English and Literature
Submitted By buto
Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines: Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino
Maryjoy Mella, Floren Camille Osido and Lemarie Suing
Dr. Virola (2011), Secretary General of the National Statistical Coordination Board, said in his presentation of the 2009 Official Poverty Statistics that a Filipino needed PhP 974 in 2009 to meet his or her monthly food needs and PhP 1,403 to stay out of poverty. In 2009, a family of five needed PhP 4, 869 monthly income to meet food needs and PhP 7, 017 to stay out of poverty. Results of the latest Social Weather Stations (SWS) survey also revealed that one in every five Filipino households, or an estimated 4.3 million families, experienced involuntary hunger in the third quarter of the year 2011 (http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/84129/more-filipinos-going-hungry-survey-shows).
The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs serves as the government’s answers to the pressing issues regarding poverty. Calvo (2011) defines the CCT as programs that provide cash benefits to finance the basic needs and foster investment in human capital to extremely poor households. These benefits are conditioned on certain behaviors, usually related to investments in nutrition, health, and education.
The emergence of CCT programs occurred during the late 1990s, with Mexico’s innovative Progresa (now Opurtunidades) program emerging as one of the earliest schemes in 1997. The evidences highlighting the effectiveness of Progresa motivated a rise in similar programs across Latin America. Throughout the late 1990s and into the early part of the new century, CCT programs were implemented in Honduras, Brazil and Nicaragua.
CCT programs are presently being implemented in several Latin American countries including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and several more. Indonesia and Pakistan are only some of the Asian countries which employ the CCT programs as a major tool of their social policy. In general, these programs provide money and financial assistance to poor families under the condition that those transfers are used as an investment on their children’s’ human capital, such as regular school attendance and basic preventive health care. The main mission of most CCT programs is to prevent inter-generational transference of poverty, that is to say, investing in young children and providing them with the provisions necessary for better opportunities in the future.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to assert the advantages, disadvantages and effectiveness of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), the conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines, in addressing the poverty health care and basic education problems in the Philippines. The researchers strongly agree that the 4Ps can help alleviate, not intensify, the problem of poverty in the Philippines. Furthermore, the researchers believe that the 4Ps provides not only short term benefits but also long term assistance necessary for the improvement of the Philippine society.
In respect to the previously stated problem, the researchers hope to accomplish the following objectives:
1. To assert the advantages of the 4Ps in addressing the poverty, health care, and basic education problems in the Philippines.
2. To discuss the disadvantages of the 4Ps as asserted by various groups and experts who have studied the program.
3. To confirm the beneficial effects of 4Ps by reviewing early assessments of the program.
4. To classify the challenges of the 4Ps and outline proposals by various sectors to improve it.
CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER IN THE PHILIPPINES
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)
A Conditional Cash Transfer Program is a program implemented by the government where money (cash grants) is given to eligible beneficiaries given that these beneficiaries comply with certain conditions such as nutrition, education, family development sessions, and other such services offered by the government. It is a means of helping the beneficiaries through provision of social and medical assistance and increasing the investment in human capital for society by providing education to those who cannot afford it.
Since 2007, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippines is the conditional cash transfer program implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), along with cooperative partner institutions such as the Department of Education, Department of Health, Department of the Interior and Local Government, and various other government institutions. The 4Ps was patterned after the conditional cash transfer programs in Latin American and African countries which have been proven successful as a poverty reduction and social development measure (DSWD, 2011).
The 4Ps is targeted at chronic poor households with children aged 0-14 years old who are located in poor areas. The cash grants range from PhP500 to PhP1,400 per household per month, depending on the number of eligible children. At the core of a CCT program is a social contract where a state provides financial resources to a family in exchange for that family’s fulfillment of certain tasks such as ensuring that its children’s attendance in school, regular visits to community health centers, participation in government-sponsored feeding programs and attendance in more specific trainings, to name a few (Somera, 2010). And according to Fernadez & Olfindo (2011), today, the program is seen more broadly as “a vehicle for enhancing coordination within the government in assisting the poor and for increasing the effectiveness of social protection programs.”
Though statistics have shown that the increase in the poverty incidence among population in 2003 to 2009, from 24.9-26.5%, is not so substantial, it is still an increase, and 26.5% implies that more than a quarter of the whole Philippine population is below the poverty threshold. The 4Ps has been created to address that problem of poverty and inequality in the country.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Advantages of the 4Ps
The “CCT programs address both future poverty, by fostering human capital accumulation among the young as a means of breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty and current poverty, by providing income support for consumption in the short run” (Rawlings & Rubio, 2005, p. 33). Indeed, the main objective of the 4Ps and other CCT programs is to prevent inter-generational transference of poverty and help break the infinite cycle of poverty by providing the children the suitable educational and health assistance so as to help them develop the facilities for a better future. Investing in children’s human capital and ensuring that they grow into educated and healthy adults, is the equivalent of teaching them how to fish. Healthy, educated children ultimately have more choices in life and are able to become productive members of society (Bloom, 2008).
Furthermore, the implementation of the 4Ps lessens the incidence of child labor and other forms of child abuse. In cases of the other CCT programs implemented in other countries, there are two interrelated mechanisms found to help combat child labor. First, through their cash subsidy component, schooling’s directs costs are reduced, thereby inducing families to send their children to school, as opposed to work. Second, these programs require families to have their children attend school, 85% of the school days per month in the case of the 4Ps, in exchange to cash subsidy. This requirement increases the time children spend in school and reduces the time they can allocate to work (Gee, 2010). There is a noticeable increase in the number of enrollees in many elementary schools in areas included in the scope of the 4Ps, and kindergarten classes were being established to answer the need of the community in compliance to the condition of sending 0-5 years old children in day care centers and preschools (DSWD, 2009). Subsequently, if collaborative compliance to this requirement of the 4Ps is ensured, the literacy rate of the children is also expected to increase.
In the long run, the 4Ps as well as the other CCT programs, aims to establish social equality and mobility through education. As mentioned by Gundlach, Navarro de Pablo, & Weiser (2010), the centrality of education in poverty-reduction policies stems from the belief that education is a powerful equalizer and the main asset of most people. Sen & Dreze (as cited by Calvo, 2011) incorporates the notion of inequality and social exclusion as obstacles for the construction of a system of rights and opportunities. Accordingly, people are poor not just because of a lack of economic resources to satisfy basic needs, but also because they live in a social, economic and political system which does not provide equality of opportunities. The 4Ps intend to provide the basis for this much needed equality by providing the poor people with the education that they could not access otherwise.
Malnutrition, which is prevalent among extremely poor families, is also expected to decrease. Since it is a prime requirement for beneficiaries to avail of the health services being offered in their health centers such as pre- and post-natal services, vaccination, and periodical check-ups before acquiring their money grants, the health and nutrition of the poor families are safeguarded.
The 4Ps also promotes gender empowerment seeing as the responsibility of managing the cash grants are given to the mother. This decision is based on the experience in CCT programs showing that women make relatively better use of grant money by using it to purchase food and/or other necessities such as medicines, transportations and school supplies.
In the nutshell, the underlying concept of the CCT programs, and of the 4Ps as wells, is: once individuals are healthy, better fed, and educated, they will be able to overcome poverty in the long run (Valencia, 2009).
Disadvantages of the 4Ps
Like any other government program, the 4Ps also have its disadvantages that may encumber its helpful benefits. One of the most crucial characteristic of the 4Ps and other CCT programs implemented in other countries is its being a ‘demand-side’ intervention instead of being a ‘supply-side’ intervention. That is, in order to be considered as a beneficiary of the program, one must concede with the government’s demands and conditionalities (Coady & Parker, 2002). This is remarkably notable in the conditions concerning education and health services where the beneficiaries being brought into the education and health services system instead of expanding the education and health systems in order to reach them.
Furthermore, as previously mentioned, poverty in the country is not only caused by the lack of economical resources, but also because of socio-economic and political factors that prevent the equality and distribution of resources. Although the 4Ps aims to provide the poor with the education which is, otherwise, inaccessible, it does not directly answer the socio-economic and political problems that are the primary cause of poverty. In the case of the 4Ps in the Philippines, it does not answer the issues regarding the political and economic elite families. And poverty can only be totally alleviated if there are programs that could target its roots.
The 4Ps will also encounter some difficulties in achieving support from the other social classes, mainly because it does not benefit middle-income groups which have also been steadily affected by limited universal services and decreases in employment (Cuesta, 2007). These middle-income groups are also suffering from issues of poverty and limited access to educational and health benefits, but are not included in the target population of the 4Ps. The 4Ps is programmed to help only the extremely poor.
Another major disadvantage of the 4Ps implementation is that it requires a huge amount of finance which we do not have at the present. The 4Ps is a loan driven program, much of the funds constituting the conditional cash grants given to beneficiaries are generated from loans abroad, particularly from the United States. By the tail-end of August 2010, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a US$400 million loan specifically for the 4Ps which will run from 2011 to 2014. This comprises 45.2 per cent of the total cost of US$884.2 million, where US$484 million serves as the government’s counterpart. Having ADB’s US$400 million in addition to the World Bank’s US$405 million, makes two-thirds of the whole 4Ps from 2009 to 2014 comprised of loans (Somera, 2010, p. 6). Arguments against the 4Ps point out that despite the large amounts of financial resources needed to implement the program; it does not generate guaranteed returns to the economy as much as infrastructure projects like construction of roads, bridges, and railways do.
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Programs poses many appealing objectives, goals and benefits for the poor families that comprises most of the Philippine’s population. The 4Ps is a good example of strengthening the government’s capability of distributing the country’s resources to those who are extremely in need. It is undeniable that there are many poor households that will benefit from the said program, and that the program covers the basic needs that otherwise would go unmet. Likewise, the government’s effort in making the country’s educational and health services system inclusive is a huge step towards social mobility and equality. The researchers feel strongly about the 4Ps’ principle that well-fed and educated citizens are imperative for a productive country and society.
However, it is also undeniable that the 4Ps, as well as the other CCT programs being implemented in other countries, is not the perfect solution. There are many insufficiencies that the program might face in the long run of its implementation. And as a new policy here in the Philippines, the 4Ps will certainly need further revisions and studies in the future.
Nevertheless, the researchers believe that for any government program to succeed, the government and the citizens must arrive in a peaceful consensus. The government’s duty is to secure that the people’s needs are provided and their rights are protected. And the citizens, in return, must use their full capacity to be productive and help the country. The researchers believe that the implementation of the 4Ps is a good example of the concurring responsibilities of the government and the citizens.
Bloom, K. (2008, May 17). CCT in Philippines is ‘teaching people how to fish’. Philippine Daily Inquirer.http://opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/columns/view/20080517-137087/CCT-in-Philippines-is-teaching-people-how-to-fish.
Calvo, C. (2011). Social Work and conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America. Journal of Sociology & Welfare, September 2011, Volume XXXVIII, Number 3.
Coady, D., & Parker, S. (2002). A cost-effectiveness analysis of demand and supply-side education interventions: The case of PROGRESA in Mexico. Discussion Paper No. 127. International Food Policy Research Institute.
Cuesta, J. (2007). Field report: On more ambitious conditional cash transfers, social protection, and permanent reduction of poverty. Journal of International Development, 19, 1016-1019.
Department of Social Welfare and Development (2009), Effects of 4Ps Evident in Mabini Schools, . Available from: Department of Social Welfare and Development, : http://www.fo1.dswd.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188%3Aeffects-of-4ps-evident-in-mabini-schools&Itemid=110 [Accessed: Dec 18, 2011].
Diokno, B, (2011), Will CCT help or hurt the poor? . Available from: University of the Philippines, School of Economics: http://econ.upd.edu.ph/faculty/bediokno/2010/10/12/will-cct-help-or-hurt-the-poor/ [Accessed: Dec 18, 2011].
Gee, K. (2010). Reducing Child Labour Through Conditional Cash Transfers: Evidence from Nicaragua’s Red de Protección Social. Development Policy Review. November 2010;28(6):711-732.
Gundlach, E., Navarro de Pablo, J., & Weisert, N. (2001). Education is good for the poor. Discussion Paper No. 2001/137. World Institute for Development Economics Research.
More Filipinos going hungry, survey shows. Philippine Daily Inquirer. (September, 2011) http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/84129/more-filipinos-going-hungry-survey-shows
Somera, N, (2010), Politics, Patriarchs, Palliative and the Poor: Conditional Cash Transfer in the Philippines, http://www.forum-adb.org/docs/BP-201012.pdf[Accessed: Dec 17, 2011].
Valencia, E. (2009). Conditional cash transfer programs: Achievements and illusions. Global Social Policy, 9, 167-171.
Virola, R, (2011), 2009 Official Poverty Statistics, . Available from: National statistical coordination board, : http://www.nscb.gov.ph/poverty/2009/Presentation_RAVirola.pdf[Accessed: Dec 16, 2011].
Significance of the Study
The result of this study shall provide benefits to the following: 1. 4P’s Beneficiaries
The findings of the study shall help them in being more open-minded on adapting a new behaviour or practice that is presented to them during the FDS. As it will help them better improve their relationship not only with their families but also in their community. 2. 4P’s Workers
The findings stated in this study shall serve as a guide for them to be able to know the areas for improvement on their modules. It will also help them determine another way to motivate the beneficiaries to participate well during the FDS and be able to encourage them to apply what they have learned.
This study may serve as a basis for them to use or improve the Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Strategy in their programs which concerns social issues or responsible parenting.
FDS| 5 4. Future Researchers
This study may give them additional information and may also serve as a basis shall they conduct a similar or related study on the IEC Strategy.
5. National Government/Local Government Units
This study may give them an idea on how effective their programs are in helping the poor people. It will make them see that there is a need to do away with welfare-approach and incentive-based programs such as the 4P’s as it does not reallyprovide long-term development for its beneficiaries.
6. Development Communicators
This study may serve as a basis for future delevopment communicators for their dissemination of information as to how effective are the programs of the government like the 4P’s. Itshall also help them in encouraging the concerned institutions not to advocate and support welfare-approach programs. 7. Development Workers
This study may serve as a basis for future delevopment practitioners in conducting projects or programs like Family Development Sessions. It can add to their knowledge as to how they could motivate the people to involve themselves in the process of achieving the objective of the program.
FDS| 6 8. IEC Programmers
The result of this study may serve as a tool for them to do profiling of their target audiences before developing a new development project or program. They must take into consideration the cultural identity of the people who are to benefit from the said program.
Definition of Terms
Behaviour Change – It is the expected outcome when thepeople like the 4P’s beneficiaries are motivated to adapt a new behaviour and is able to become self-reliant through the influence of the services provided by the 4P’s. In this study, the examples of behaviour changes are: self- reliance, becoming closer as a family.
* Self-Reliant - They are individuals who are resourceful enough to be able to sustain their needs and who no longer depend on the help provided by any person or institution. In this study, this is the behaviour the researchers would like to see in the respondents where they can already address the needs of their children and family (e.g. educational needs, health needs). * Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) – It is the poverty reduction strategy of the Philippine government through the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Moreover, it is also a human development program which aims to empower the poor through helping them develop their skills. * 4P’s workers – They are the ones working under the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s). They are the peopleteaching the beneficiaries about the FDS Modules, they are also conducting home visits as part of the process of the Family Development Session. * 4P’s Beneficiaries – they are the households who qualified the standards of the Department of Social Welfare and
F D S | 36
Development (DSWD). They are the beneficiaries from Brgy. Balatas, Naga City; which are the respondents of this study.
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) – it is the cash being provided by the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program to its beneficiaries which is allotted for their expenses on health, nutrition and education.
Social Development – it is the growth and development of an individual and his community in order for them to have a better quality of life.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of the findings of the study, the conclusion to the researchers’ hypotheses and the recommendations.
This study focused on “The IEC Strategy of the Family Development Session of the Beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program of Barangay Balatas, Naga City”, it sought answers to the following: (1) Does the personal beliefs of the beneficiaries affect the way they receive the information given during FDS Sessions?; (2) Does the FDS motivate the beneficiaries to adapt new behaviour or attitudes?; (3) How does the Family Development Session help the beneficiaries become self-reliant?; and (4) Did the 4P’s meet its objective of providing Social Development among the beneficiaries? The researchers used the qualitative research method, wherein the researchers utilized an interview guide and the observation method. The said interview guide contained questions regarding the respondents past behaviour; questions about the FDS Modules; and questions about their current behaviour.
F D S | 72
The researchers also used the observation method to find out the IEC Strategy applied in conducting the FDS and the modules were also assessed.
The said study was conducted from August 2012 to February 2013 at barangay Balatas, Naga City in the houses of the respondents.
After the data was collated and analyzed the researchers found out that all respondents are females, 2.3% are from ages 56 years old and above; 6.5% are ages 51 to 55 years old; 8.6% are ages 46 to 50 years old; 19.5% are ages 36 to 40 years old; 28.2% are ages 31 to 35 years old; 10.8% are ages 26 to 30 years old; and 2.3% are ages 25 years old and below.
When it comes to their educational attainment 41.3% were elementary graduates; 8.6% are elementary undergraduates; 28.2% are high school graduates; 17.3% are high school undergraduates; 2.1% are college undergraduates; and 2.1% finished a vocational course.
The respondents’ civil status, with 60.8% of them is married either in church or through a civil wedding; 21.7% are live-in partners; 13% are separated from their husbands; and 4.3% are widowers.
The age bracket of the respondents’ children with 4 to 7 years old having the highest percentage of 54.3%; 0 to 3 years old comes in second with a percentage of 30.4%;
F D S | 73
10.8% of them are from ages 8 to 10 years old; and 4.3% are from ages 10 years old and above.
The respondents’ top 4 source of income wherein being a tricycle or pedicab driver on top of the list; paglalabada comes in second; third is carpentry and last is pagtitinda. Most of the respondents have two to three sources of income. All of them said that when they have no work, they stay at home doing household chores and it is their time to bond with their children.
Almost all of the respondents said that they do have vices in the past such as drinking, smoking and gambling. Out of the 46 respondents, 21 or 45.6% are able to save money for emergencies and 25 or 54.3% said that they are not able to save due to lack of income or their income is just enough for their daily needs. According to the respondents they are fine today but they can’t answer for tomorrow. They are very unstablebecause their income cannot support their needs fully. The common problem that the respondents encounter is with the financial aspect due to their lack of income; health problems (e.g. colds, fever) comes in second due to the changes in weather conditions. Only the parents are involved in decision- making since their children are still very young and together they find ways on how to resolve each others’ weaknesses.
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Most of the respondents said that they have a good relationship with their children and is able to communicate with them. They often talk with their children when they are having problems. When it comes to the respondents’ relationship with their husbands, most of them said they have a good relationship and have an open communication to one another. For them, family planning is very important because it prepares and enables them to support the needs of their children; the common family planning method that they use are: pills, condom and the natural method. All of the respondents said that they have a good relationship with their neighbours and that they are active in the barangay as well.
According to them, when there is a calamity they make an effort to prepare what is needed (e.g. flashlights, foods, water, etc.) ahead of time; and some of them evacuate since their house is being flooded.
All of the respondents said that the family development session has improved their relationship with their families because they are to provide their basic needs. The FDS modules have helped them become aware of the practices that they do not know. As a whole, the 4P’s program has helped them in providing the needs of their children especially in school (e.g. tuition fees, school materials, etc.).
F D S | 75
However, most of the respondents are not confident that they will be able to stand alone if the program comes to an end because as what came out of the interview, the cash grant is all that they are depending on.
* Assumption 1: The personal beliefs of the beneficiaries significantly affect the way they receive the information given during the FDS. * Conclusion 1: The personal beliefs of the beneficiaries did affect the way they receive the message based from the interview. For instance, most of the respondents don’t save because of their belief that more expenses come when they set aside money. Another example, the respondents’ relationship with their children did not change even after they were taught about how to create a good relationship with their children. * Assumption 2: The FDS was not able to fully encourage the beneficiaries to adapt new behaviour because a true dialogue was not established between them and the 4P’sworkers. * Conclusion 2: The FDS was not able to fully encourage the beneficiaries to adapt new behaviour because there was no true dialogue that was established between them and the F D S | 76 4P’s workers. In the 2nd part of the interview about the modules, the respondents were not able to articulate the insights that they have gained. They gave vague answers when asked about how relevant was the modules to them and how it has helped them become self-reliant. The respondents’ motivation comes from the incentive which is the cash grant that they will be receiving. * Assumption 3: The FDS was not able to help the beneficiaries become self-reliant because they were able to incorporate the practices that were presented to during the session in their lives. * Conclusion 3: The FDS was able to not help the beneficiaries become self-reliant because majority of the respondents were not able to say that they can already stand on their own even after the 4P’s program has ended because they are not confident enough to stand alone. * Assumption 4: The 4P’s was not able to meet their objective in promoting social development among their beneficiaries.
Conclusion 4: The program was not able to meet their objective in promoting social development among the beneficiaries only the objective of providing social assistance to them. Because based on the findings of the interview on how the FDS helped them, the respondents cited F D S | 77 that it has helped them financially, there was no mention about what learning they have gained. Their responses generally did not coincide with the objective of the program which is to encourage them to adapt a new behaviour and be self-reliant. Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the researchers would like to make the following recommendations:
1. Department of Social Welfare and Development – Given the findings of this study towards the IEC Strategy of the Family Development Session of the 4P’s, they should look into the possibility of improving the effectiveness of the sessions used in promoting the objectives of the program which is to provide social assistance and social development by providing trainings to their workers under the program on how to further evaluate the changes in the behaviour of the beneficiaries; because one of their goals in the 4P’s program is to provide social development.
2. Beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P’s) – With the results of the study, the researchers recommend that the beneficiaries should be more participative,
F D S | 78 cooperative, and open minded for them to really understand the modules.
They should also be able to develop their critical thinking in decisions that they make, in order for them to be able to plan for the future of their families. They also must be able to bear in mind that more than the incentive that they will be receiving, the inputs that are given during the FDS is essential to their lives.
3. Government Institutions/Agencies – In case they shall be having another program or project where their constituents are to be benefited, like the conditional cash transfer program of the national government known as the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program(4P’s), they should take into consideration the learning abilities of their beneficiaries. They must be able to establish a connection with them to enable their beneficiaries to participate in the project.
4. Future Researchers – In case the same study shall be conducted; they must look into how the program is perceived by the beneficiaries and they should also be able to ask what drives them to become independent and self-reliant after the program. They should also look deeper into the disadvantages of the Conditional Cash Transfer like the 4P’s.
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5. Development Workers – They should look into the learning abilities of the people they are helping. Knowing their cultural identity and way of life is essential to be able to build a relationship and mutual trust with the people in the area. In order to have such relationship, as much as possible they should be able to learn the language or dialect of the people they are helping.
b. Education • Current attendance of children to increase by 8 percent • Transition rates from primary to secondary school to increase by 8 percent • Years of education completed to increase by one year • Elementary school gross enrollment rate for children 6 to 12 years to increase by 5 percent • Attendance in a school or day care over 85 percent of school days to increase by 10 percent • Increased e
The Department of Education (DePED) provides the needed education services through the free elementary and high school education program. The school principals/school heads/teacher in-charges oversee the education services for the 4Ps beneficiaries receiving education grant. They also do the monitoring of compliance on education of 4Ps children beneficiaries through submission of periodic compliance report on 85% attendance of children at their respective grades. 66. A Joint Memorandum Circular Defining the Institutional Arrangements for the Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation of the 4Pswas likewise signed between and among key partner agencies particularly with the Department of Education, Department of Health, Department of Interior and Local Government, National Anti-Poverty Commission, and the Department of Budget and Management. This Joint Memorandum circular aims to clarify and delineate the specific roles and functions of the National Advisory Committee and its regional counterpart; specify the roles and responsibilities of the partner agencies to ensure availability of supply on health and education as main conditionality under the Program; and define and strengthen the coordination, complementation and convergence of all concerned agencies. nrollment of children 3-5 years old to day care/pre-school by 5
FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC ) OF THE PHILIPPINES ) First Regular Session ) SENA'Y.2 S.No. ___ _ Introduced by Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago P' " EXPLANATORY NOTE The Constitution, Article 2, Section 9 provides that: The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nFIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC )
OF THE PHILIPPINES )
First Regular Session )
S.No. ___ _
Introduced by Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago P' "
The Constitution, Article 2, Section 9 provides that:
The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.
According to 2006 Annual Poverty Statistics of the National Statistical Coordination
Board, 27.9 Million Filipinos or one-third (l/3) ofthe entire population are poor. To address this problem the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) together implemented a
Conditional Cash Transfer Program known as Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) inspired by the successes of similar programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Familias en Accion in Colombia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico.
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is more than a welfare program; it addresses structural inequities in society and promotes human capital development of the poor, thus, breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty. The conditions attached to the grants require parents to undergo trainings on responsible parenthood, have their children undergo health check-ups and ensure school attendance. The program ensures that there is sufficient resource for the health, nutrition and education of children aged 0-14 year old.
An initial study on the pilot areas of the program shows promising results. In Esperanza and Sibagat, Agusan del Sur for example, two of the pilot areas of the 4Ps elementary school enrollment has increased by fifteen percent (15%).Children covered by 4Ps have higher attendance compared to the general population of children in school. There has been a
remarkable increase in the use of health services by pregnant women and children compared to
2007 and there has also been a significant increase in the vaccination rate as well as a decrease in prevalence of malnutrition among children. Given the far reaching effects of this program in empowering the poor to cross over from their lives of poverty to a better future, there is a need to ensure the sustainability of this Program from one administration to another. The passage of this bill is earnestly sough!.! ation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. According to 2006 Annual Poverty Statistics of the National Statistical Coordination Board, 27.9 Million Filipinos or one-third (l/3) ofthe entire population are poor. To address this problem the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) together implemented a Conditional Cash Transfer Program known as Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) inspired by the successes of similar programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Familias en Accion in Colombia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is more than a welfare program; it addresses structural inequities in society and promotes human capital development of the poor, thus, breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty. The conditions attached to the grants require parents to undergo trainings on responsible parenthood, have their children undergo health check-ups and ensure school attendance. The program ensures that there is sufficient resource for the health, nutrition and education of children aged 0-14 year old. An initial study on the pilot areas of the program shows promising results. In Esperanza and Sibagat, Agusan del Sur for example, two of the pilot areas of the 4Ps elementary school enrollment has increased by fifteen percent (15%).Children covered by 4Ps have higher attendance compared to the general population of children in school. There has been a 1 remarkable increase in the use of health services by pregnant women and children compared to 2007 and there has also been a significant increase in the vaccination rate as well as a decrease in prevalence of malnutrition among children. Given the far reaching effects of this program in empowering the poor to cross over from their lives of poverty to a better future, there is a need to ensure the sustainability of this Program from one administration to another. The passage of this bill is earnestly sough!.!