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Architecture and the Environment Paper

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Architecture and the Environment Paper  • Prepare a 1,150- to 1,400-word paper in which you explore human response to physical structure. As a part of your paper be sure to address the following:  o Describe how physical structure affects human behavior. o Analyze architecture as a means of controlling human behavior. o Describe the environmental psychological implications of commercial and residential design, including purpose and considerations. o Analyze the importance of architectural development supporting sustainable development.

Architecture and the Environment Paper

The Environment and its inhabitants cannot be explained separately both shape each other and is shaped by the environment. There are different kinds of environments that need different kinds of behavioral workings that are sensory input, internal representations that change the structure of the earth for who people live there. “To understand the interactions of the physical world and behavior, then, we must consider the two in an intertwined fashion” (Todd & Wilson, 1993).

Effect of Physical Structure on Human Behavior Architectural design always played a significant aspect in one’s comfort and health. It is a different form of art surrounding one every day. Unfortunately, for years, it has not been considered this way and its benefits have not been recognized. However with the increasing research and interest in environmental conditions, greater interest in healthier living and the involvement of environmental psychology, the importance of architecture is finally being acknowledged for what it is. Today research is aware of the benefits and downsides that can come from physical structures. A person’s well-being and health is associated with structural design. One’s mood and productivity are related to the kind of architecture by which one is surrounded. The amount and size of windows in a room, openness, shape, form and size of a room, the type and amount of light, specific colors, air quality, noise, and toxic materials implemented in buildings have been related to the specific outcome of behaviors and certain health-related issues (Architecture and health, 2007). Small size rooms, no windows, dull dark rooms and wrong kind of lighting is connected with mood swings, headaches, lack of motivation and stress (Duncan, 1981).

When understanding how very important structural design is the goal to create buildings that fit the needs of the person and suit the purpose of its intended use.The design and dimension of a space are different between work and private living. Therefore, it is vital to meet these specific needs for each of the purposes and pay extra attention to variables such as the perception of density, privacy, and control, which can have an adverse effect on one’s mood and health. For example, space limitations may influence physical conditions by making one work more intensely for his or her right of privacy. Clearly, it is significant to construct buildings that are sensitive to the needs of a user and should also compensate for one’s inability to spend time outside. Certain human populations spend more time indoors than outdoors, which can have an unpropitious effect one’s well-being, health, and even comfort. This is why it is so important to create indoor environments that suit and meet one’s basic needs (Pultar, 1997).

Human Behavior Directed by Architecture influencing human actions, architecture can also control and at times direct human behavior. Research has proven that the way a person lives can affect their social interaction with others. One study showed those who live in apartments that were close to one another were less interested in social interaction surrounding them and had possession of limited space. The interest for knowing what was around them was not present nor the need to share who they are with others. How architecture directs human behavior also is seen in Churches and work environment. Churches use specific designs, materials, furniture and equipment when building a church. However doing this the reverence of the God they want others to understand and know about is an exciting learning experience that the people want to continue to come back and worship at that church. (Bro & Popow, 2000)

Surveillance is an architectural structure used that also affects human behavior. Surveillance is used to void off crime and catch criminals. “The modern day exemplar of surveillance is the city of London, which uses thousands of cameras in an attempt to deter and combat crime” (Rosen, 2001). There are specific circles of groups such as social that are affected by surveillance. Goodman has stated that in South Africa Homosexuals “move through public spaces under the eye of a social gaze, they must also consider the implications of visibly deviating from prescribed norms” (Goodman, 2001). Surveillance is mixed with law and social behaviors. Through the power of surveillance lesbians and gays are seen as deviants. “This public gaze is partially countered through the creation of gay bars that provide a safe haven for socializing” (Kesan, 2000).

Environmental Psychological Implications of Design Everyone is impacted to some degree by building design, so it is to no one’s surprise that the involvement of environmental psychology in design is enormous. The way one’s surroundings are arranged can provide either possibilities or limitations. Therefore, when creating any kind of space, it is very significant to know for what and by whom it will be used. It is important to know where to build, how much space will be needed, and its purpose. The building needs to be matched with his or her user so that the best functionality can be established while meeting certain criteria such as quality, safety, and performance.
Environmental Psychological Implications of Commercial Design are being designed these days very often depends on public demands. Without the involvement of the user, a designer will be unable to construct a building that will meet everyone’s needs and will pay attention to aspects such as safety and flexibility. For instance, there are several intentions of a hospital. A hospital must first provide the right kind of care to its patients but at the same time, it needs to consider the needs of its employees by providing a sufficient work environment. One of many concerns when designing a hospital is providing the most efficient care for patients without sacrificing effective care. Therefore, the layout of a hospital contributes greatly the care of a patient. It has been researched that the distance between a nurse’s station and a patient’s room plays a vital role in the kind of care the patient receives and the speed with which he or she receives it. Besides space, another concern existing in a work environment, such as a hospital, is privacy.

Privacy is very difficult to be maintained in such an environment and is important for the well-being of a patient and staff. It has been acknowledged that short periods of privacy improved the productivity of nurses. At the same time, allowing privacy for patients contributes to more interactions that are social. In addition, the amount of noise, the kind and quantity of light, facility indoor colors, more windows and nicer views, and availability of gardens are just few of the many features that can improve the well-being of a patient and contribute to better employee productivity (Kesan, 2000).
Environmental Psychological Implications of Residential Design
When constructing a residential property, it is very important that the design will encourage and best performance to those using this living place. The user is vital in the process of creating a residential layout because he or she will be spending a lot of time in this property. Therefore, it is very important that a residential property meets one’s needs, is well made, safe, functional, and cost efficient. Recent research concluded that it is important to create a unity between the built environment and a user because the design of a home can affect one’s way of living (Tappendorf, 2002). When designing a residential area, one must be aware that he or she is not only creating a building for space but he or she is also producing a place, which must provide residential satisfaction and will help express identity. Space supplies the user with dimensions for living, the needed amount for privacy, and room for others.

Place is personal individually influenced, and makes one feel at home. Creating a life space requires various implementations and considerations such as where, for whom, and for what purpose the house is built, how to organize the support spaces like the kitchen and bathrooms, and how many and where to place the support systems like lightning, windows, and others. In addition, when organizing a living space, one should decide between an open or closed plan. A closed plan means more divided rooms allowing for more privacy, whereas an open plan allows for more flexibility within a living space but less privacy. In the end, providing a home that is functional and meaningful at the same time will allow the owner to become attached to it (Tappendorf, 2002). Whatever the decision one makes in his or her residential area, this chance of doing so will most likely change over time.

Importance of Architectural Development supporting Sustainable Development
Various factors contribute to the importance of architectural development being necessary to support sustainable development. For far too long, this has been not a significant matter because the main focus was to create a higher standard of living, which caused enormous and irreversible damage to the environment. However, with the continuously rising numbers of people on this planet and the increasing shortage of natural supplies and resources, the paradigm shifted to make a change. As stated by Metha (2009) “Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Clearly, when trying to build anything, it is crucial to think about the future and therefore, the environment. As seen in the past, humanity’s decisions have impaired the ability to sustain and in some cases done irreversible damage to the environment. Continuing on this path is impossible because it will destroy the ecosystem for future generations. The ecosystem will be unable to restore itself and make it impossible for future generations to survive on this planet. According to the U.S. Department of Energy constructing and maintaining manmade environment is responsible for “half of all greenhouse gas emissions and more than half of annual energy consumption in North America” (Moore, 2009). This news is shocking and definitely requires a major change in the way future architecture develops. Fortunately, research agrees and it is progressing to implement more environmentally sound aspects when designing architecture.

Conclusion
In conclusion architecture design plays a big role as to how humans respond to their surrounding as we know work, school, hospitals and churches all has its effects on person whether it is the furniture ,lighting colors or structure. The world buildings are being designed with the given understanding to promote and motivate people to want to remain where they work , live, and attend the doctors. This would affect what you feel and how you feel about what you see. Designs are always evolving to match what the environment is putting out today.

• Mehta, R. (2009). Sustainable development- How far is it sustainable? Proceedings of World Academy of Science: Engineering & Technology, 39, 754.

• Moore, S. (2009). Sustainable architecture and engineering. Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy, 2, 293-295.

Tappendorf, J. A. (2002). Architectural Design Regulations: What Can a Municipality Do To Protect Against Unattractive, Inappropriate, and Just Plain Ugly Structures. Urban
Lawyer, 34, 961-969.

Kesan P. Jay (2000). How Architecture Regulate. Retrieved from http://www.governingwithcode.org/journal_articles/pdf/How_Architecture_Regulates.pdf

Rosen, J. (2001, Oct. 7). Being Watched: A Cautionary Tale for a New Age of Surveillance. New York Times Magazine.

Goodman, R. (2001). Beyond the Enforcement Principle: Sodomy Laws, Social Norms, and Social Panoptics. California Law Review, 89, 643-740.

Bro. W & Victor G. Popow (2000). Report on Psychology & Architecture Retrieved from http://www.grandlodge.mb.ca/mrc_docs/Psychology%2520of%2520Architecture.pd

Pultar, M. (1997). A Conceptual Framework for Values in the Built Environment. Evolving Environmental Ideals: Changing Ways of Life, Values and Design
Practices (pp. 261-267). Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology.

Duncan, J. S. (Ed.). (1981). Housing and Identity. London: Croom Helm

Todd, P.M., and Wilson, S.W. (1993). Environment structure and adaptive behavior from the ground up. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

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