, practical, and comprehensive materials on topics that matter the most to training and HR professionals. Our Essential Knowledge resources translate the expertise of seasoned professionals into practical, how-to guidance on critical workplace issues and problems. These resources are supported by case studies, worksheets, and job aids and are frequently supplemented with CD-ROMs, websites, and other means of making the content easier to read, understand, and use. Essential Tools Pfeiffer’s Essential Tools resources save time and expense by offering proven, ready-to-use materials—including exercises, activities, games, instruments, and assessments—for use during a training or team-learning event. These resources are frequently offered in loose-leaf or CD-ROM format to facilitate copying and customization of the material. Pfeiffer also recognizes the remarkable power of new technologies in expanding the reach and effectiveness of training. While e-hype has often created whizbang solutions in search of a problem, we are dedicated to......

Words: 29274 - Pages: 118

Premium Essay

Hrm Case Study

...Case Study-1 Jack Nelson’s Problem Chapter-1 Introduction to Human Resource Management Page: 1 * The case is all about the necessity & functions of HR unit in a local bank. In this bank Jack Nelson is a member of board of director and Ruth Jonson is an excellent employee. As Mr. Nelson was very much curious about how Jonson operate her machine, she briefly gave an idea about it. Speaking with the in-charged supervisor of a branch of this bank Nelson found that something was wrong inside the branches. But unfortunately it was not known to Jonson. Jonson found out the main problem and it was high employee turnover. In this bank selection time of employee is very short and at the same time the new employer quit their job in a very short time. All branch supervisors hire their new employees without communicating with the home office or other branches. During the time of development of opening, the supervisors tried to find a suitable employee to replace the worker who had quit. After visiting the 22 branches, the finding is that problems are similar mostly. Nelson wondered about the movements that he should take and the home office steps. The more he thought about the matter, the more perplexed he became. The problem is as much as complex that he couldn’t put his finger on that problem and he did not know the actual place whether to report his findings to the president. * Most of the experts believe that there are five basic functions that all managers......

Words: 12223 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Case Nandini Shamra

...A MATTER OF PRINCIPLE * Case analysis Perspective of the case Q1) Was Nandini Sharma forced to resign or did she resign voluntarily? To understand the resignation either coerced indirectly by the pharma company or she resigned voluntarily needs understanding of Constructive discharge doctrine i.e “employee’s decision to quit due to un-endurable environment is assimilated to a formal discharge for remedial purposes” [1] At will contract: The definition of at-will employee is “At-will employment is a legal presumption in all U.S. states whereby either an employer or an employee may, with no adverse legal consequences, terminate the employment relationship for any legal or no reason.[2] Exceptions being 1) Violates Public Policy 2) Whistle blower 3) Hostile work environment As presented in the facts of the case, the Nandini Sharma was subjected to violation of public policy and her dismissal stood Constructive Discharge as 1) She received demotion and reduction in job duties 2) Was transferred 3) Badgered 4) Humiliated by claiming un-promotable, uncooperative and unproductive These conditions satisfy to claim “sufficiently intolerable’ environment at the Pharma co. This can be further understood by the case The First Circuit, in Vieques Air Link, Inc. v. U.S. Department of Labor*, It was found work conditions were tweaked for a pilot who blew the whistle to Federal Aviation Administration and the company. The employee......

Words: 1168 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure in Developing Countries: Evidence from Bangladesh

...Andrew, J, Corporate social and environmental disclosure in developing coutries: evidence from Bangladesh, in Proceedings of the Asian Pacific Conference on International Accounting Issues, Hawaii, October 2006. Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact Manager Repository Services: morgan@uow.edu.au. Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure in Developing Countries: Evidence from Bangladesh Abstract This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extent and nature of social and environmental reporting in corporate annual reports. Specifically, we examine the relationship between social and environmental disclosure and several corporate attributes in a developing country, Bangladesh. In order to do this, we have developed and utilized a disclosure index to measure the extent of disclosure made by companies in corporate annual reports. This study reports significant differences in levels of social and environmental disclosure, as measured by the mean values of the social and environmental disclosure index in Bangladesh. This study reports that a very few companies in Bangladesh are making efforts to provide social and environmental information on a voluntary basis, which are mostly qualitative in nature. Companies in Bangladesh appeared to have the lowest levels of social and...

Words: 10122 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Ch 02

...Chapter 2 True-False Questions | |Operational management is responsible for directing the day-to-day operations of the business and therefore needs | | |transaction-level information. | | | | | |Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 52 | | |Deciding whether to introduce a new product line is the responsibility of an operational manager. | | | | | |Answer: False Difficulty: Easy Reference: p. 57 | | |Operational-level manufacturing systems deal with the firm’s long-term manufacturing goals, such as where to locate a new | | |plant. | | | | | ...

Words: 4736 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

San Miguel Corporation Case Study

...significant minority stake. Philippine mall magnate Henry Sy also has a stake in the company. Other top shareholders as of December 2009 are as follows:[5] Top 10 Shareholders of San Miguel Brewery, Inc. | Name | Shares | Percent | San Miguel Corporation | 7,859,324,270 | 51.000 | Kirin Holdings Co. Ltd. | 7,458,864,880 | 48.388 | PCD Nominee Corporation (Filipino) | 62,538,710 | 0.406 | Henry Sy | 12,500,000 | 0.081 | Syntrix Holdings Inc. | 12,500,000 | 0.081 | PCD Nominee Corporation (Non-Filipino) | 1,209,600 | 0.008 | Isias and/or Melinda Lumanta | 132,000 | 0.001 | Marilyn Maranon | 124,000 | 0.001 | Virgilio Salonoy | 82,000 | 0.001 | Fadil III | 63,000 | 0.001 | John Devela & Jay P Noy CO | 3,000 | 0.00001 | San Miguel Brewery, Inc. (PSE: SMB), a subsidiary of San Miguel Corporation, is the largest beer producer in the Philippines, with a market share of over 95% as of 2008.It has five breweries spread across the country producing eight beer brands, led by its flagship brand San Miguel. Locations/Subsidiaries No. 40 San Miguel Avenue, Mandaluyong City, Manila, Philippines Fax: 63 632 6323099 Distileria Bago Inc. 6/F San Miguel Properties Ctr., St. Francis St., St. Francis St, Mandaluyong City, Philippines Ginebra San Miguel, Inc. 3rd & 6th Floors, Sam Miguel Properties, Mandaluyong, Philippines Fax: 63 2 6342211 PT Delta Djakarta Tbk Jl. Inspeksi Tarum Barat, Setiadharma......

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Assess Internal Staff Events in an Organization’s Strategy and Evaluate It in Recession

...& Parry, 2004). Meeting is an event where can bring an assembly of individuals gathered to discuss items of mutual interest or engage in professional development through learning activities (Goldblatt & Nelson, 2001). Then the definition of incentives is meeting event as part of programmers which is offered reward to a previous performance such as the incentive trips to its participants (Mckenzie, 1998). Moreover, conference is an assembly of a large number of individuals to discuss items of mutual interest or engage in professional development through learning (Goldblatt & Nelson, 2001). Exhibition focus primarily on business-to-business (B2B) relationships event at which products, services or promotional materials are show to attendees visiting exhibits on the show floor (APEX Industry Glossary, 2011). There are two types of corporate events which are internal and external events. The meeting, incentive travel and conference are a part of internal staff events and exhibition is part of external events. This essay will focus on how internal staff events achieve the organization’s strategy and evaluate whether those events...

Words: 2657 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Corporate Social Activites

...Chowdhury Printers and Supply 48/A/ Badda Nagar, B.D.R. Gate No. 1 Pilkhana, Dhaka-1205 ISBN : 978-984-33-6453-1 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our appreciation to the following individuals and organisations, without whose support this research would not be possible to accomplish. Our appreciation goes to the business leaders who provided their valuable time in sharing their views and CSR practices, and for the in-depth discussions on the current situation and ways and means of improving CSR practice in Bangladesh. We were encouraged by the enthusiasm shown by the private sector and their willingness to meet with us and share their experience, often at very short notice. Without the support from these leaders, our study would not have been possible. We would particularly like to thank Mr. Santos Datta Joint Secretary of the Bangladesh Employers Federation, who personally communicated with their listed companies and has briefed them about the research. We would also like to thank the support given by factory workers who were open and willing to share their work experience in those respective companies. We are also grateful to Diakonia who...

Words: 19988 - Pages: 80

Premium Essay

Consumer Food Service

...CONSUMER FOODSERVICE IN MALAYSIA Euromonitor International October 2012 CONSUMER FOODSERVICE IN MALAYSIA Passport I LIST OF CONTENTS AND TABLES Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................... 1 Malaysians Spend More on Foodservice .................................................................................. 1 Increases in Prices Hit Consumers ........................................................................................... 1 Multinational Brands Maintain the Top Positions, But Local Companies Progress Well ........... 1 Increasing Trend of Dining Out ................................................................................................. 1 Positive Outlook for Multinational and Local Foodservice Companies...................................... 2 Key Trends and Developments .................................................................................................... 2 Rising Prices Affect Consumer Confidence .............................................................................. 2 Government and Private Sector Inject Growth Into Foodservice .............................................. 3 Healthier Choices for Consumers in Restaurants ..................................................................... 5 Foodservice Companies Compete for Customers Through Online Coupon Giveaways........... 6 Tackling Halal Issues in 2011 ....................

Words: 11310 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Microfinance as a Tool for Poverty Reduction in the Kwahu South District of Ghana

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Many people in developing countries neither have their own bank accounts nor are they able to take out loans, transfer money or insure their families against risks such as illness, accident or death. In most cases, access to these financial services that are so central to sustainable development are either denied or made very difficult. Consequently, people frequently have no choice but to resort to local moneylenders who charge usurious rates of interest or use informal and, therefore, insecure ways of performing transactions such as payments and money transfer. The above is reflected in the quotation by the past Secretary-General of the United Nations: ‘‘The stark reality is that most people in the world still lack access to sustainable financial services, whether it is savings, credit or insurance. The great challenge before us is to address the constraints that exclude people from full participation in the financial sector. Together, we can and must build inclusive financial sectors that help people improve their lives (United Nations, 1997).’’ With almost thirty per cent of the country's population living in poverty, the Government of Ghana clearly faces an enormous challenge to reduce poverty especially in the three northern savannah regions where there is the greatest concentration of poor people. To achieve rapid and sustainable reduction in poverty, it is necessary to have an integrated policy with the......

Words: 20209 - Pages: 81

Premium Essay

Growth and Performance of Security Market in Nepal

...The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies Vol. I No. 1 Dec. 2004 Growth and Performance of Securities Market in Nepal Jas Bahadur Gurung* ABSTRACT Securities Board, Nepal, an apex regulator and facilitator of capital market, and Nepal Stock Exchange Ltd., only a single stock market, are the main constituents of securities market in Nepal. This paper attempts to study the growth trend and analyze the performance of Nepalese securities market. Likewise, the variables such as number of listed and traded companies and their securities, number of transactions, trading turnovers, paid up value, market capitalization and NEPSE index are analyzed for the secondary market. SECURITIES MARKET IS A MECHANISM created to facilitate the exchange of financial securities or assets by bringing together buyers and sellers of securities (Sharpe 1998). Securities markets provide an effective way of procuring long-term funds by issuing shares and debentures or bonds for corporate enterprises and government and at the same time provide an investment opportunity for individuals and institutions (Adhikari 2004). Thus, the market place for these financial securities is called securities market which is further subdivided into the primary and secondary market. The former market denotes the market for newly issued securities to the public whereas the latter market refers to the market for secondhand securities, traded previously in the primary market (Francis, 1991). The securities market......

Words: 4037 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Midwest Ice Cream Company

...1.1 Background of the Study Kasilak Development Foundation or KDFI is a non-stock, non-profit social development organization: Its primary purpose is to uplift the socio-economic condition of the communities living in a peacefully and ecologically balanced environment. http://www.kasilak.org Furthermore, Kasilak Development Foundation Incorporated (KDFI) was created in 1997 by Stanfilco as a partner in promoting a strong and excellent service to all communities in all area of operations in Mindanao. Kasilak has provided the Mindanao area with sustainable farming, social services and programs that will improve the quality of life. It was through KDFI that Stanfilco built strong relationships with the people living in the different communities. KDFI is dedicated to achieved the goals specifically in providing peaceful ecologically balance environment. Thus, Stanfilco’s community programs are managed and lead by Kasilak Development Foundation Inc. It was March 3, 1997 that Kasilak was organized as a Corporate Social Responsibility of Stanfilco, and was subsequently registered with Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on June 2, 1997 with registration no. D1997-00568. As a multinational corporation in the Asia Pacific, the US government started a partnership with Stanfilco to implement environmental projects. It started with the reforestation project entitled “Libuganon River Reforestation Project” which was co-funded by Dole Philippines Inc.-Stanfilco and the......

Words: 4879 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Mio G M Mahbub Alam

...Module Code: 56214 Student No. 201112880 Managing in Organizations The University of Hull Business School Module Name: Managing in Organizations Assignment: A Critical Analysis on the Importance of Organizational Culture and its relation with Motivation in XYZ Technologies Co. Ltd. Page 1 of 27 Module Code: 56214 Student No. 201112880 Managing in Organizations The University of Hull Business School Assignment Question “Choose one or two areas covered in the Managing in Organizations module. Critically analyze these areas with the context of an organization in which you have worked or with which you are familiar.” Page 2 of 27 Module Code: 56214 Student No. 201112880 Managing in Organizations The University of Hull Business School Contents S.I. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Introduction XYZ Technologies – Background Theories of Organizational Culture Role Culture Factors of the Culture Theories of Motivation Expectation and Motivation Motivational Factors Conclusion Description Page Nos. 4 5 7 9 12 18 21 24 25 Page 3 of 27 Module Code: 56214 Student No. 201112880 Managing in Organizations The University of Hull Business School Introduction Telecommunication industry is one of the largest industries of 20th century. Competition among the companies is getting tighter day by day. Although more detail or composite investigation is required to prove but there is at least some strong reference that variations in cultural values...

Words: 5542 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Microfinance

...technical details. The talk page may contain suggestions. (January 2010) Community-based savings bank in Cambodia. There are a rich variety of financial institutions which serve the poor. Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. More broadly, it is a movement whose object is "a world in which as many poor and near-poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers."[1] Those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. Microfinance is a broad category of services, which includes microcredit. Microcredit is provision of credit services to poor clients. Although microcredit is one of the aspects of microfinance, conflation of the two terms is endemic in public discourse. Critics often attack microcredit while referring to it indiscriminately as either 'microcredit' or 'microfinance'. Due to the broad range of microfinance services, it is difficult to assess impact, and very few studies have tried to assess its full impact.[2] Contents [hide] • 1 Challenges • 2 History • 3 Boundaries and principles • 4 Debates at the boundaries • 5 Financial needs of poor people • 6 Ways in which poor people manage their......

Words: 8904 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Nigerian Civil Service

...INTRODUCTION Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. In terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims and Christians with a very small minority who practice traditional religion. The people of Nigeria have an extensive history. Archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BCE. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined by Flora Shaw, the future wife of Baron Lugard, a British colonial administrator, in the late 19th century. Since 2002 there has been a spate of clashes in the north of the country between government forces and the Boko Haram militant group which seeks to establish Sharia law. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the seventh most populous country in the world, and the most populous country in the world in which the majority of the population is black. It is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained its......

Words: 4248 - Pages: 17