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Architecture

In: English and Literature

Submitted By jmostafa
Words 1535
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History of Architecture Final

Buildings

Louvre east Facade, Paris 1670 pg 365
LeVau, LeBrun, Perrault
Baroque
* Originally a palace, now serves as an art museum * Updated with Baroque themes: ballistrate on top, double spaced columns lining the facade * There are 2 pavilions on the ends, and one in the middle * 330ft between pavilions * Architects won the chance to design the Facade in a contest Louis XIV made * Facade composition distinctly French: end pavilions, central pedimented unit and connecting stoalike wings

Karlskirche (ext), Vienna 1725 pg 359
Fisher von Erlach
Baroque
* Church, dedicated to St. Charles Borromeo * Broad facade dominated by a dome on a drum above a pedimented portico, flanked by columns * Many historical influences: * Dome and drum from papal Rome * Columned portico from Roman temples like the Pantheon * Trajan’s Columns from Imperial Rome are repeated on both sides of the rotunda * Overall composition reminiscing the dome and minarets of Hagia Sophia * Ceiling embellished with frescoes depicting Charles Borromeo appealing to Virgin Mary as intercessor for relief from the plague

St. Paul’s Cathedral (ext), London 1700 pg 372
Wren
Gothic * Church * Triple shell dome includes a conical intermediate shell that supports the lantern and timber superstructure * Cathedral’s basilican structure comprised of saucer domes in the nave and aisles * Buttresses were above the aisle roofs. * West front based on Perrault’s facade for the Louvre. * Innermost dome made of masonrt. * Above the innermost dome is a brick cone supporting the cupola.

Monticello (ext), Charlottesville, VA 1770 pg 401
Jefferson
* Was Jefferson’s own home (plantation) and continuous architectural project he added to over the years * Utilized the Palladian Villa style but also was influenced by French architecture * Through the use of fenestration, the two story building appears to be a single story * Features an octagonal dome connected to the outside landscape by two walkways * The walkways capture rainwater and channel it into a cistern and end at the Honeymoon Cottage where Jefferson & wife lived

Boston Public Library (ext), Boston 1890 pg 443
McKim, Mead, White
Renaissance Revival * Library organized around a central court * The public reading room and elaborate entry were placed at the front of the plan * Faced with Milford granite * Has thin-shelled vaults * Sculpted panels above the entry were designed by Augustus St. Gaudens * Bronze entry doors designed by Daniel Chester french

Biblioteque Ste.-Genevieve (ext.,int), Paris 1850 pg 418
Labrouste
* Unique utilization of exposed cast iron in the interior * the exterior stonework was a bold abstracted form of Neo-classical styling * The panels between the piers of the arcade contain the names of celebrated members of the French intelligentsia * features a reading room spanning whole length of building, with light semi-circular cast iron arches and 16 cast iron columns * the exterior stonework featured corbeling and many arched windows

Sagrade Familia (ext.), Barcelona, Spain 1882 pg 428 (monroe)
Gaudi
* Is the Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family * Taken over by Art Nouveau proponent Antonio Gaudi, church is still incomplete to this day * The building retains gothic structural overtones and traces of cubism * Its facade of the Nativity is based on grotto-eroded elements flowing together * Features four great spires and fits no single stylistic category

Trinity Church (est.), Boston 1875 pg 438
H.H. Richardson
Gothic Revival * Plan based on a stubby Latin-cross basilica * Polychrome stonework and general massing come from French Romanesque churches * Triple-arched portal derived from St. Gilles-du-Gard * Polychromatic, inside and out. * Murals painted by John LaFarge and Augustus Saint-Gaudens are on the plaster walls inside

Guaranty Building, Buffalo, NY 1894 pg 449
Adler, Sullivan
Art Nouveau * Has a Ornamental style derived from plant life. * Tall building with vertical expression * Has ornate terracotta spandrels under each window. * Has a repetitive pattern on the frieze. * Has a repetitive pattern on the roof fascia

Winslow House (all), River Forest, IL 1893 pg 461
Frank Lloyd Wright
Modern
* Symmetrical * Displays Sullivanesque ornament * House is organized around a central fireplace and is dominated by horizontal lands * The apparent height of the ground floor extends to second floor window sills, reducing the perceived volume of the upper level. * Chimney was broadened to emphasize horizontal theme rather than a vertical one

Chrysler Building (ext), NY 1928 pg 495
Van Allen
Art Deco * Most famous Art Deco structure * Crownlike dome made of stainless steel * Headquarters for the Chrysler car company * Eagle heads line the top of the structure * Top of the building has tiered arches filled with sunbursts, capped by a spire. * Radiator-cap acroteria and frieze of car wheels

Villa Savoye (all), Poissy, France 1930 pg 477
Le Corbusier
Prarie Style * Designed as a weekend house for an art-loving family * The house is on supports so it does not touch the wet forest ground * The interior walls can be moved * Horizontal windows line each of the four floors * The facade is independent of the supports, and can also be moved

Seagram Building (ext), NY 1958 pg 512
Mies van der Rohe
International style * Made for Canadian whiskey distillers. * Has an external non-structural grid * The grid is of bronze-tinted steel holding bronze-tinted glass. * Has a concealed fireproof internal steel frame * Window blinds only hang at 3 heights in order to make the facade seem organized

Vocabulary

Palace of Versailles- Versailles: a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles.

Mansard roof-a roof that has four sloping sides, each of which becomes steeper halfway down..

Palladian- neoclassical style of Andrea Palladio, in particular with reference to the phase of English architecture from c. 1715

Neo-Classical- draws inspiration from ancient Greece or Rome

Georgian- the various styles in the architecture of Britain during the reigns of the first four members of the house of Hanover, between the accession of George Iin 1714 and the death of George IV in 1830. Inspired by Andrea Palladio

John Ruskin- leading English art critic of the Victorian era, was also a prominent art patron and social thinker. he established the Ruskin school of drawing and wrote the work “modern painters”

Beaux-Arts- relating to the classical decorative style maintained by the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, esp. in the 19th century..

Art Nouveau- a style of decorative art, architecture, and design prominent in western Europe and the US from about 1890 until World War I and characterized by intricate linear designs and flowing curves based on natural forms..

Art Deco- the predominant decorative art style of the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by precise and boldly delineated geometric shapes and strong colors, and used most notably in household objects and in architecture..

Arts and Crafts Movement- Arts and Crafts was an international design movement that flourished between 1860 and 1910, especially in the second half of that period, continuing its influence until the 1930s

reinforced concrete- concrete in which wire mesh or steel bars are embedded to increase its tensile strength..

1893 World’s Columbian Exposition-The World's Columbian Exposition was a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in the New World in 1492. The iconic centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World

skeletal construction- a method of construction in which the walls are supported at ground level by a steel frame consisting of vertical and horizontal members..

cast iron construction- is a form of architecture where cast iron plays a central role. It was a prominent style in the Industrial Revolution era when cast iron was relatively cheap and modern steel had not yet been developed.

prefabricated- manufacture sections of (esp. a building or piece of furniture) to enable quick or easy assembly on site

International Style- a functional style of 20th-century architecture, so called because it crossed national and cultural barriers. It is characterized by the use of steel and reinforced concrete, wide windows, uninterrupted interior spaces, simple lines, and strict geometric forms..

Prairie Style- Prairie School was a late 19th- and early 20th-century architectural style, most common to the Midwestern United States

cantilever- a long projecting beam or girder fixed at only one end, used chiefly in bridge construction..

“form follows function”- Sullivan’s most famous dictum

Louis Sullivan- Sullivan: United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase `form follows function' (1856-1924).

Modernism- generally characterized by simplification of form and an absence of applied decoration. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. In a broader sense, early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement

Bahaus School- Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. Authoritarian style

Post Modernism- a late-20th-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism that represents a departure from modernism and has at its heart a general distrust of grand theories and ideologies as well as a problematical relationship with any notion of “art.”

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