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Applying the Results and Conclusion of the Research Process to Problems in Health

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Applying the Results and Conclusion of the Research Process to Problems in Health
Sandra Green
April 3, 2013
Rhett Stover HCS/465

Applying the Results and Conclusion of the Research Process to Problems in Health
The method of data collection should link the objectives to the research questions. Data collection procedures are very important for this study. The procedures of the collection will provide validity based on the type of survey taken on the age group surveyed for pertinent information involving the research process. In the comparative study described in the article Breaking the Repeat Teen Pregnancy Cycle, the nurtured trait of resilience is the ability to recover from a setback. The data for this study was collected through chart audits of medical records and by tracing these young girls over a period of at least two years. Data is collected in the medical records by a series of verbal questions asked by a medical professional through personal interviews. Face-to-face interviews are an excellent technique to observe behaviors of the individual. This behavior could be verbal or nonverbal such as body language. One disadvantage of this is that there may be a lack of standardization in the questions. The findings suggest that a teen mother with one infant is 500 times more likely to have another child with two years. Young girls sometimes believe that getting pregnant a second child might bring her and her significant other closer together and enhance the connection (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). When conducting a study several ethical issues must be considered. There are appropriate steps that must be taken to protect the rights of subjects. The Nuremberg Code was created in 1947 as a result of inhuman research during World War II (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). Studies cannot longer be conducted on vulnerable individuals. This includes children without parental consent, prisoners, and elderly. The subjects in this research study were teens emancipated by law, so parental consent was not a factor. Each participate of the study must give written consent without coercion therefore the appropriate steps were taken to obtain such consent. This consent not only protects the reputation of the subject but also allow the subject to fully understand a little bit more about the research. All risks and any additional cost must be described in detail to the participant. The participations of the study can have their identities concealed. All the identities of the participants remained anonymous at all times. In this study of teen girls were identified as a number rather than their actual name. The ensure confidentiality all unneeded material was destroyed after the project is complete. Based on the outcome of this study no harm or negative effects comes to any of the participants or their infants. When looking at the reliability and validity of the study, the qualitative and quantitative data must be considered. Reliability and validity demonstrates communication of the process and the dependability of the findings. Research should avoid misleading participants. Validity of a study is a subtle concept that measures data accurately providing useful and trustworthy findings. Qualitative data is descriptive. Soft data, qualitative, is gathered through informal communications during the study. Qualitative data adds color to the research and is not concerned with the outcomes of the study. Quantitative is the hard data, the numbers of the research. This includes the statistics of the data that is collected (Neutens & Rubinson, 2010). In health care research studies quantitative data collection methods are more appropriate. Statistics of this study were collected from the birth rates for women ages 15 to 19 years them categorized by ethnicity of the mothers. According to this study 25% of births in the U.S. to teens are not the first child of these mothers. In fact 30 to 50% of teen mothers who are younger than 18 will give birth again within two years. Interventions programs introduced to tees show a reduction in the rate of repeat teen pregnancies. School-based programs over a nine-year period show a 17.8% reduction. These programs use weekly peer support groups to boost self- affirmation and personal efficacy. The programs also offer medical care for the teens and the infants. Community-based programs that offer prenatal and postnatal care, family counseling, mental health care, and career planning help create a longer interval between repeat pregnancies (Porter & Holness, 2011).
Teen pregnancy inspires research from clinicians, theorists, and researchers. Theories that might help explain the epidemics are the social cognitive-ecological theory, Erikson’s developmental theory, and the theory of resilience. The social cognitive-ecological theories explain self-efficacy and support for teens. It states that behavior is influenced by a person’s past experiences and beliefs. Self-efficacy comes with goal setting and positive mentoring. Erikson’s theory of development explains where teens define their individual identities and beliefs. They are preparing for adulthood during the late teens when many are becoming parents. Vulnerability to peer pressure can lead to behaviors including illegal drug use, alcohol consumption, and unprotected sex. The resilience theory is the ability of individuals to recover from bad choices in life. Resilience is how a teens faces of adversity. This is how a person manages stress to gain self-esteem and confidence. The study shows that how resilient a person is depends on the presences or the lack of consistent, caring, and loving adults to help overcome adverse life choices. This suggests that resilience may not be useful in at-risk teens to help break the cycle; however, interventions are a promising tool (Porter & Holness, 2011).

References
Porter, L. S., & Holness, N. A. (2011, Oct-Nov). BREAKING THE REPEAT TEEN PREGNANCY CYCLE.. Nursing for Women's Health, 15(5), 368-81.
Neutens, J. J., & Rubinson, L. (2010). Research techniques for the health sciences (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

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