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Arunachal Pradesh

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Arunachal Pradesh /ˌɑrəˌnɑːtʃəl prəˈdɛʃ/ is one of the 29 states of India. Located in northeast India it holds the most northeastern position among the other northeast states. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west,Myanmar in the east and the People's Republic of China in the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state. China and ROC claim most of the state as part ofTibet and call the disputed area South Tibet.[2]
Arunachal Pradesh, which translates to "land of the dawn-lit mountains",[3] is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest among the North-east Indian states commonly known as the Seven Sister States. As in other parts of Northeast India, the people native to the state trace their origins from the Tibeto-Burman people. A large number of migrants from various parts of India and foreign lands have and have been affecting the state's population.
No reliable population count of the migrant population exists, and the percentage estimating the total actual population accordingly vary. Arunachal Pradesh has the highest number of regional languages in South Asia[4] enriched with diverse culture and traditions.
[hide] * 1 History * 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Drawing of McMahon line * 1.3 Sino-Indian War * 1.3.1 Tawang * 1.4 Current Status * 2 Geography * 2.1 Climate * 3 Districts * 4 Economy * 5 Tourism * 6 Languages * 7 Demographics * 8 Transport * 8.1 Air * 8.2 Roads * 8.3 Railway * 9 Education * 10 State symbols * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links
Early history[edit]
The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burmanstock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.
From the same perspective the most unusual Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is called "tasey" or "taase" made from sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered a Tibeto-Burman population, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past.
According to the Arunachal Pradesh government, the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishna married his consortRukmini.[5]
Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom chronicles of the 16th century. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, came under the titular control of the Ahom and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in 1947.
Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang are somewhat automatically associated with the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh, inasmuch as they fall within its modern-day political borders. However, such temples are generally south-facing, never occur more than a few kilometres from the Assam plains area, and are perhaps more likely to have been associated with Assam plains-based rather than indigenous Arunachali populations. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in pre-historical times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.[6] Major tribe of Arunachal Pradesh Nyishi,Apatani, Galo, Adi, Monpa, Mishmi, Shingpo, Khamti, Serdukpen,nocte,
Drawing of McMahon line[edit]

British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border (eastern section on the top right)
In 1913–1914 representatives of China, Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord.[7] This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line and Tibet ceded Tawangand other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet; however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. Thus, the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out.[citation needed]The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview.[8] The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China, so Tibet could not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.[9]
Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. However, this agreement (Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921. However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet, the line had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention, therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935, when civil service officer Olaf Caroe called attention to this issue. TheSurvey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937.[citation needed] In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of North-East Frontier Agency. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area, from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. Tibet, however, altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line.[10] The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in 1949. In November 1950, with the PRC poised to take over Tibet, India unilaterally declared that the McMahon Line is the boundary—and, in 1951, forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area.[11][12] The PRC has never recognised the McMahon Line, and claims Tawang on behalf of Tibetans.[13] The 14th Dalai Lama, who led the Tibetan government from 1950 to 1959, was quoted in 2003 as saying that Tawang was "actually part of the Tibetan administration" before the Simla Accord.[14] He clarified his position in 2008, saying that as far as Tibet was concerned "Tawang is part of India".[14] According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India-China war, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) already occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew, accepting the current international boundary.[15]
Sino-Indian War[edit]
Main article: Sino-Indian War
The NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was created in 1955. The issue was quiet for nearly a decade, a period of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but the re-emergence of the issue was a major cause of the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured most area of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China soon declared victory, voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. The war resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.[16]
In recent years, PR China has occasionally made statements in conjunction with its 'claims' on Tawang. India has rebutted these claims by Chinese government and the Indian prime minister has informed the Chinese government that Tawang is an integral part of India. He repeated this to the Chinese prime minister when the two prime ministers met in Thailand in October 2009.
China objected to the visit of the Dalai Lama to Tawang in November 2009 though the Dalai Lama had previously visited Tawang several times since he left Tibet in 1959. India rejected the Chinese objection and said that the Dalai Lama is an honoured guest in India and could visit any place in India. The Dalai Lama visited Tawang on 8 November 2009. About 30,000 people including those from neighbouring countries, Nepal and Bhutan, attended his religious discourse.[17]
He was received and welcomed by the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh and the people of Arunachal Pradesh. The residents of Tawang painted their houses and decorated the town.[18]
Current Status[edit]
NEFA was renamed on 20 January 1972 and became the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh became a state on 20 February 1987.
More recently, Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts ofChanglang and Tirap.[19] There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extorting protection money.[20]
Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region. Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam.

A lake at Sela on the way to Tawang in West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh.

The Himalayas bordering Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has 83,743 square kilometre area.
Most of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan ranges running north south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpa in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.
At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.
The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.[21]
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. Areas that are at a very high elevation in the Upper Himalaya close to the Tibetan border have an alpine ortundra climate. Below the Upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub-Himalayan and sea-level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.
Arunachal Pradesh receives heavy rainfall of 2,000 to 4,100 millimetres (79 to 161 in) annually, most of it between May and September. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple, fir, and juniper; sal (Shorea robusta) and teak are the main economically valuable species.
Main article: Districts of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is divided into seventeen districts, each administered by a district collector. The districts are: * Tirap District * Changlang District * Lohit District * Anjaw District * Lower Dibang Valley * Dibang Valley * East Siang * West Siang * Upper Siang * Lower Subansiri * Upper Subansiri * Kurung Kumey * Papum Pare * East Kameng * West Kameng * Tawang District * Longding District
The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in billions of Indian Rupees. See also List of Indian states by GDP. Year | Gross Domestic Product (Billion INR) | 1980 | 1.070 | 1985 | 2.690 | 1990 | 5.080 | 1995 | 11.840 | 2000 | 17.830 | 2005 | 31.880 | 2010 | 65.210 | 2011 | 82.330 | 2012 | 93.570 |
Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product was estimated at US$706 million at current prices in 2004 and USD 1.75 billion at current prices in 2012. Agriculture primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local word for a shifting cultivation widely practised among the tribal groups, is now less practised. Arunachal Pradesh has close to 61,000 square kilometres of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law.[22]
Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage of India's untapped potential of producing hydroelectric power. In 2008, the government of Arunachal Pradesh state signed deals with various companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW.[23] Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 to 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.[24]
Tourist attractions include Tawang (a town with a Buddhist monastery) at 3000 m elevation, Ziro (which holds cultural festivals),Basar, the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake nearBomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place where Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife in Hindu mythology, is said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district as Puranas is the the lake where sage Parshuram washed away his sins ,[25] The Ganga lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi)and various other tourist hot spots.
The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Rafting and trekking are common activities. Some suggested routes for travel or trekking are * Tezpur–Tipi–Bomdila-Tawang-se la pass * Tinsukia–Tezu-Parasuramkund * Margherita–Miao-Namdapha * Itanagar–Ziro-Daporijo–Along (or Aalo)–Pasighat.
Over the years, the Jawaharlal Nehru Museum, Itanagar has become an important tourist destination in the state capital.[26][27]
The state is rich in wildlife and has a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks with rare animals, birds and plants. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India is in Arunachal Pradesh (200+ species).[28] The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.[29]
Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions—for example, Apatani and Nyishi are tribally and linguistically distinct—but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture—for example, Galo is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.

Apatani tribal women
The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Tani. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) Nyishi/Nishi,Apatani, Bangni, Tagin, Hill Miri, Galo, Bokar, Lower Adi (Padam, Pasi, Minyong, and Komkar), Upper Adi (Bori (ADI), Aashing, Shimong, Karko and Milang;). Only Mising, among Tani languages, is primarily spoken outside Arunachal Pradesh in modern-day Assam, while a handful of northern Tani languages including Bangni and Bokar are spoken in small numbers in Tibet. Tani languages are noticeably characterised by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region.

Aka Tribe of West Kameng
To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman, Idu, Digaru and Miju. A number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Burma, and theNocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain "Naga" languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland.
To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages are found in neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions.
Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which, speculatively considered Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Koro, Miji, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print.
Finally, there is an unknown number of Tibeto-Burman languages of Nepal-area origin spoken in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh, including Gurung and Tamang; not classified as "tribal" in the Arunachali context, such languages generally go unrecognised, while their speakers are largely viewed as itinerant "Nepalis". An unknown number of Tibetan dialects are similarly spoken by recent migrants from Tibet, although they are not generally recognised or classified as tribal or indigenous.
Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh a single representative of the Tai language family, namely the Khamti language, which is closely affiliated to the Shan dialects of northern Burma; seemingly, Khamti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates from 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Burma. In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially Hindi are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system—in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India—a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi as its mother tongue. Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic diversity of the region, English is the only official language recognised in the state.
Main article: Demographics of Arunachal Pradesh

Children in Bomdila, Arunachal Pradesh [show]Population Growth |
Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Burma, and the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Burma. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetic Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.
Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include the Nishi, which many people have recently come to apply to encompass Bangni, Tagin, and even Hills Miri. Apatani also live among the Nishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramoand Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong and Bokar, among others.Milang, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.
Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachali tribes. They follow the Theravada∞ sect of Buddhism. They also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma.Besides, the Nocte and Wancho exhibit cultural and possibly also linguistic affinities to the tribes of Nagaland, which they border.And finally,The Deori tribe is also a major community of the state who has a distinctive identity of their own.In fact,the Deoris are one of the only tribes of Arunachal Pradesh who have the privileged to be in the historical records which shows they are among the very first ethnic groups who inabited the mighty Himalayas of the districts of Dibang Valley and Lohit, before the arrival of other many tribes in the state between 1600AD - 1900AD .The ruined town of Bhismaknagar and Taameshwari temple are well documented by ASI to give a light about the history of Deori people.
In addition, there are large numbers of migrants from diverse areas of India and Bangladesh, who, while legally not entitled to settle permanently, in practice stay indefinitely, progressively altering the traditional demographic makeup of the state.[citation needed] Finally, populations of "Nepalis" (in fact, usually Tibeto-Burman tribespeople whose tribes predominate in areas of Nepal, but who do not have tribal status in India) and Chakmas are distributed in different areas of the state (although reliable figures are hard to come by).

Buddhism is practised by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.
Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74% in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. The number of literate males is 454,532 (73.69%) and the number of literate females is 335,411 (59.57%).[31]
An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are animist, and follow shamanistic-animistic religious traditions such as Donyi-Polo (in the Tani area) and Rangfrah (further east). A small number of Arunachali peoples have traditionally identified as Hindus, although the number is growing as animist traditions are merged with Hindu traditions. Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet.Theravada Buddhism is practised by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 19% of the population are followers of the Christian faith,[32] and this percentage is probably growing due to Christian missionary activities in the area.
According to the 2001 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal Pradesh break down as follows:[33] * Hindu: 379,935 (34.6%) * Others (mostly Donyi-Polo): 337,399 (30.7%) * Christian: 205,548 (18.7%) * Buddhist: 143,028 (13.0%) * Muslim: 20,675 (1.9%) * Sikh: 1,865 (0.1%) * Jain: 216 (<0.1%) Religion in Arunachal Pradesh | Religion | | | Percent | | Hinduism | | 34.6% | Others (mostly Donyi-Polo) | | 30.7% | Christianity | | 18.7% | Buddhism | | 13.0% | Islam | | 1.9% | Sikhism | | 0.1% | Jainism | | 0.1% |
A law has been enacted to protect the indigenous religions (e.g., Donyi-Poloism, Buddhism) in Arunanchal Pradesh against the spread of other religions, though no comparable law exists to protect the other religions.
Out of the 705,158 tribals living in Arunachal, 333,102 are Animist (47.24%), 186,617 are Christian (26.46%), 92,577 are Hindu (13.13%), and 82,634 are Buddhist (11.72%).
Out of the 101 recognised tribes, 37 have an animist majority (Nissi, Adi Gallong, Tagin, Adi Minyong, Adi, Apatani.etc.), 23 have a Christian majority (Wancho,Mossang Tangsa, Bori, Yobin.etc.), 15 have a Hindu majority (Mishmi, Mishing/Miri, Deori, Aka, Longchang Tangsa.etc.) and 17 have a Buddhist majority (Monpa, Khampti, Tawang Monpa, Momba, Singpho, Sherdukpen.etc.). The remaining eight tribes are multi-faith, i.e., they do not have a dominant religion (Nocte, Tangsa, Naga.etc.).[34]

Switchbacks in the Himalayas
The state's airports are Daporijo Airport, Ziro Airport, Along Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport. However, owing to the rough terrain, these airports are small and are not in operation. Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food. A green-field airport serving Itanagar is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion.[35]
Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak,[36] and another highway, which connectsTezpur in Assam with Tawang.[37] As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and social reasons it may take another decade.
Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 when the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkong Selak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh is commissioned. The construction of the 33 km long 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway link was completed in 2012, and the link will become operational when the gauge conversion of the main line under Project Unigauge is commissioned. The state capital Itanagar was added to the Indian railway map thru newly built 20-km Harmuti-Naharlagun railway line. [38]
Main article: Education in Arunachal Pradesh
See also: List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh
The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra, leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. The main universities are the Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University) and Himalayan University[39] as well, together with nine affiliated Government Colleges as well as four private colleges. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964. There is also a deemed university, the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology as well as the National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, established on 18 August 2010, is located in Yupia (headquarter of Itanagar).[40] NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.
There are also trust institutes like Pali Vidyapith run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh that has its own script. Libraries of scriptures are in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one being in Chowkham.
The state has two polytechnic institutes: Rajiv Gandhi Government Polytechnic in Itanagar established in 2002 and Tomi Polytechnic College in Basar established in 2006. There is one law college called Arunachal Law Academy at Itanagar. The College of Horticulture and Forestry is affiliated to the Central Agriculture University, Imphal.
State symbols[edit] State Bird | State Flower | State Animal | State Tree | Hornbill | Foxtail Orchid | Gayal | Hollong |

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India China Land Dispute undoubtedly the basic characteristic of a state and the one most widely accepted and understood. A number of legal interests are capable of existing over land and the possibility exists of dividing ownership into different segments. Disputes as to territory in international law may be divided into different categories. Therefore, claims to territory may be based on a number of different grounds, ranging from the traditional method of occupation or prescription to the newer concepts such as self-determination, with various political and legal factors, for example, geographical contiguity, historical demands and economic elements, possibly being relevant. The continuing border-dispute between China and India is a puzzle for many. Arunachal Pradesh, in the Northeast area of India, is territory that is disputed by the two countries. The area around this state is extremely diverse, with many different ethnic groups and identities. It is an extremely strategic area for India. Despite six decades of attempts at resolution, the dispute persists in the face of official booming trade relations between the two rising giants. The paper tries to find out different grounds on which the respective states claim the territory and the relevance of such grounds in the International community. The author also discusses the scope of ICJ in this matter. Under Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice (Statute), when deciding cases “in accordance with international......

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...Review of: Barua, Sanjib (2003), “Confronting Constructionism: Ending India’s Naga War,” Journal of Peace Research, 40(3): 321-338. Barua asks Nagas and all other ethno-nationalities to face the constructedness of their identities. He decries the homeland model, on the grounds that it perpetuates a politics of exclusivism and expulsion. Barua worries for Manipur should the Nagas integrate into a unified Nagaland, Nagalim. India should not change boundaries. There is tension between constructivist understanding of identities among most contemporary theorists and the practice of nationalists or ethnic activists who engage in the construction of such identities (Suny 2001, cited in Barua 2003: 323). The Naga project is a disastrous road to ethnic violence unless Nagas confront their constructedness (2003: 324). He engages with Nagas who are pro-India as well as “independentist” Nagas and admit they both share the goal Naga unification. It is obviously Barua’s intention to provide a fillip to the faltering India-Nagaland peace process coming through the August 1997 ceasefire. He wrote this in 2003, soon after India recognised the “uniqueness of the Naga history and situation”. Barua recognises that the politics of recognition is an underlying theme. The notion of bounded collectivities living in national homelands relies on a very different spatial discourse from the one of “overlapping frontiers and hierarchical politics” that preceded it. Saving the India-Naga peace......

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