Free Essay

Art of Reasoning

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By gladiator2610
Words 3026
Pages 13
Judgment and Decision Making

A 100 minute course in logic and critical evaluation Power
How managers influence others
Kipnis & Schmidt 1983

#1 Strategy was Reason
Strategies of organizational influence
Behaviour
Strategy

Reason

P
O
P
U
L
A
R
I
T
Y

Use of facts and data to support development of logical argument

Coalition

Mobilization of other people in the organization Ingratiation

Use of impression management, flattery, and creation of goodwill

Bargaining

Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favours

Use of a direct and forceful approach Gaining support of higher levels in
Higher authority the organization to backup request
Assertiveness

Sanctions

Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments

GOOD ARGUMENT

“ arguments are at the heart of the power model and their quality is critical to their acceptance ”
Parkin, page 205

REASONED ARGUMENT MUST BE LOGICAL

FA
LL
AC
IES

FALLACIE
S

FALLACIES
ES
FALLACI
Common errors in logic

Over
Generalisation

Begging the Question

Getting
Personal

Undefined
Terms

False

Non-sequitur

Appeal to

Emotive

Cause- Effect

(It does not Follow)

the Crowd

Language

False Reasoning

False Dilemma

Appeal to

Composition/

Authority

Division

from Analogy
Complex
Questions
Arguments
from Ignorance

Appeal to
Sympathy

Common Errors in Logic

Over
Generalisation

False
Cause- Effect

False Reasoning from Analogy

As a member of this masters program you must have a degree

Over
Generalisation

False
Cause- Effect

Mary is an
Engineer

False Reasoning from Analogy

She must be struggling financially

Over
Generalisation

False
Cause- Effect

False Reasoning

Recent research has
Recent research has shown that many shown that many students who watch TV students who watch TV for more than 4 hours for more than 4 hours each day get low marks each day get low marks

from Analogy

Watch TV and Fail

Over
Generalisation

.

False
Cause- Effect

False Reasoning from Analogy

Spiders hear with their legs

Over
Generalisation

False

Factories have piped music to reduce stress

Cause- Effect

False Reasoning from Analogy

Student should be allowed to play ghetto blasters during lectures

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur
(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

To allow every man unbound freedom of speech must always be, on the whole, advantageous to the state; for it is highly conducive to the interests of the community that each individual should enjoy a liberty, perfectly unlimited, of expressing his sentiments.
……………… R Whatley 1862

Premise: individual self expression is good for community therefore it is good for state.

Begging the Question

In that direction, the Cat said, lives a Hatter; and in that direction lives a March Hare … They re both mad. Non-sequitur

But I don t want to go among mad people, Alice remarked.

(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

Oh you can t help that, said the Cat,
We re all Mad here. I m mad.
You re mad.
How do you know I m mad? said
Alice.
You must be, said the Cat, or you wouldn t come here.
………… Lewis Carrol

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur
(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Alice is mad

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

Premise: Everyone here is mad.
You re here, therefore you re mad.

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur
(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

$

Money is the root of all evil because it is the cause of all human misery and unhappiness

Premise: Money causes unhappiness, therefore money is evil.

Proposition: The opposite sex (OS) is evil
Proof :

OS requires time (T) and money (M)
OS = T X M
As we all know Time is Money
T=M
OS = M X M
= M2
Money is the root of all evil
M=

Evil

OS = (

Evil )

OS =

Evil

2

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur

The whole of
Australia was tired of Paul Keating

(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

John Howard was a certainty Begging the Question

Non-sequitur

Its no wonder that educational standards are slipping

(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

Academics are either anti-intellectual authoritarians or disorganised and ineffective

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur

Have you given up cheating in exams

(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

?

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur
(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

Why is private sector administration of public utilities and services more efficient than that of the public service

?

Begging the Question

Non-sequitur

Intellegent life outside our solar system does not exist

(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

NO ONE has ever been able to provide any evidence of its existence

Arthur C Clark eminent physicist
Begging
the Question

Non-sequitur
(It does not Follow)

False Dilemma

Complex
Questions
Arguments from Ignorance

and science fiction author

“ B ehind every man

now alive stands thirty ghosts, for that is the ratio by which the dead outnumber the living. Since the dawn of time a hundred billion human beings have walked the planet earth. ”

Now this is an interesting number …………..

For by a curious coincidence there are approximately a hundred billion stars in our local universe, the milky way …….

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to

Scumbag !
You have no right to comment on Australian government policy – your company is registered in Bermuda

Authority
Appeal to
Sympathy

You can t believe her views on the importance of University education.
She s an academic.

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to

We are a country of sporting champions
…… we must spend adequate money on sporting scholarships Authority
Appeal to
Sympathy

My parents were battlers ….. as a kid I had to go to school in second hand uniforms

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to
Authority
Appeal to
Sympathy

He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept;
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious
And Brutus is an honourable man.

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to

e in Em

Authority

Appeal to
Sympathy

hy tp n

st ci si

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to
Authority

Three out of four dentists agree …

Appeal to
Sympathy

Australia s greatest Prime Minister
Sir Robert Menzies believed ….

Getting
Personal

Appeal to the Crowd

Appeal to
Authority
Appeal to
Sympathy

I deserve this job, I am supporting a young family
Please accept my late assignment
My computer broke down

Inclined to find fault Undefined
Terms

Emotive
Language

Composition/
Division

Judgements on merits and faults
Judgements on suitability or quality

I am not convinced by your muddleheaded thinking.

Undefined
Terms

Emotive
Language

Composition/

That horrible chauvinistic pig will not consider my views.

Division

This group is exceptionally attentive

Undefined
Terms

Emotive
Language

I am confident
Joseph Chan

Is a very conscientious student

Composition/
Division

Over
Generalisation

Begging the Question

Getting
Personal

Undefined
Terms

False

Non-sequitur

Appeal to

Emotive

Cause- Effect

(It does not Follow)

the Crowd

Language

False Reasoning

False Dilemma

Appeal to

Composition/

Authority

Division

from Analogy
Complex
Questions
Arguments
from Ignorance

Appeal to
Sympathy

Common Errors in Logic

How to structure sound argument

(Toulmin, 1969)

Data
The
top level facts Warrant
Statement

Questions
/Doubts

Grounds or Basis for your conclusion The opposing arguments

Factual
Backing
More detailed facts

Possible
Rebuttals

Claim

Example
A “Claim”
Immediately proceed with an increase in runway length
Toumlin’s whole argument process is embedded in this seemingly simple paragraph
The consultant’s report indicates that a 20% increase in runway length would extend the capacity of the airport by five years.
Since it will take about six years to build a new airport out of the city, according to the latest Agency report, it would seem sensible provided the technical audit of the consultants report does not contradict its conclusions, to immediately proceed with the increase in runway length

Data

Warrant
Statement

Questions/
Doubts

The consultant’s report indicates that a 20% increase in runway length would extend the capacity of the airport by five years. Since it will take about six years to build a new airport out of the city,

it would seem sensible

Factual
Backing
according to the latest
Agency
report,

Possible
Rebuttals
provided the technical audit of the consultants report does not contradict its conclusions, Claim

to immediately proceed with the increase in runway length Some more examples of lack of logic … … ..

There are fewer than two million unemployed according to recent labour statistics
…. Commentator 1
No, there are over four times that number unemployed. The department of census and statistics report shows that out of a total population of
18 million only six million are employed
…. Commentator 2

The March Hare :
Then you should say what you mean.
Alice :
I do. At least – at least I mean what I say
…. That s the same thing, you know.

At least – at least I mean what I say

At least – at least I mean what I say

At least – at least I mean what I say

"Your food stamps will be stopped effective March 1992 because we received notice that you passed away.
May God bless you. You may reapply if there is a change in your circumstances."
Department of Social Services,
Greenville, South Carolina

At least – at least I mean what I say

At least – at least I mean what I say

At least – at least I mean what I say

If we don't succeed, we run the risk of failure.
Bill Clinton,
Former US President

"It's no exaggeration to say that the undecided could go one way or another
George Bush,
US President

At least – at least I mean what I say

Feeling Smarter ?

The Media

Media - social amplification
Media Coverage

EVENT

• Number of News Stories
• Duration of Coverage
• Half-Life of Coverage

Physical Consequences
Human
• Extent of Exposure
• Casualties

Societal Impacts
• Socio-economic Impacts
• Political Effects

Nonhuman
• Area Affected
• Magnitude of Damage

Risk Perception
• Dread
• Managerial Incompetence
• Future Risk
• Blame

Public Response
Individual
• Follow-up Desire
• Political Involvement
• Intended Actions
Social
• Potential for Group Mobilisation

Published After the death of the Queen Mother in
The Sydney Morning Herald 2 April 2000

Queen Mum Not All She Was made Out to Be
“…. The Queen Mother was just as flawed as her husband in assessing Hitler. As Andrew Roberts points out in his biography of Lord Halifax, titled The Holy Fox in November 1939 she sent Halifax a copy of Hitler’s
Mein Kampf. In her accompanying letter, the Queen
Mother made reference to Hitler’s ‘obvious sincerity’.
Really. ….. ”

What Andrew Roberts actually wrote :
In November 1939, the Queen sent him a copy with the message, ‘I send you Mein Kampf, but do not advise you to read it through, or you might go mad and that would be a pity. Even a skip through gives one a good idea of his mentality, ignorance and obvious sincerity.’

Source :
THE ELECTRONIC WHOREHOU$E
PAUL SHEEHAN (2003)

John Filo’s Pulitzer Prize winning photograph
Kent State University May 4 1970

Original Photograph
Valley Daily News 1970

John Filo’s Pulitzer Prize winning photograph
Kent State University May 4 1970

Published

Time 1972
People 1977
Time 1980
People 1990
Life 1995

Original Photograph
Valley Daily News 1970

The three images that helped sway public opinion against the war in Vietnam

Huynh Cong “Nick” Ut
Photographer

Eddie Adams

June 8, 1972

Photographer

February 1, 1968

Hubert Van Es
Photographer

April 29, 1975

Suspected NLF officer Nguyen Van Lem, executed by General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, a South Vietnamese National Police Chief

Photographer Eddie Adams won a 1969 Pulitzer Prize

.. two Vietnamese soldiers pulled a prisoner out of a doorway at the end of the street ….

Adams :
'I just followed the three of them as they walked towards us, making an occasional picture
I saw a man walk into my camera viewfinder from the left.
He took a pistol out of his holster and raised it.

Adams :
I had no idea he would shoot. It was common to hold a pistol to the head of prisoners during questioning. So I prepared to make that picture - the threat, the interrogation. But it didn't happen. The man just pulled a pistol out of his holster, raised it to the VC's head and shot him in the temple.

Photographs do not necessarily tell the whole story
Leslie Cullen
Military history professor, Texas Tech University
Speciality: Vietnam War
The man summarily executed was involved in killing a policeman and his family.
"Not that such a thing was justified, but people had the impression from press reports that this guy was killing him just to be killing him,"

The editorial cropping of the photograph may influence the understanding

South Vietnamese sources say:
Lem commanded a Viet Cong assassination platoon, which that day had targeted South Vietnamese National
Police officers, or their families
Lem was captured near a ditch holding as many as thirty-four bound and shot bodies of police and their relatives, some of which were the family of Loan's deputy and close friend
(In some accounts, the deputy was a victim; in others, the number of murdered relatives is as few as six)
Lem's widow confirmed that he was a member of the Viet Cong

Adams confirmed the
South Vietnamese account
(although he was only present at the execution)

Adams felt that his photograph unfairly maligned Loan

The execution violated the
Geneva Convention norms

Despite his notoriety,
U.S. commanders and newsmen who knew Loan respected him for his bravery and determination

During the "Mini-Tet" Offensive in May 1968
Brig. Gen. Loan led a charge of South Vietnamese troops across a bridge when a machine gun ripped his leg off. He died in the USA age 68

June 8, 1972
An aircraft accidentally dropped its napalm payload on the village of Trang Bang
A screaming girl runs down a road after napalm had burned off her clothing Another Pulitzer Prize winning image

Phan Thi Kim Phuc spent 14 months recovering from her wounds and underwent 17 transplants and other operations Two of Kim Phuc 's six brothers (aged
9 months, and 3 years) and two cousins were killed

The photograph prompted much discussion about who was responsible for dropping the bomb

But that seems to miss the point ….

The photograph prompted much discussion about who was responsible for dropping the bombs

But that seems to miss the point ….
The photograph tells the story of the pain and suffering that war brings

Kim Phuc became an anti-war symbol in the West
Vietnam used Kim
Phuc as an antiAmerican symbol before her defection to
Canada in 1992

Hubert Van Es
A freelance photographer of the Vietnam War
April 29, 1975

“ Thirty years ago I was fortunate enough to take a photograph that has become perhaps the most recognizable image of the fall of
Saigon”

April 23, 2000

….most people believed that it showed desperate
Americans crowding on to the roof of the US
Embassy to board a helicopter.
That is what the picture caption usually says.
But …. the building is an apartment complex. the people fleeing are Vietnamese. the last helicopter left about 12 hours later.

Hubert Van Es
22 Gia Long Street

For the caption, I wrote very clearly that the helicopter was taking evacuees off the roof of a downtown Saigon building.
This mistake has been carried on in the form of incorrect captions for decades.

The United States Embassy

The human cost is rarely mentioned

It is estimated that :

3,000,000 Vietnamese
58,000 American troops died in the war

A different war
March 21, 2003

Iraq

Photographer Brian Walski was dismissed when the composite was discovered

Neither original has the emotional content of the composite

A different photograph
Some
judicious cropping In recent times there has been a glorification of the technology of war But ….
The
human side remains the same

WMD

Aeschylus
Greek tragic dramatist
(525 BC - 456 BC)

In war, truth is the first casualty

John Kerry April 22 1971 testifying before a congressional committee

“ Several months ago …150 honourably discharged, many highly decorated, veterans
. . testified to war crimes in South-east Asia.
They told stories that, at times, they had personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads
… .… ”

“3 MAY” Artist: FRANCISCO GOYA
Execution without trial of 80 Spanish patriots by French troops on outskirts of Madrid 1808

The symbolism within the painting

GOYA a Spanish artist made a series of 85 etchings and paintings depicting the atrocities of both sides during the Spanish uprising against Napoleon that began in 1808

His message: the brutality, the abandonment of moral values & the meaninglessness of war

A truth that cuts across all the propaganda

Ordinary people under the extraordinary pressures of war are capable of terrible things

The human side remains the same

Abu Ghraib

O J Simpson

The victims

“…..the discovery of two savagely mutilated bodies would spawn a series of events that would obsess the
American and world
O J Simpson media, … …. and, perhaps most importantly of all, change the way people looked at race in
America.”
Thomas L. Jones

O J Simpson

Original Photograph

Published cover

Original Photograph

Does it matter ?

John Filo’s Pulitzer Prize winning photograph
Kent State University May 4 1970

Published

Time 1972
People 1977
Time 1980
People 1990
Life 1995

Original Photograph
Valley Daily News 1970

1992

2002

Does it matter ?

“… half the population thinks there is something wrong with their bodies” David Ben-Tovin
Epidemiologist & Psychiatry Professor
Flinders Medical Centre

The horror of an act of unambiguous evil

11 September 2001
About 3,000 people died of an act of terror

11 September 2001 about 3,000 people died of an act of terror

11 September 2001 about 3,000 people died of an act of terror
24,000 people died of hunger *
6,200 children died of diarrhoea *
2,700 children died of measles *
1,411 women died in pregnancy or childbirth *
37,511
* based on annual rate

The end

……. or the beginning ?

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...audience responses and results. Most authors have a targeted reading audience in mind. An audience might change their views as a conclusion and will mediate change or act in a new way. The author creates an argument to convince a particular audience. The text is the argument. Whether it is written, visual, or spoken, the text will have characteristics you can analyze. The end or conclusion either summarizes by restating important points or concludes by emphasizing the most important point, whatever it is that the author wants you to accept, remember, believe or agree. A Bare Bones Guide to Persuasive Writing The audience of this article is interested in the art of persuasive writing as told by the author Rod Baird. The Author’s purpose is to show how the art of persuasion is more like the art of debate. The reasoning for this is because one can begin by stating their opinion and then show evidence to support it. The author goes as far to point out eight helpful techniques that will help you come up with an effective argument in your persuasive writing. Personal appeal, tone, precision, concession, rebuttal, logic, authority and rhetorical question are the eight techniques. The article gives an example of a persuasive writing that came in the form of a letter to a school principal. The persuasive letter is intended to convince the Principal that the school needs up to date software. The audience is obviously the principal. The purpose is to convince the principal to......

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...demonstration, since we are most fully persuaded when we consider a thing to have been demonstrated. Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question. MYTHOS: a set of beliefs or assumptions about something. LOGOS: Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing. Who was THALES? Was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. What separated Thales from others? Empedocles Compare Logos versus mythos: The Greek words from which our English words “logical” and “mythical” have been derived, logos and mythos. Both Greek words can be translated as......

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