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1) Five different Stream vs Block Stream | Block | * One symbol of plaintext is immediately convert into its symbol in cipher text * E.g. Caesar cipher, Playfair cipher. | * A group of plaintext symbols is converted into its equivalent group of cipher text symbols * E.g. DES, AES. |

2) 4 mod operation in block cipher * In cryptography, a block cipher operates on blocks of fixed length, often 64 or 128 bits. * Because messages may be of any length, and because encrypting the same plaintext under the same key always produces the same output.

* Several modes of operation have been invented which allow block ciphers to provide confidentiality for messages of arbitrary length. * The 4 modes of operation are * Electronic Code Book (ECB) * Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) * Output Feedback (OFB) and * Cipher Feedback (CFB)

3) Briefly describe the working of DES * most widely used block cipher in world adopted in 1977 by NBS (now National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST)as Federal Information Processing Standard 46 (FIPS PUB 46) * encrypts 64-bit data using 56-bit key * has widespread use * The algorithm itself is referred to as the Data Encryption Algorithm (DEA) * IBM developed Lucifer cipher by team led by Feistel in late 60’s used 64-bit data blocks with 128-bit key * then redeveloped as a commercial cipher with input from NSA and others * in 1973 NBS issued request for proposals for a national cipher standard * IBM submitted their revised Lucifer which was eventually accepted as the DES

4) Advantage of TRIPLE DES * Triple DES uses longer bits of key compared to DES (i.e. 112 bits or 168bits depending whether the key is broken down into 2 or 3 sub-keys), thus providing for better security. * Since it is based on the DES algorithm, it is very easy to modify existing software to use Triple DES. * The procedure for encryption is exactly the same as regular DES, but it is repeated three times, hence the name Triple DES. * The data is encrypted with the first key, decrypted with the second key, and finally encrypted again with the third key. * Triple DES runs three times slower than standard DES.

5) Briefly explain digital signature with example
A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document.
A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit.
Commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering.
A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms: a. A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key. b. A signing algorithm that, given a message and a private key, produces a signature. c. A signature verifying algorithm that, given a message, public key and a signature, either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity.

6) Explain 3 properties of zero knowledge proof
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the prover) can prove to another party (the verifier) that a given statement is true, without conveying any additional information apart from the fact that the statement is indeed true. * Completeness: if the statement is true, the honest verifier (that is, one following the protocol properly) will be convinced of this fact by an honest prover. * Soundness: if the statement is false, no cheating prover can convince the honest verifier that it is true, except with some small probability. * Zero-knowledge: if the statement is true, no cheating verifier learns anything other than this fact .

7) Conventional encryption and public key encryption

8) What do u understand by interactive proof protocol
In an interactive proof system there are two parties d. An (all powerful) Prover, often called Peggy (a randomizedalgorithm using a private random number generator); e. A (little (polynomially) powerful) Verifier, often called Vic (a polynomialtime randomized algorithm using a private random number generator).
Prover knows some secret, or a knowledge, or a fact about a specific object, and wishes to convince Vic, through acommunication with him, that he has the above knowledge.
For example, both Prover and Verifier possesan input x and Prover wants to convince Verifier that x has a certain properties and that Prover knows howto proof that.
The interactive proof system consists of several rounds. In each roundProver and Verifier alternatively do the following. 1. Receive a message from the other party. 2. Perform a (private) computation. 3. Send a message to the other party.
Communication starts usually by a challenge of Verifier and a response by Prover.
Atthe end, Verfier either accepts or rejects Prover's attempts to convinceVerifier.

9) Row transposition cipher

10) Signcryption * Signcryption is a public-key primitive that simultaneously performs the functions of both digital signature and encryption. * Signcryption is a relatively new cryptographic technique that is supposed to fulfill the functionalities of digital signature and encryption in a single logical step and can effectively decrease the computational costs and communication overheads in comparison with the traditional signature-then-encryption schemes. * Signcryption provides the properties of both digital signatures and encryption schemes in a way that is more efficient than signing and encrypting separately.

Any signcryption scheme should have the following properties: * Correctness: Any signcryption scheme should be correctly verifiable. * Efficiency: The computational costs and communication costs of a signcryption scheme should be smaller than those of the best known signature-then-encryption schemes with the same provided functionalities. * Security: A signcryption scheme should simultaneously fulfill the security attributes of an encryption scheme and those of a digital signature.

11) 5 advantage of AES and DES * Advantages of AES Encryption Algorithm

* Advanced Encryption Standard not only assures security but also improves the performance in a variety of settings such as smartcards, hardware implementations etc. * AES is federal information processing standard and there are currently no known non-brute-force direct attacks against AES. * AES is strong enough to be certified for use by the US government for top secret information * Performance that falls short of your requirements * Higher installation costs * Higher maintenance costs * Shorter operating life

Advantages des * DES has been around a long time (since 1977), even now no real weaknesses have been found: the most efficient attack is still brute force. * DES is an official United States Government standard; the Government is required to re-certify, DES every five years and ask it be replaced if necessary. * DES has been re-certified in 1983, 1987, 1992. * DES is also an ANSI and ISO standard - anybody can learn the details and implement it. * Since DES was designed to run on 1977 hardware, it is fast in hardware and relatively fast in software.

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...MÜSLÜMAT ALLAHVERDİYEVA B EYN Ə LXALQ MARK ETİN Q Dərslik Azərbaycan Respublikası təhsil nazirinin 26 aprel 2007-ci il tarixli 377 saylı əmri ilə təsdiq edilmişdir. BAKI-2010 Elmi redaktor: Rəycilər: dos. E.N.Kərimov prof. İ.A.Kərimli, dos. T.Ş.Şükürov Allahverdiyeva M.A. Beynəlxalq marketinq. Dərslik. Bakı: “İqtisad Universiteti” Nəşriyyatı, - 2010, - 444 cəh. Dərslikdə beynəlxalq marketinqin mahiyyəti, obyekti,funksiyaları,dünya iqtisadiyyatında onun yeri ,rolu,əhəmiyyəti,beynəlxalq marketinq mühitinin amilləri, beynəlxalq marketinq tədqiqatları,beynəlxalq bazarın tədqiqi, beynəlxalq marketinqdə əmtəə, qiymət, satış siyasəti, beynəlxalq marketinqin təşkili, idarə edilməsi v.s.məsələlərə diqqət yetirilmişdir. Dərslikdə 25 mövzu acıqlanmışdır.Məhşur firmaların fəaliyyəti situasiyalı məsələlərlə təhlil edilmiş, düşündürücü suallar verilmiş, beynəlxalq marketinqə aid bəzi terminlərin izahlı lügəti və nümunəvi testlər tərtib edilmişdir. Dərslik ali məktəb tələbələri, magistrləri, sahibkarlar və idarəetmə sahəsindəki mütəxəssislər ücün nəzərdə tutulmuşdur. © Allahverdiyeva M.A. - 2010 © “İqtisad Universiteti” Nəşriyyatı, - 2010 2 MÜNDƏRİCAT Мцяллифдян ................................................................................................. I BÖLMƏ BEYNƏLXALQ MARKETİNQ STRATEGİYASININ İNKİŞAFI Мювзу 1. Бейнялхалг маркетингин мащиййяти вя фяалиййят sferasы................. 1. Бейнялхалг маркетингин обйектив характери вя онун хцсусиййятляри.....

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