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Art History

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THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ASIA
FALL SEMESTER 2014
History of Art
Dr Raymond-Josef Hoffmann

Description: This course is an introduction to art as the embodiment of cultural, social, and political values, ranging from ancient civilizations to the modern period. The class examines painting, sculpture, and architecture , and both domestic and ornamental artifacts of Near Eastern, Mediterranean and Western civilisations. Various historical periods will be considered through an examination of creative practices, themes, and visual forms. Examples of the work of representative artists and movements, from Praxiteles in ancient Greece to recent artists will be explored. The course will also consider cultural and artistic exchanges between societies of Europe, the Americas, Asia (including central Asia), and Africa, when appropriate.

Human beings have been culture-makers and illustrators from the beginning: the history of our species on earth can be traced from early cave drawings and implements for eating and hunting to decorative arts, gothic cathedrals, skyscrapers to non-cognitive forms of expression that defy interpretation. This course is an exploration of an essential aspect of our attempts to shape the world and to create an environment in which self-expression, pleasure, ideology and aspiration can thrive.

1. Structure: The course comprises two 80 minute discussion/seminars based on specific works of art each week. The topics and readings are given in the schedule below.

2. Required Reading: All readings for this course are available online. Students will also be able to view all artistic materials, slides and reproductions on line. PPTs of the materials will be uploaded to the e-courses website. The following are the required links to the e-material:

a. WIKIBOOKS ART HISTORY at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Art_History
This online reader provides basic information about periods, styles, key works and artists b. SMART-HISTORY: This is a rich resource for images, explations, chronology, artists, themes, and almost everything having to do with art history. Students should treat it like a shopping mall and browse and learn freely. http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/
c. Practice of Art: A Berkeley (UC) MOOC that can be viewed as a separate course: http://webcast.berkeley.edu/playlist#c,s,All,17E8512F6565AC39
d. The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art): This will givce you a basic overview of the way art and architecture, as well as applied art, has changed over the centuries and by region: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/

e. Other Timelines for exploring art history (mainly for fun):

• Art History Timeline for Dummies: http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/art-history-timeline.html • Artists and Movements: http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/timelines/art_history_timelines.htm • (Mainly post-1100 CE) • AboutEducation: Art History: http://arthistory.about.com/od/help_advice_for_students/

The following books are also useful, available only in hardcopy/text:

• Hugh Honour and John F. Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History. Prentice Hall, 2005. • Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art. Prentice Hall, 2007.

4. Assessment: (a) Two exams (25% each) given at the mid-term and end of the semester. You will be expected to know – (i) the images presented for identification, and (ii) the discussion surrounding these images (for example, why they are considered significant, innovative, or culturally importnt as presented in the readings and the class lectures and discussions. (b) Three Short Papers: To encourage visual analysis and critical thinking, there are three short (1 ½ page) graded paper assignments that will require extended personal interaction with a work of art. These papers are your opportunity to show how you’ve absorbed and understood the various analytical methods introduced in class. (10% each: 30%) • Papers must be typed, double-spaced, and checked for grammar and spelling errors. • Papers are subject to revision. • Quality of writing and command of the English language counts toward your grade. See the short guide at http://arthistory.about.com/od/arthistory101/a/how_to_write_a_paper.htm NOTE: Papers are due in class by the due date. They must be submitted in hard (printed) copy. As this class corresponds to similar classes at AUCA that encourage critical thinking, your essays should reflect careful assessment not just of the “text” of the art-work but of its context.

(c) Participation and Note-taking: Your attendance is key to success in this class. Repeated absences will adversely affect your grade as the substance of this course is introduced in lectures and discussion sessions rather than in the textbooks. It is your responsibility to plan your schedule so that you can attend the lecture and the seminars regularly. Taking notes is perhaps the single most important thing you can do to prepare for this course. Everyone’s style of note-taking is different, but students who are attentive during lectures and take detailed notes will have an easier time when preparing for exams or essays. (20%) [pic]

CLASS AND READING SCHEDULE

Week 1: The Elements of Art: Image and Context.

• Read: “What is Art?” http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Art_History/Preface • View: “Why Look at Art?” http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/why-look-at-art.html • View: “Duchamp’s Shovel”: Art as Concept” http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/duchamps-shovel-art-as-concept.html • What Does Art Do? https://www.boundless.com/art-history/textbooks/boundless-art-history-textbook/thinking-and-talking-about-art-1/what-is-art-38/what-does-art-do-241-8747/

Question: What is the difference between art and everything else around you—a chair, a tabler, a doorway?
[pic]

Week 2: Art in Prehistory • Read: Prehistoric Art: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Art_History/Prehistoric_Art • View: Ancient Cultures: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ancient-cultures.html • View: First part of Heilbrunn Timeline: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/intro/atr/02sm.htm
Note: On the timeline, click first on the period (dates) and then navigate into the squares to see what developments were taking place in those regions.

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Unit 3: Art of the Ancient Near East and Egypt
Read: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Art_History/Ancient_Art • Read: Passage from Gilgamesh: http://comenglishsmith.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/1/5/14150128/gilgamesh.pdf • View: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ancient-near-east1.html (all topics in the sidebar!) • View: Heilbrunn Timeline: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/intro/atr/03sm.htm

[pic]
Unit 4: Early (Archaic) and Classical Greek (Paper 1 due)
Ancient Greece and Rome: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ancient-greece-and-rome.html • The Four Orders: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-classical-orders.html • How to make a vase: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/making-greek-vases.html • Heilbrunn: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=04®ion=eusb • The Kritios Boy: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/kritios-boy.html

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Unit 5: Hellenistic and Roman Civilization • View and Read: The Barbarebni Faum: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/barberini-faun-c.-220-b.c.e..html • The Dying Gaul: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dying-gaul.html • Read: Ancient Rome: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/ancient-rome.html • Hadrian’s Villa: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/hadrians-villa-a-virtual-tour.html • The Colosseum: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/colosseum.html

Unit 6: Early Christian and Byzantine Art (Medieval and Eastern Christian)

[pic]
Read: The Dark Ages? http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/medieval.html
Brief entry in the WIKI: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Art_History/Medieval_Art
Heilbrunn: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=06®ion=euwc
Christianity: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/early-christian-art.html
Santa Sabina: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/santa-sabina.html

Byzantine Art
The Theotokos: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/virgin-theotokos-and-child-between-saints-theodore-and-george.html
Iconoclasm: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/iconoclasm.html

The Gothic Mode:
Basilica of St Denis (Paros) 1140: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/iconoclasm.html
View (at least) Chartres Part 1: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/Gothic.html

Unit 7: Islamic Art, Architecture and Design (Paper 2 Due)
Discussion: Art and iconoclasm in world religions
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Read: Early and Medieval Islamic Art http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/islamic-art-early-period.html? The Mosque at Cordova: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-great-mosque-of-cordoba-spain.html
Two Royal Figures: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/royal-figures-saljuq-period.html
The Alhambra: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/alhambra.html
The Mughals and Central Aian Islamic Art: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/bichtir-jahangir.html

EXAM I

Unit 8: The Early or Pre-Renaissance in Italy
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The Renaissance is unusually varied, combining a revival of classical form, a discovery of new technologies, an emphasis on the human form, and craftsmanship that sometimes defies imagination. It is usually divided into pre- or proto-Renaissance, Renaissance and High renaissance periods. • View: The Pre-Renaissance: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/proto-renaissance.html • Read: Florence http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/florence-in-the-trecento-1300s.html • View: Giotto: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/st.-francis-of-assisi-receiving-the-stigmata.html • Read: The Black Death: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-black-death.html

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Unit 10: The Northern or High Renaissance
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• View: The Renaissance in Italy: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1400-1500-Renaissance-in-Italy-and-the-North.html • View: Bruneleschi: The Sacrifice of Isaac: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/brunelleschi-ghiberti-isaac.html • View: Donatello’s David and the study of huan anatomy: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-study-of-human-anatomy.html • Flanders: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/Flanders.html and • Read and view: The Ghent Altarpiece: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/van-eyck-ghent-altarpiece1.html
LEONARDO DA VINCI • http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/High-Renaissance.html • http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/High-Renaissance.html • View: The Mona Lisa: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/leonardo-mona-lisa.html • View: The Last Supper: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/leonardo-last-supper.html
MICHAELANGELO:
• Read: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/michelangelo.html • View: The Pieta: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/michelangelo-pieta.html

Unit 11: Art and the Enlightenment (Baroque) • Read: The Baroque, Art Politics and Relugion http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1600-1700-the-Baroque.html • Read: Francis Bacon and the Scientific Revolution: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-scientific-revolution.html • View: Bernini, St Peter’s Square http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/berninis-saint-peters-square.html • View: Caravaggio’s Crucifixion of St Peter: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/crucifixion-of-st.-peter.html • View: Ecstasy of St Theresa (Bernini) http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/bernini-ecstasy-of-st.-theresa.html

Half-Unit 12: Neo-Classicism • View: The Death of Marat http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/david-death-of-marat.html

Unit 12: The Nineteenth Century (Revolution and Industrial Revolution)
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• Read and view: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1800-1848-Industrial-Revolution-I.html • Romanticism • Delacroix’s “Liberty Leading the People”: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/romanticism-in-france.html • Goya: “The Sleep that Produces Monsters” http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/goyas-the-sleep-of-reason-produces-monsters.html • View: Thomas Cole, “Expulsion from Eden”: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/cole-expulsion-from-the-garden-of-eden.html

Unit 13: The Early Twentieth Century • Modern Art: Read, Becoming Modern, http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/becoming-modern.html • Early Photography: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/early-photography.html • The Pre-Raphaelites: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-pre-raphaelites.html

UNIT 14: Impressionism and Post Impressionism

[pic] • Read: “What is impressionism?” http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/impressionism-france.html • View: Monet, St Lazare Staion: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/france-1848.html • View: Renoir, Moulin de la Gallette http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/renoir-moulin.html • View: Seurat La Grande Jatte http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/post-impressionism.html • Read: Van Gogh’s Starry Night: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/van-goghs-the-starry-night.html • View: Rodin, The Gates of Hell http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/rodins-the-gates-of-hell.html

Unit 15: Other Movements in Contemporary Art • Expressionism: View Kandinsky, Composition VII: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/Kandinsky-CompositionVII.html • Picasso: Guernica: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/picasso-guernica.html • Surrealism: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/surrealism.html • Dali: The Persistence of Memory: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/dalis-the-persistence-of-memory.html

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...83-98 83 Abstracts/Résumés pp. xv-xxi We Practice What We Preach: A Local History of a Community-Based, Student/Faculty Art Exhibition (2002-09) Elizabeth Auger Ashworth Nipissing University Daniel H. Jarvis Nipissing University Purpose of the Exhibitions Student-organized exhibitions hold the potential to greatly enhance the visual arts school curriculum. Burton (2004, 2001), for example, contends that there are a number of multi-faceted benefits for art students, art teachers, and for the art education program in general through the implementation of student-organized exhibitions. In Exhibiting Student Art (2004), he concludes: The key to successful student art exhibitions rests in the knowledge and skills students learn from doing it firsthand. . . . They need to immerse themselves in various aspects of art exhibition, from preparing and presenting art to other people to exploring alternatives of scale, venue, theme, and purpose. . . . When exhibitions of student art are presented well, parents, teachers, and administrators recognize and appreciate the value and meaning of art in the school curriculum. Exhibitions of student art convey a continuous message that the quality of ideas, the depth of issues, and the magnitude of expression are © 2009 CRAE - RCÉA & AUTHORS/AUTEURS 84 Elizabeth Auger Ashworth & Daniel H. Jarvis displayed along with and through art. (p. 46) Student art exhibition events can address socio-economic issues (Russell-Bowie,......

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Art and History

...A History of Human Art and Body Painting If the impulse to create art is a defining sign of humanity, the body may well have been the first canvas. Alongside paintings on cave walls visited by early people over 30,000 years ago, we find handprints, ochre deposits, and ornaments. And because the dead were often buried with valuable possessions and provisions for the afterlife, ancient burials reveal that people have been tattooing, piercing, painting, and shaping their bodies for millennia. All of the major forms of body art known today appear in the ancient world, and there is no evidence indicating a single place of origin for particular techniques. Like people today, ancient peoples used body art to express identification with certain people and distinction from others. Through body art, members of a group could define the ideal person and highlight differences between individuals and groups. In the past, as today, body art may have been a way of communicating ideas about the afterlife and about the place of the individual in the universe. A variety of objects demonstrate the use of body art in ancient times including an Egyptian fish-shaped make-up palette from 3650 BC to 3300 BC; a painted Greek vase from the fifth century BC depicting tattooed Thracian women; a ceramic spout bottle depicting the pierced face of a Moche warrior of Peru from AD 100-700; and ceramics of painted Nayarit women from 300 BC to 300 AD. As people from one culture encounter people from...

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Art History

...Cubism Cubism was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. It was created by Pablo Picasso between 1907 and 1914with some credit given to Brague. Vauxcelles called the geometric forms in the highly abstracted works "cubes.". The stylization and distortion of Picasso's ground-breaking Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (Museum of Modern Art, New York), painted in 1907, came from African art which Picasso had first seen when he visited the ethnographic museum in the Palais du Trocadéro in Paris in 1907. Cubist painters wanted to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas instead of adhering to the ideas that art should copy nature or adopt the traditional techniques of perspective, modeling, and foreshortening. So they reduced and fractured objects into geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relief-like space. They also used multiple or opposing vantage points. Cubism wielded a profound influence on twentieth-century sculpture and architecture even though it was associated with painting. The major Cubist sculptors were Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz. Rewald, Sabine. "Cubism". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cube/hd_cube.htm (October 2004) Fauve Fauvism was the first of the avant-garde movements that flourished in France in the early years of the twentieth century. The Fauve painters......

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