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Assessing and Planning

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Introduction Assessing and planning are two big components of the supervisory process. They can be done through clinical supervision and/or peer coaching. It depends on which model will work best for your school. Clinical supervision looks more at data whereas, peer coaching involves more around. However, they are both similar and different in many ways that will be discussed in this paper.
Clinical supervision
Clinical supervision has changed over the years. It started in 1969 with five steps to include preconference, observation, analyzing of data and planning for post conference, post conference with teacher, and critique of the previous four steps (Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon, 2014). Over the years, twelve principles were added. They are classroom based, purpose for instruction and teacher’s long term development, separate from summative evaluation, understanding of child development, education, and teacher improvement, supervisor needs to have relational and problem solving skills, open-minded, reciprocated trust, collegial affiliation, data-based, gathers data based on the teacher’s lesson to be observed, has reflective conversation with teacher and supervisor, and is recurring ((Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon, 2014). It involves a teacher receiving feedback from a colleague that observed the teacher but wears many hats like a sounding board to enables the teacher to examine and alters their own professional practice (Pajak, 2003).
Strengths and Weakness of clinical supervision
Clinical supervision has its strengths and weaknesses. The strength in clinical supervision is it requires a supervisor the observation to be data based, reflective dialogue that discusses strategies and data based on the observation, and is classroom based. This helps build relationships and morale with and among your staff. The weaknesses will be shown if a supervisor does not have that relationship with their teachers. If a teacher is not comfortable or there is a lack of respect than there may not be a dialogue just a one sided conversation. Another weakness could be seen if the supervisor does not understand the instructional goals of the lesson or the goals of the teacher. This is still connected to relationship and having a preconference. It important that a relationship is there so that teachers would want to discuss their strengths and weaknesses with their supervisor.
Assessing and planning skills used in clinical supervision
Clinical supervision has both assessing and planning used in the process. Assessing is used during the planning process. The planning process starts off with a preconference. During the preconference, the supervisor and teachers has a discussion about the purpose, goal, data used, and the type of observation. This allows everyone to be on the same page. The next step is observation. Observation is when the supervisor comes in to observe but with some type of form that allows a supervisor to mark what they see and hear. The form has to be filled out accurately if there is something that they a supervisor does not understand it should be asked during the post conference and not assumed. The third step is analysis and planning. This is the time when a supervisor looks at the notes and data concerning the observation. They are looking for patterns and concerns. They should send the person they observed notes that they can reflect. Teachers should think about the things that happened during the observation to include what was successful, concerns, and incidents that happened. The next step is the conference. During the post conference everyone needs to come in with an open mind and accepting of criticism. It is a time to look at the lesson, data, and discuss the next steps. They need to have a discussion about their self-reflection. The last stage is critique. During this time there is discussion about the whole process about what worked and what needs improvement. It is important that all the steps are completed to make sure that all parties feel comfortable and understand the action plans.
Peer Coaching
There are many definitions of peer coaching. (Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon, 2014) defines it as the use of teachers assisting educators through clinical supervision. Robins, 1991, defines it as a private process through which two or more proficient coworkers work together to reflect on current practices; expand, polish, and build new skills; share ideas; teach one another; conduct classroom research; or solve problems in the work place. There are many names to call it because of the many definitions that it has. It is also called peer support and/or peer sharing. Peer coaching has changed over the years and has various steps. The first step is to figure out if peer coaching would work for your staff and school. It would require preparation and training. You have to make sure that there is a schedule in place to communicate and observe each other.
Strengths and weaknesses of peer coaching
There are many strengths and weaknesses that can be seen through peer coaching. A major strength is the collaboration that is built among teachers. Many teachers like sharing experiences, ideas, and goals. They like receiving feedback that can be used to make them better at their trade. Peer coaching also helps builds relationships with administration. It helps build teaching performance, student growth, and improvement of professionalism. A weakness that peer coaching has is that administrators think of it as a way to help teachers who are struggling. Peer coaching is not a “fix it” system (Robbins, 1991). It is important that everyone is involved has some type of professional development to understand what is expected, what it should look and sound like, how it should be implemented, and balanced among the school day and all parties involved. Another weakness, if finding time and coverage for teachers to collaborate and observe.
Assessing and planning skills used in peer coaching
Peer coaching has many planning components. In order for it work you have to plan how peer coaching will look in your building. Administrators have to plan the professional development and model peer coaching. Planning also includes giving the staff information about what it is and ask and answer questions. Assessing is shown while looking at feedback from the teachers, student growth, and details about the peer coaching experience.
Contribution to the process Clinical supervision and peer coaching are both important to the supervisory process. They both have planning, assessments, observations, evaluation, and feedback components. They both fall underneath the collaborative umbrella. It is important that effective communication and goal setting is shown in both models. Feedback is very important because that allows you to discuss what works and what did not and make the necessary changes. They both have assessment and planning that are the most critical parts to the supervisory process.
Conclusion
It is important that administrators understand the purpose of planning and assessing. Planning is more than just lesson plans. It is a time for collaboration with colleagues, professional development, and a time to share experiences. Assessing is more than just testing our students in a differentiated way. It is receiving feedback from others, self-reflection, and looking at data. Planning and assessing goes hand in hand. It can be done through clinical supervision and peer coaching. They both have their own unique way of making sure that planning and assessing is happening in schools through supervisory practice.

References
Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2014). Supervision and instructional leadership: a developmental approach. 9th edition. Pearson. New Jersey
Pajak, E. (2003). Honoring diverse teaching styles, a guide for supervisors. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Robins, P. (1991). How to plan and implement a peer coaching program. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Showers, B., & Joyce, B. (1996). The evolution of peer coaching. .Educational leadership, 53, 12-16.

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