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Assessment

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Assessment in the Affective Domain The affective domain already describes the learning objectives that emphasize a feeling tone, an emotion or a degree of acceptance or rejection.
The Taxonomy in the Affective Domain * Receiving Being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include; to differentiate, to accept, to listen, to respond to * Responding Committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Examples are; to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim * Valuing Willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials or phenomena. Examples include; to relinquish, to subsidize, to support * Organization To relate the value to those already held and bring it into harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are; to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine * Characterization To act consistently in accordance with the values he/she has internalized. Examples include; to require, to manage, to resolve
Affective Learning Competencies
Affective desired learning competencies are often stated in the form of instructional objectives. What then are instructional objectives? * Instructional objectives are specific, measurable, short-term, observable student behaviors. * Objectives are the foundation upon which you can build lessons and assessments that you can prove meet your overall course or lesson goals. * Think of objectives as tools you use to make sure you reach you goals. They are the arrows you shoot towards your target (goal). * The purpose of objectives is not to restrict spontaneity or constrain the vision of education in the discipline; but to ensure that learning is focused clearly enough that both students and teachers know what is going on, and so learning can be objectively measured.
The Taxonomy in the Affective Domain Level | Definition | Example | RECEIVING | Being aware of or attending to something in the environment. | Individual would read a book passage about civil rights. | RESPONDING | Showing some new behaviors as a result of experience | Individual would answer questions about the book, read another book, read another book by the same author, another book about civil rights, etc . | VALUING | Showing some definite involvement or commitment | The individual might demonstrate this by voluntarily attending a lecture on civil rights. | ORGANIZATION | Integrating a new value into one’s general set of values, giving it some ranking among one’s general priorities. | The individual might a civil rights rally. | CHARACTERIZATION BY VALUE | Acting consistently with the new value. | The individual is firmly committed to the value, perhaps becoming a civil rights leader. |

Attitudes * Defined as a mental predisposition to act that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.
Four Components of Attitude
A. Cognition * Are our beliefs, theories, expectancies, cause and effect beliefs and perceptions relative to the focal object.

B. Affect * Refers to our feeling with respect to the focal object such as fear, liking or anger

C. Behavioral Intentions * Are our goals, aspirations and our expected responses to the attitude or an object

D. Evaluation * Considered the central component of attitudes. It consist of the imputation of some degree of goodness or badness to an attitude or an object

Why Study Attitudes? Attitudes can influence the way we act and think in the social communities we belong. They can function as frameworks and references for forming conclusions and interpreting or acting for or an individual.

Example: Several studies in the past for instance, concluded that poor performance in school in the subject mathematics cannot be strictly attributable to differential mental abilities but the students attitude toward the subject.

MOTIVATION * A reason or set of reasons for engaging in a particular behavior especially human behavior as studied in psychology and neuropsychology. * According to Geen, motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior.

Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behavior towards subject matter. It can: * Direct behavior toward particular goals * Lead to increase effort and energy * Increase initiation of, and persistence in activities * Enhance cognitive processing * Determines what consequences are reinforcing * Lead to improve performance

2 Kinds of Motivation * Intrinsic Motivation * Occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant * Extrinsic Motivation * Comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him/.her (like money or good grades.

Self-efficacy * An impression that one is capable of performing in a certain manner or attaining certain goals.

Development of Assessment Tools 1. Self Report
-is the most common measurement tool in the affective domain. 2. Rating Scales - is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative attribute in social science

Semantic Differential Scales * The SD tries to assess an individual’s reaction to specific words, ideas or concepts in terms of ratings on bipolar scales defined with contrasting adjectives at each end. * An example of an SD scale is Good __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Bad 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
Labeled as: * 0 = neutral * 1 = slightly * 2 = quite * 3 = extremely

Thurstone Scale * the father of attitude measurement * developed an attitude continuum to determine the position of favorability on the issue

Example:
Directions: Put a check mark in the blank if you agree with the item

___1. Blacks should be considered the lowest class of human beings (scale value = 0.9)
___2. Blacks and whites must be kept apart in all social affairs where they might be taken as equals (scale value = 3.2)
___3. I am not interested in how blacks rate socially (Scale value = 5.4)
___4. A refusal to accept blacks is not based on any fact of nature, but on a prejudice which should be overcome (Scale value = 7.9)
___5. I believe that blacks deserve the same social privileges as whites (Scale value = 10.3)

Likert Scale * is requires that individuals tick on a box to report whether they strongly agree, argue, undecided, disagree or strongly disagree
Example:
Statement: I do not like to solve algebraic equations
Response Options: * 1 Strongly agree * 2 Disagree * 3 Agree * 4 Strongly Disagree

Checklist * Most common and perhaps the easiest instrument in the affective domain to construct in the checklist. * It consist of simple items that the student or teacher marks as “absent” or “present”.

Attitudinal Scale * is a continuum of points on either a 7-point or a 9-point scale *the scale of points might range from 9, very strongly favorable toward the concept, to 5, neutral, to 1, very strongly hostile to the concept.

Example:
Attitude toward Mathematics

Direction: Read each statement carefully. Then, circle the symbol that best represents your reaction to the statement according to the following scale.
5: Strongly agree 4: Agree 3: Undecided 2: Disagree 1: Strongly disagree with the statement

Item 1. Mathematics is an interesting subject. 5 4 3 2 1 2. Student like solving math problems. 5 4 3 2 1 3. Most students are nervous of mathematics. 5 4 3 2 1 4. Mathematics is useful in daily life. 5 4 3 2 1 5. I ooze with energy in a math class. 5 4 3 2 1

In making attitudinal scale, these are the following consideration: * Each statement should be clear and precise. * Present a single idea; focus on a feeling rather than on a fact. * It must be an attitude rather than information.

Prepared by: Joanne Oliveros Alkevin Lorete Zyna Lyn Mondido <=: “JAZ US!!!” :=> (Math Majors!)

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