Free Essay

Appreciate Irish Heritage

In: Social Issues

Submitted By cmclapper
Words 1778
Pages 8
Appreciate Irish Heritage
The Irish culture is rich in customs, beliefs, and practices with substantial significance in the current times. It also constitutes traditions, literature, music, art, language, legends, sport and cuisine associated with Irish people living in the United States. These aspects of the Irish heritage are not homogeneous among natives of Ireland because of cultural divides that exist between rural Irish and urban Irish, Protestants and Catholics, settled population and travellers, native population and immigrants as well as disparities in language among Irish people. As such, Irish heritage is diverse with different elements that vary depending on the specific area of origin or consideration. The vast flow of people from Ireland to America from 1740 to 1922 is attributable to the modern Irish history in the United States. During this time, about seven million people of Irish origin immigrated to North America. In the attempts to adjust to the demands or requirement of modern industrializing world, some adjustments were made on Irish culture and identity, both personal as well as national. The native Irish culture was linked with the American culture to form the Irish-American culture, a blend of both cultures. However, considerable aspects of the Irish culture are depicted in the practices, festivals, religion, and culture of the contemporary Irish communities living in the United States. Furthermore, several elements of this culture are incorporated in different facets of the modern U.S. society, including material things such as architecture, food, clothing, literature, art, music as well as values, and nonmaterial things such as values, entertainment, religion as well as language, among others. This paper will address the need to appreciate the Irish heritage by identifying and analyzing some of the significant elements of this culture as well as the ethnic group.
Culture of Irish Ethnic Group From 1740 to 1922, many people emigrated from Ireland to the United States. This vast flow is attributed to different events that occurred of the years, such as massive starvation as well as food shortage in Ireland, civil conflicts, industrialization, and exploration, among others (Miller 97). Before the emigration, the Irish ethnic group had untainted Irish culture, traditions, customs and practices. In the context of religion, Irish people widely practiced Roman Catholicism, though some practiced Christianity following its introduction in Ireland in the 5th century. In addition to religion, Irish culture was characterized by multiple festivities some of which are widely celebrated today. Halloween, Celtic festival of Samhain, is a major festival of Irish origin celebrated across the globe. The ancient Irish culture also comprised of unique foods and drinks such as honey, mead, venison, native nuts and berries, especially hazel, and seeds of goosefoot as well as knotgrass. Moreover, the culture was rich in Irish languages, folklore (Irish mythology), and customs that had unique characterization among the Irish people. Traditional practices held great meaning in the Irish society, although the emigration to America relatively altered their significance in the attempts of adjusting to meet the needs of the industrializing world. The modern Irish culture upholds antique Celtic traditions through festivities, music, literature, and language. This culture is renowned because of its robust literary history encompassing epic poetry and folk legends. The stories regarding the mythical Celtic individuals have been propagated from one generation to the other for many centuries. Based on existing Irish history, it is difficult to differentiate true and mythology Irish history because mythology played a significant role in the Irish culture. In addition, Irish heritage is recognized across the globe for inspiring works by Irish natives, including W.B. Yeats and James Joyce, in the recent centuries. Some of the details captured in the literature by these famous writers include the Irish culture encompassing the brawls of urban Dublin life and rural island life. As a result, a strong feeling of appreciation and pride is felt among people of Irish origin because of their culture as well as the history of Irish literary works (Blamires 37). In the Irish culture, music is approximated to have emerged during the same period with Irish mythology. The culture has unique music that has advanced over time to the modern Irish music. Instruments such as bodhráns (hand-held drum), harps, fiddles, flutes, violins, and banjos are played to fashion the traditional Irish melodies. These are some of the instruments, which are considered as the pride of Irish heritage. They are not only unique in their origin, but also functionality and significant in the ancient Irish communities. In addition, lyrics have been integrated to such melodies over the years, which reflect the antique culture of Ireland. These songs contain messages that associate with practices, traditions, customs and events exemplifying the Irish culture. The traditional Irish songs addressed issues, such as civil conflict, mass immigration, and everyday life. Furthermore, Irish dancing is a companion to the Irish music that is currently being taught as well as performed by the Irish. The most significant aspect of Irish heritage manifested in America is the pub culture. Pub culture infuses Irish society in its various cultural divides, and addresses the Irish custom of frequenting bars or public houses (pubs). The traditional pub culture entails more than just consumption of alcohol. It is apparent that different facets of Irish culture are usually best portray and experienced in these pubs. Although drinking is a significant part of pub culture, individuals usually meet in pubs to enjoy a pint, humorous conversation (crac) as well as gossip with the neighbors. Traditionally, all community members were allowed into traditional Irish pubs, but this has been affected by rules and regulations relating to alcohol consumption age limitations. There are fears that more strict alcohol laws may lead to the extinction of Irish pub culture. In addition, traditional Irish music as well as dancing is a common practice at Irish pubs accompanied by the art of fiddle-playing and storytelling of legends. It is important to recognize that Irish pubs play a central role in the Irish cultural experience. Besides, alcohol exportation and production is among the oldest industries associated with the Irish heritage (Scanlan 101).
Discrimination and prejudice experienced by Irish when first coming to the United States The first Irish immigrants in the United States were highly discriminated against, and were regarded as foreigners with odd accents, language as well as customs, and derogatory labels were applied to them. The native ethnic groups along with earlier immigrants began to direct discrimination and prejudice against the Irish. The Irish were attacked, abused, and viciously stereotyped, particularly in the latter half of the 19th century. According to Andersen and Taylor (2010), the Irish, especially those who occupied the east coast and Boston, experienced ethnic oppression of odd magnitude. In that period, some of the signs posted in Boston saloons indicated that “No dogs or Irish allowed.” This is one of the signs revealing the magnitude of discrimination that Irish experienced as early immigrants in the United States. They were regarded as total strangers or aliens in the American land, which affected their socio-economic status because they were discriminated in social places as well as in employment (Andersen and Taylor 252). Some of individuals pressured that laws be implemented to prevent Irish from migrating to the United States. The fact that Irish arrived in big numbers, especially in the mid-nineteenth because of massive starvation and food shortage, posed a threat among the native ethnic groups as well as earlier immigrants. As a result, they sort legal measures of slowing down the numbers or keeping Irish away to avoid sharing their land and resources with the new immigrants (Bowman-Kruhm and Wirths 75). It is instructive to remember that Irish endured extreme discrimination and prejudice with much of it being directed towards Irish women. However, much effort has been dedicated to eliminate such discrimination in the modern society in the United States. This has significantly contributed to the positive relations and existence of different ethnic groups in the society, although women are to an extent still discriminated.
Reasons we should celebrate Irish ethnic group in our country today Based on the aforementioned aspects of the Irish culture, it is apparent that we should celebrate Irish ethnic group for its rich heritage. The Irish culture encompasses diverse aspects of historical significance not only to the Irish society but also to the world at large. If not for the Halloween festival, let us celebrate Irish ethnic group because of their outstanding pub culture that as some considerable effects in our modern social life. The Irish culture is accredited for the Halloween, a popular festival celebrated across the globe. In addition, its influence is felt in other areas, such as architecture, literature, art, music, and dancing, among others. The Irish ethnic group has also produced some important people who have made major contributions in the United States. Some of the people include John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan, former presidents of the United States. The ancestors of John F. Kennedy all were Irish mainly from Counties Limerick, Waterford, and Cork, while the ancestors of father to Ronald Reagan were all Irish. This ethnic group has produced famous politicians and activities, including Charles Thomson (1729-1824), Richard Martin (1754-1834), Michael Collins (1890-1922), and Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847). Others are writers, playwrights, and poets, such as Jonathan Swift, Oliver Goldsmith, Oscar Wilde, and Bram Stoker (Eupedia para.1).
The Irish culture is rich in customs, beliefs, and practices with substantial significance in the current times. It has unique traditions, literature, music, art, language, legends, sport and cuisine associated with Irish people living in the United States. One of the most significant aspects of Irish heritage manifested in America is the pub culture. It is also accredited for the introduction of Halloween festival celebrated in different corners of the world. Furthermore, Irish ethnic group has produced some of prominent people in the American history, including former U.S. presidents John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. Therefore, let us appreciate and celebrate the Irish ethnic group for the significant contributions it has made in America.
Works Cited
Andersen, Margaret L and Howard Francis Taylor. Sociology: The Essentials. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Blamires, Steve. The Irish Celtic Magical Tradition. Cheltenham: Skylight Press, 2012. Print.
Bowman-Kruhm, Mary and Claudine G Wirths. Coping With Discrimination and Prejudice. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print.
Eupedia. List of famous Irish people. 2012. . 5 April 2013.
Miller, Kerby A. "Emigrants and Exiles: Irish Cultures and Irish Emigration to North America, 1790-1922." Irish Historical Studies 22.86 (1980): 97-125.
Scanlan, Margaret. Culture And Customs of Ireland. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Print.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Soc 5650

...Martin Lynch 10/28/2013 SOC 3200 Getting Society Inside The culture that was instilled in me since I was born was two families, my mother’s and father’s. My father’s family is of Irish Catholic descent and my mother’s family is of Italian Catholic descent. I was born and raised on the Southside of Chicago and I do still refer to that beautiful city as home. All of my beliefs and values are a result of these two families, but as I have grown up it is amazing how similar they could be and how different they can be. I know for an absolute fact there are two values that are agreed on by the Irish and the Italians. Those would be an undying work ethic and a strong Christian foundation. I remember being five years old and my father saying, “You are either working hard or hardly working.” It was not just expected by my family to work hard, it was demanded. If you wanted money, you went out and got it. I was a golf caddy for about eight years and still to this day go when I need some extra cash and also worked at a Chili’s restaurant throughout high school while playing two sports and a member of the Honor Roll. My siblings and I were never allowed to leave the house until our homework and chores were done. It was an expectation by not just my parents but my family as a whole to be hard working productive members of society who respected their elders and treated people with the utmost respect. Growing up it was expected to go to church every Sunday and thank God for what...

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eth/125 Final Essay

...contemporary America, it is to a much lesser degree than it was back then. We have certainly come a long way as a society in terms of diversification and acceptance. Ethnic groups are the patchwork of our society. Each and every one of us has descended from ancestors of various ethnicities. Learning about the history of discrimination among several ethnic groups, I have learned that my ancestors have faced forms of discrimination as well. I now can better understand and relate to experiencing forms of prejudice or discrimination. I have also learned a few other things about my ethnic and cultural history in this class. I have learned that my two major ethnic backgrounds, German and Irish, both often share a common religion. Catholicism, in which I was raised, is a very common religion of both Irish and German people. These ethnic groups like many others continue to shape and pave the way for our future. Our society is a melting pot of many different cultures and ethnicities. One of the largest groups of people who immigrate to the United States is those who are of a Hispanic/Latino background. As this trend continues, I predict that by 2050, the Hispanic population will become the majority population. This is significant because, throughout all of American history, Whites have been the predominant racial group. This will bring challenges to the United States due to the diversification of our society. We, as a society, will need to work together as a...

Words: 1426 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Diversity Worksheet

...citations for all the sources you use. 1. What is diversity? Why is diversity valued? Diversity is a term used to describe many demographic variables, such as, age, gender, race, sexual orientation, color, religion, national origin, geographic origin, disability, education, and skills characteristics. (“ U.S. Department of the Interior”, Diversity is valued because it helps one to respect and appreciate the fact that not one person is the same and there are differences that lie within each individual, in regard to the above named categories. 2. What is ethnocentrism? In what ways can ethnocentrism be detrimental to a society? Ethnocentrism is, “belief in the intrinsic superiorty of the nation, culture, or group to which one belongs, often accompanied by feelings of dislike for other groups”. (The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition, 2013) Ethnocentrism can be detrimental to a society because it can lead to predjudice toward a different culture, or even racism, if one does not respect and appreciate another’s way of living. 3. Define emigration and immigration. Emigration is when someone leaves a country to go and settle in another one. Many people want to emigrate when they feel there is no quality of life in their current homeland. Immigration is when someone comes to a new country with the intent to reside as a permanent resident. “During the great wave of immigration between 1880 and 1924, over......

Words: 535 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

My Many Identi "T" I Es

...October 1, 2012 Collapse ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form My Many Identi”T”i es I decided to share my identities with you, creatively, by using song titles. Without further ado, here’s “T”…(Theresa Ann Mirci-Smith): National Identity: “Born in the U.S.A.”—The Boss (Bruce Springstein) I am an American and I know the history of my country. I am grateful for my freedoms. I am not always proud of the leaders of the nation or the actions they take. Regional Identity: “Wish They All Could Be California Girls!”—The Beach Boys While I have some roots in the Midwest and Nevada, I’m a California girl. I love going to the beach and have fond memories of vacationing there growing up. I like the informality of California, yet as my little hometown grows larger and more congested, I yearn for a quieter, slower-paced place to call home. Gender Identity: “I Am Woman”—Helen Reddy I was socialized to be a girl, having received dolls and domestic toys while growing up. I always loved to fish, catch frogs, and climb trees, however (much to my grandmother’ s dismay). I enjoy being a girl, but I’m not a real girly girl. I discovered the joy of pedicures at age 47. Now, I enjoy them every few of months. I am assertive, yet compassionate and nurturing (depending on the requirements of each specific situation), transcending the restrictions of social gender roles as often as possible. Organizational Identity: “Honey, I’m Home”—Shania Twain and "Let It......

Words: 1282 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Australia Multiculturalism

...Australian Multiculturalism: Its Rise and Demise Brian Galligan and Winsome Roberts University of Melbourne Refereed paper presented to the Australasian Political Studies Association Conference University of Tasmania, Hobart 29 September – 1 October 2003 Brian Galligan, Winsome Roberts: Australian Multiculturalism Multiculturalism merits special attention because of its significance as a national policy of accommodating migrants from diverse cultural backgrounds. Multiculturalism is more significant because of the larger claims it made about the actual or preferred character of the Australian people and national culture. These embellishments were promoted by a relatively small coterie of elites, as Mark Lopez has painstakingly documented,1 and became standard formulations used in official accounts of Australian national identity and citizenship. While the sting has gone out of multiculturalism and the national debate has moved on to issues of citizenship and refugee policy, multicultural formulations still inform official documents. According to this view, Australia is now made up of people of diverse cultures that should be given equal status with the Australian mainstream. Australian citizenship is then invoked as the glue that binds these different groups into a national unity. The multicultural account of Australia as a nation of diverse cultural groups has been taken over by the Australian Citizenship Council in its prescriptions for Australian Citizenship......

Words: 10374 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Feral Children

...Socialisation &Feral Children Summary In this lecture we learned about socialisation and Wild or Feral children. The class started off with a question asking what we believed feral children were and what we thought socialisation consisted of. It seemed apparent that about half of the class were aware of what feral children were with the majority having an idea of what socialisation is. To explain to the class fully we were more than told what the meaning was but also shown videos to show the extent of the meaning. We learned that feral children we raised with no or minimal human interaction which resulted in them growing up basically alienated from human culture or lacking in socialisation skills. The video clips we watched showed harrowing examples of stories about feral children. For instance Oxana a girl from the Ukraine who lived for years with a pack of wild dog, the video clip showed her on all fours acting like a dog. We also learned of girl called Genie who was held captive alone in a dark room from the age of 1 to 13 by her father. She rarely saw other human beings and was spoon fed soft food which she could barely survive on. When she was discovered she could not walk, talk or stand up and was not toilet trained. We then discussed how once she was rescued how she struggled to adapt to socialisation and now lives in sheltered accommodation. There were numerous other examples given with the authenticity of some open to debate but all came back to the same......

Words: 3727 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Friedman Family Assessment

...The Friedman Family Assessment is an excellent tool that can assist a nurse when assessing and establishing nursing interventions within a family. This paper will review and discuss the interactions in a family that consists of a mother, father, grandmother and son. Identifying Data The family consists of the grandmother AB, the mother IB, the father PB , one daughter LB, and three sons’ AB, IB and SB. This family lives in the suburbs of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The mother (IB) is 59 years old and is currently finishing her third degree in Radiology. The father (PB) is 57 years old and has been working as a project manager for a well-known construction company in Pittsburgh for 26 years now. The eldest of their children, LB, is divorced with two children and lives in Georgia. The two older sons’ are both married with children and live nearby in the suburbs. The couple’s youngest son, SB, is 26 years old and lives at home while he works for a welding union. PB’s mother, AB, lives with the family and is 91 years old. AB and her former husband bought the large farmhouse and land that the family currently lives on. The house and mortgage have been paid off for several years now. The parents IB and PB both graduated high school and attended four-year colleges right away. IB is currently finishing her Radiology program, which will be her second earned degree since marrying PB. PB and IB live strongly through their Christian faith and are affiliated with a local church....

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Mid Term

...Understanding Human Behavior is Critical to Organizations - Discuss the benefits of self-evaluation / self-assessment as it relates to Leaders today Understanding Human Behavior is Critical to Organizations - Discuss the benefits of self-evaluation / self-assessment as it relates to Leaders today: The benefits of honest self-assessments and honest self-evaluation can be rewarding and beneficial to large companies and organizations. To truly reap the benefits firstly one must be honest in the way that one self-assesses / evaluates Leadership is a diagnostic activity requiring a person to ask, in each situation, “What is the maximum and unique value that a leader could bring to the situation?” The obvious value of this insight is best reflected in the enormous industry that has emerged around this theme, including the most popular of these, the Situational Leadership Model (e.g. Hersey, Blanchard, and Natemeyer, 1979). (Nohria.N & Khurana.R 2010, page 161.) Once a leader has self-assessed / evaluated themselves they can focus on their weaknesses that require improvement. After self –assessment / evaluation has been carried out they can then start to lead in a stronger manner; motivating and inspiring others, leading from the front and by example. In doing so the leader will earn the respect from their team / group. Being a strong leader is best achieved with the respect given by those being lead. A leader who has not earned the respect of the team will not be as...

Words: 2210 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Research Paper

...before Christ. Therefore, this historical overview will outline some major events in British history and will concentrate more on the last century. Major events in British history were The Hundred Years War against France during the 14th century and the civil war that was also known as the War of Roses: the House of York was fighting against the House of Lancaster for the English throne, which weakened the power of the English aristocracy. (Strasbourg l’europénne: 2014) Another aspect of the British history is that England, Scotland and Ireland are very different countries with different histories. Each kingdom favored a different form of religion. The English favored a moderate form of Protestantism, the Scottish were Calvinist and the Irish were stouthearted Catholics. But each kingdom also had strong minorities of other religions. The strongest minority group in England was the Catholics. Those religious differences were responsible for a lot of rebellions. For example in 1641, arms of Catholics in Ireland killed many hundreds of English and Scottish Protestants who had settled in their country. Religion always was a central issue of politicians and monarchs. (BBC: 2011) In the modern world, 1714 to present,...

Words: 3768 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Ireland Organization

...opportunity to study abroad. It was such a great experience in an academic perspective but also in personal aspects, and during the first semester I decided to follow my studies here for one more year in order to intend a Bachelor with Honours. I really get involved in the system and I met many Irish people during this year, that’s why I would like to extend my experience for an other year to improve as much I can my English skills. I will be mainly surrounded by Irish people and I expect a lot of the year that is coming. At the beginning of the year I didn’t imagine that I will stay here but i met many time the chief of business department and I have the opportunity to follow my studies in Ireland, I don’t want to miss this chance at this stage of my career. Contents Introduction 6 History of Ireland 7 History 7 Geography 15 Irish education system 17 Health care system in Ireland 18 Population 20 Pubs and drinking 22 Religion in Ireland 25 Irish sport and youth society 27 Parliament and government 29 Growth and early industrialisation: 1690 to 1815 30 Economy 31 Policy objective for Irish economy 32 Economy, Ireland becomes a global growth leader 32 Irish Department of Defence Force 36 The defence environment 37 Role of the Defence Forces: 39 Defence Force and the Government: 40 Permanent Defence Force 41 Duties of the chief staff: 42 National and international security framework programme 44 Outputs and targets 45 Defence......

Words: 18722 - Pages: 75

Free Essay

Led Marketing

...Prepared for: THE CUPCAKE LOUNGE [pic][pic] Prepared by: 2PHASE3 [pic] [pic] BUSINESS PERFORMANCE SOLUTIONS Business Consultants TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ORGANIZATION The Cupcake Lounge was established in 2011 by Claudia Arizmendi and her husband Bill McGuiness to solve a void in the Byward Market sector of Ottawa – the existence of a gourmet cupcakery. The Cupcake Lounge has, since May 2011 grown into a fast-growing boutique cupcake shop catering to not only the tourists who flick to this historic sector, but to the numerous locals who work and shop in this area. To develop and master the variety of products sold within the store, Claudia has banked on her skills honed while completing her studies in baking and pastry art at Algonquin College. A testament to her skills in pastry art and specifically gourmet cupcakes, The Cupcake Lounge was rated the #1 cupcake taste champion in Ottawa by celebrity Hilary Duff as illustrated in the of Local Tourist Ottawa magazine on May 31/2012. A celebrity endorsement in a city like Ottawa brings attention. The Cupcake lounge presently has one location in the Byward Market and is planning to work operational efficiencies into its corporate identity in order to open a second location in the very near future. This fiscal year, The......

Words: 7690 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Policy and Development

...RESOURCES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY guidance on the application of community development approaches to different aspects of anti-poverty and social inclusion work €10 Siobhán Lynam Bridgewater Centre, Conyngham Road, Islandbridge, Dublin 8 Tel: 01 670 6746 Fax: 01 670 6760 Email: Website: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY Siobhán Lynam Community Development and Public Policy 1 © 2006 ISBN: 1-905485-11-5 While every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate, no legal responsibility is accepted by the author or Combat Poverty for any errors or omissions. The views expressed in this publication are the author’s own and not necessarily those of Combat Poverty Agency. 2 Community Development and Public Policy CONTENTS Acknowledgements Preface 4 5 Introduction Background to the publication Structure of the publication 6 6 Section 1: Defining public policy 1.1 What is public policy? 1.2 How is policy made? 1.3 The public policy cycle 1.4 Example of a community organisation’s impact on policy 7 7 8 13 16 Section 2: A community-development approach to policy making 2.1 Giving voice to excluded groups 2.2 Characteristics of a community-development approach 2.3 Value of adopting a community-development approach 18 18 19 21 Section 3: Influencing public policy making 3.1 Develop a policy...

Words: 13791 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Leading and Managing

...A background to change An education that privileges one child over another is giving the privileged child a corrupted education, even as it gives him or her, a social or economic advantage. (Connell 1993, p15) This assignment will be a critical and analytical report on the educational provision for traveller children in my setting and how as part of my role I am involved in developing links with the traveller community. Reflecting on my practice I will show how my values of social justice and equality compels me to engage in social and educational practices that ensure that no child is privileged at the expense of minority or marginalised groups. My setting has an ethos of equality of respect for all; a practice of inclusion that is grounded in an intercultural ethos. What does this mean in reality, well as a faith school we have at the heart of our vision the desire to nurture and love all children regardless of their background, ethnicity or faith. Striving all the time to reach out to all areas of our school community, this can be seen in the way we are building bridges of friendship with the families of our children encouraging them all to become engaged with the school in the development of their children. A passionate belief in the right to social justice and equality for all people, irrespective of social class, race, gender or ethnicity drives me to strive for equal opportunities in the area of educational provision. The rationale behind this aspiration is......

Words: 3618 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Consumer Perceptions

...Contents [pic] INTRODUCTION Page 3 CHAIRMAN’S STATEMENT Page 4 CHIEF EXECUTIVE’S STATEMENT Page 5 BOARD MEMBERS AND SENIOR EXECUTIVES Page 11 PILLAR ONE-ENFORCEMENT Page 12 PILLAR TWO-RESEARCH AND ADVOCACY Page 28 PILLAR THREE-INFORMATION AND AWARENESS Page 37 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Page 46 APPENDICES Page 49 Introduction [pic] The National Consumer Agency was set up on 1st May 2007. This Annual Report sets out the activities of the Agency for the period from 1st January to 31st December 2009. The Board is pleased to submit to the Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment the 2009 Annual Report in accordance with Section 22 of the Consumer Protection Act 2007. | [pic] |[pic] | Stephen Costello Ann Fitzgerald Chairman Chief Executive Chairman’s Statement The economic downturn of recent times has thrown up many challenges for consumers in Ireland. Harsher trading conditions have forced many retailers to revisit their offerings, whilst job losses and downward pressure on household incomes have meant that consumers are being driven to examine their finances and spending habits more closely than at any time in the...

Words: 18594 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

Conservatism In Pennsylvania

...English, Welsh, Scots-Irish, and several varieties of Germans cultures blended with earlier Swedes, Finns and Dutch influences to create what became a distinctively Pennsylvanian culture.[endnoteRef:21] The state?s social conservatism allowed these communities to retain much of their regional character in the generations that followed. [20: Cultural Geography, p. 134.] [21: Wilbur Zelinsky, Geography, Chapter 8, Pennsylvania, A History of the Commonwealth, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania, 2002, p. 396.] Social researchers call this expanse the Pennsylvania Cultural Area (PCA). There are three concentric zones.[endnoteRef:22] The purity and intensity lessen as one proceeds outward from the core to the domain and eventually into...

Words: 3279 - Pages: 14