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Art Through the Ages

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* Architecture Paper *
HUM/266
April 16, 2013

* Architecture Paper *
This paper will compare the architecture of Classical Greek temple such as the Parthenon and medieval Gothic cathedrals such as Salisbury or Amiens cathedrals. The paper will also include the date each structure was built, the main purpose it was built and the type of architecture. The major architectural innovations in each style and the obvious symbolism of each style will also be included. The integral sculptures will also be included and which style the author personally find more interesting, appealing and why.
The Acropolis of Athens is a complex of buildings on top of the Acropolis rock watching over Athens. The most recognizable building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon; this structure is one of the most iconic structures in the world. The building is old but stand strong and continue to influence modern-day architecture every western country. Under the leadership of Pericles, the Parthenon was built sometime between the years 447-432 BCE. The structure was designed to be the focus of the Acropolis building complex and was dedicated to the goddess Athena Pallas. The building project of the Acropolis was to demonstrate the political and cultural achievements of Athens and Greece and to accommodate the enormous statue of Athena that was made of gold and ivory by Pheidias.
The Parthenon continues to marvel anyone who visits the historic site. Earthquakes, wars, vandalism and looting resulted in dilapidated structure seen today which is a shadow of its former glory. Many modern structures such as the United States White house and different temples around the world borrowed some of the architecture from the Parthenon.
The Parthenon is a Doric peripteral temple, which means that it consists of a rectangular floor plan and a colonnade of Doric columns extending around the periphery of the entire structure. Each entrance has an additional six columns in front of it.
Gothic architecture
evolved from what was previously called Romanesque architecture. This deviated from the classic lines used by the Romanesque architecture. No one is sure where the Goths originated but for about a century, Gothic rulers devastated the northeastern Mediterranean region and the Balkan territory, they were referred to as barbaric. This Gothic architecture first began to show up in France and was once called the French style. The Classic Romanesque lines were replaced with curves and arches and many did not approve. Many people who were appalled that the classical Romanesque lines and proportions were abandoned coined the phrases Gothic architecture and it is still used today.
The Amiens Cathedral is one of the largest classic' Gothic churches of the 13th century. It is notable the beauty and the three-tier interior elevation and the principally the fine display of sculptures. Fire destroyed the Romanesque cathedral in 1218, the planning for a replacement building began immediately and foundation stone was laid in 1220. Construction continued with only the tops of the towers remained unfinished in 1269. * Gothic Architecture styles are divided into three different phases. Early English Gothic Style was also called Lancet, Decorated Gothic Style and the Perpendicular Gothic Style. The Lancet style used large blocks of shaped stone that was cut with precision. The Gothic structures were taller and heavier, the hallow walls were replaced with solid walls and pillars allowing for much greater weight bearing. * Flying buttress is a masonry structure typically consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends from the upper part of a wall and carries the thrust of a roof; it may add some weight but enhances stability. The flying buttress progressed in the Gothic era from earlier hidden supports. This design improved the supporting power of the buttress and made room for the creation of the high ceilinged seen in the gothic structures. * Decorated Gothic Style saw the use of decorative designs sculptures of Stone. Gargoyles were introduced as waterspouts protecting the foundations from rain. * Perpendicular style can be considered the latest phase of the Gothic architecture in England. This style is roughly corresponding in time to the Flamboyant French style. The style is mostly accentuates with rich visual effects through decoration. The use of numerousness vertical lines in stone and enlargement of windows to great proportions was very evident. * The more appealing to this author is the Gothic style, the innovation of the architects of that era.
Moving away from the normal classical to develop something different and functional. Decorative windows allowed for more internal lights and use of other decorative designs such as gargoyles in a functional manner was impressive.
In conclusion this paper compared the architecture of Classical Greek temple such as the Parthenon and medieval Gothic cathedral Amiens cathedrals. The paper will also included the date each structure was built, the main purpose it was built and the type of architecture. The major architectural innovations in each style and the obvious symbolism of each style was also included.. * * *

References

Amiens Cathedral (cathedral, Amiens, France)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Gothic Art. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

"The Parthenon." Parthenon. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013.

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