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NEED OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AT INTERMEDIATE LEVEL IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR

By

Malik Nouman Waris

This report is being submitted to the Department of Secondary Education, Faculty of Education,
Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad for partial fulfillment of the condition of the
Master of Education

[pic]

M. Ed Research
Academic Session 2011-2012

Department of Secondary Teacher Education, Faculty of Education

Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Background:

According to his definitions:
“Guidance is nothing but to assist the individual to choose a vocation, to prepare for it, and to attain efficiency progress.” (Chuhan S. S, 2001)

When an individual steps into the practical life, he has to face series of problems and inconveniences in various aspects of his life. There are his physical, emotional, mental and social problems. Guidance is just assisting the individual in various activities of his life—vocational, educational, mental and social. The individual is assisted in the lights of his inborn tendencies, natural potentialities and personal capacities.

Actually Guidance is as old as the humanity itself. It existed from the time immemorial. Individual was born with innumerable problems. Even in the primitive and medieval society, the parents used to solve the problems of their children. With the simplicity of society the problems were simple, but now in a modern complex and technological society the problems have multiplied.

However, though it existed from the time immemorial, yet we can have a review of its progress from the last five decades. In that period it was not an organized activity. It was only in the first decade of 20th century that it became a purposeful and distinctive activity.

Between the year 1910 and 1920 it so happened that the lower strata of society - people half-clothed, and living in broken home, received the attention of benevolent philanthropists (crow, 1960), and kind- hearted people.

These humanitarians determined to help the poor people, not enjoying the fruits of life. Their incessant and indefatigable efforts resulted in various forms of organization and experiments – the most famous of which originated at BOSTON (Moser, 19 ). This experiment was sponsored by a wealthy philanthropist Mrs. Quincy A. Shah and was directed by frank Parson, who is called as a renowned father of Vocational Guidance. The primary aim was to help and assist the individual in choosing a vocation according to his abilities, interests and natural inclinations.
After that the Federal Government of America took into her hands and showed keen interest for it. This resulted in the set up of famous association called “N.V.G.A.”(National Vocational Guidance Association) in 1913 (crow, 1960), the war psychological department in the United State (Blair, James and sainpson, 1962), to this movement, gave greater push. They felt the need to select suitable persons for Navy and Force etc: and so applied many achievement and aptitude tests for the purpose. In World War II, thousands of invalid and wounded soldiers were provided suitable jobs according to their abilities and capacities.

As the time passed on, the educationists thought that it is not only the vocation in which Guidance is needed but several other aspects of life – educational social, personal and so on. From thenceforth it trickled down in educational and other various fields of life.

With the passage of time, institution had been set up and it became and integral part of academic life of the students in various countries.

Therefore situation in Pakistan very lately a number of guidance clinics and centers have been established in various cities (national education policy and implementation program, 1978-83) e.g. Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.

Regular guidance services are now available in Lahore at the following guidance organization. • The child guidance Clinic, Government College of Education for Men, Lahore. • The Child Guidance Center, Government College of Education for Women, Lahore. • The psychological Clinic, Government College Lahore.

The commission on National Education highlighted the necessity of providing adequate guidance and counseling services to student at various stages of their development. In 1960 the Government appointed a committee of experts guidance workers in order to suggest suitable measures to implement the recommendations of the Educational Commission in the field of guidance (national commission for education for education, 1960). Accordingly, an elaborated plan for the introduction of guidance services in all educational institutions was prepared and implemented.

While the problem of individuals who are highly educated yet unemployed can be found around the world, but the situation in Pakistan is worse. In 1994, nearly half of the unemployed in Pakistan were educated. This form of unemployment is not only expensive; since it wastes valuable education it is also socially disruptive. Guideless but educated youth often become hopeless for any kind of future in Pakistan, or in a growing number of cases, become part of the brain drain and leave for countries in industrialized nations where there are more employment opportunities.

Part of the problem is the lack of emphasis on proper guidance and counseling and too much stress on abstract knowledge. In Pakistan, about 323,000 students (yespakistan.com, 2012) pass the matriculation exam yearly. Out of these students, it is estimated that over half will choose post-secondary education and only 20 percent (yespakistan.com, 2012) will seek vocational training or business education.

There is no career counseling and guidance provided to youth, so that trained experts cannot share their knowledge and helps steer the next generation to fields that will benefit them and the country.

Statement of Problems:

The students in Pakistan when reach intermediate level remain unable to decide suitable field for his future or discover their callings. That’s why irrelevant people are adjusted at various positions that they are not eligible for.

Objective of the Study:

• To find out whether the guidance and counseling services are present in Boys intermediate colleges in Peshawar. • To explore the possibility of introducing guidance and counseling services in the existing system of colleges at intermediate level in Peshawar • To identify suitable, qualified and trained teachers for guidance and counseling services in boys colleges at intermediate level in Peshawar. • To know the nature of problems faced by the students in intermediate level. • To give recommendations for introducing such services in boys Government and Private intermediate colleges in Peshawar.

Hypothesis:

• Guidance and counseling services are not present at Intermediate colleges in Peshawar. • There is possibility to introduce Guidance and counseling at intermediate colleges in Peshawar. • Students are often confused to select career except Medical & Engineering. • Students are unable to know their callings.

Significance:

It will help the students to choose appropriate field for their future. It will also help the teachers to understand and guide the students according to their skills and abilities.

Assumptions:

Guidance programme is the process of helping and assisting each and every individual as member of group to make wise and suitable choices for better adjustment.

The following factors constitute needs for Guidance:

• Inter-personal and intra-personal differences in students. • Situations occur when as individual is in need of assistance in his educational, vocational, social, emotional and economic affairs. • Moreover complexities of society and the human mind also emphasize need for guidance. • Utilization of individual’s latent potentialities and innate tendencies to the fullest extent make guidance imperative.

Delimitations:

In view of the short time and limited resources at the disposal of investigators, this study is confined to;

• Local Boys of Intermediate level of Peshawar • Only the 11th and 12th class students have been included in the study for research. • Only the 11th and 12th class teachers of each College have been involved in the study. • So this study is further limited to exploring needs and present facilities of guidance services prevalent in the Boy’s at intermediate level of Peshawar.

Methodology:

Every research work involves various stages of development before its completion. After detailed discussion, the Topic for research was finalized under the Guidance of supervisor.

Preparation of Questionnaire involved the process of selection, addition and elimination of questions. Only those questions were retained which were conducive to research Topic.

Population:

The area of research is District Peshawar. There are 169 colleges (BISE gazette, 2012) are working at intermediate level and approximately more then 1600 teachers are working to spread the education among the 18050 students (BISE gazette, 2012) at various institutions.

Sample & Sample Technique:

Random sampling will be used as a technique to collect the data form selected 10 intermediate colleges, 20 students and 05 teachers from each college.

Research Design:

This will be a descriptive research. Descriptive research describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Descriptive research is unique in the number of variables employed. Like other types of research, descriptive research can include multiple variables for analysis, yet unlike other methods, it requires only one variable (Borg & Gall, 1989).

Research Instruments:

Questionnaire will be used to collect the data. With the help questionnaire we can seek only that information which cannot obtainable from other techniques. Questionnaire will show clear direction and conciseness of questions. Sequence of questions is from general to specific. The quality, soundness and accuracy of the questions show the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.

Pilot Testing:

The questionnaire will be administered in one intermediate college other than those included in the research. The data will be tabulated and analyzed. Insignificant question were replaced by some fresh question.

Collection of Data:

The researcher personally will visit the colleges and will collect the data from students and teachers personally.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data:

Data thus collected will be tabulated and analyzed with statistical terms i.e. mean, standard deviation and frequency distribution. Finding on the basis of data analyzed will be developed and classified with the help of statistical figures (charts).

Terminology:

Guidance programme: Organized body of services to help and assist each individual to solve his problems and to become more independent and self-directive.

Counseling: It is the heart of entire guidance program. It is a process of helping individual pupil through interviews and other techniques enabling him become self-directive in regard to his problems and ultimately developing self-reliance.

Interview: It is the heart of Counseling. It is a technique by which information about an individual is collected for his harmonious development. Usually it is face-to-face discussion between the counselor and Counselee.

Counselor: A person whom the responsibility for counseling is delegated.

Counseling –Interview: A person-to-person relationship whereby one person with a problems and need is helped to achieve more desirable goals.
Teacher-Counselor:
Staff member having delegated responsibilities for both instructions and Counseling.

Group Guidance: Instruction activities built round the common problems of homogeneous group.

Placements: A service to help pupil secure job according to his aptitude, interests, and intellectual potentialities.

Follow-up: A service intended to secure information from those who have been appointed certain jobs after the completion of their school career, to help and assist the school students in their educational and vocational choices.

Psychometrics: A person who is specialist in the field of measurement, especially, the abilities, aptitudes and other.

References:

1. National Educational Policy and Implementation program 1978-83 2. Report on National Education, 1959. 3. Moser – Counseling and Guidance, Englewood-Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963 4. Blair, James and Sainpson, Educational Psychology, The Me Millan Co; N.Y. 1962 5. Chauhan. S. S, Principles and techniques of Guidance. New Delhi Vikas Publishing House (pvt) LTD, 2001. 6. Gay, Mills, and Airasian, Educational Research, Pearson, New York, 2009 7. Crow and Crow, An introduction to Guidance, N.Y. American Book co; 1960. 8. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education Report of the commission of National Education, Karachi, 1960. 9. Mishra. R.C, Guidance and Counseling .New Delhi APH publishing corporation, 2004. 10. www.eprint.hec.edu.pk 11. www.yespakistan.com

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