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Assignment on Cyber Crime

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Suhaira
Words 6414
Pages 26
Title Content page no
Introduction…………………………………………………….……………………………….1
What is cybercrime? ..........................................................................................................1
Types of cybercrime……………………………………………………………………………..2
Reasons of cybercrime……………………………………………………………..……………2-3
Offences of cybercrime under ICT Act-2006……………………………………………………3
Penalties of cybercrime under ICT Act-2006 ……………………………………………………4
Cyber Tribunal …………………………………………………………………………………...5
Cyber appellate Tribunal ………………………………………………………………………….5
Recent condition of cyber law in Bangladesh……………………………………………………..6
Recommendations……………………..………………………………………………………….6
Conclusion ………………………..………………………………………………………………7
Bibliography …………….………………………………………………………………………..8

Introduction
Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The phrase ICT had been used by academic researchers since the 1980s, but it became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997 and in the revised National Curriculum for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. As of September 2013, the term "ICT" in the UK National Curriculum has been replaced by the broader term "computing".
The term ICT is now also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the audio-visual, building management and telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.
The term Info communications is sometimes used interchangeably with ICT. In fact Info communications is the expansion of telecommunications with information processing and content handling functions on a common digital technology base. For a comparison of these and other terms, see.
What is cyber-crime?
Cyber-crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber-crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts are considered to be cyber-crimes when the illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and the Internet.
Cybercrime is criminal activity done using computers and the Internet. This includes anything from downloading illegal music files to stealing millions of dollars from online bank accounts. Cybercrime also includes non-monetary offenses, such as creating and distributing viruses on other computers or posting confidential business information on the Internet.
Perhaps the most prominent form of cybercrime is identity theft, in which criminals use the Internet to steal personal information from other users. Two of the most common ways this is done is through phishing and pharming. Both of these methods lure users to fake websites (that appear to be legitimate), where they are asked to enter personal information. This includes login information, such as usernames and passwords, phone numbers, addresses, credit card numbers, bank account numbers, and other information criminals can use to "steal" another person's identity. For this reason, it is smart to always check the URL or Web address of a site to make sure it is legitimate before entering your personal information.
Types of cyber-crime
All crimes performed by abuse of electronic media or otherwise, with the purpose of influencing the functioning of computer or computer system. The followings are the top listed types of cybercrime: * Hacking: Hacking is a simple term means illegal intrusion into a computer system without the permission of the computer owner/user. Hackers usually do that with the intention of obtaining confidential information. * Virus Dissemination: Virus itself is software that attacks other software. It may cause for data loss, deduction of bandwidth speed, hardware damage etc. Trojan horse, Time Bomb, Logic Bomb, Rabbit are the malicious software. * Software Piracy: Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or distribution of products intended to pass for the original. * Pornography: Pornography is the first consistently successful e-commerce product (Official website of the Cybercrime Investigation Cell, Crime Branch, CID, and Mumbai). Deceptive marketing tactics and mouse trapping technologies pornography encourage customers to access their website. Anybody including children can log on to the internet and access website with pornographic contents with a click of a mouse. * Credit Card Fraud: You simply have to type credit card number into www page of the vendor for online transaction. If electronic transactions are not secured the credit card numbers can be stolen by the hackers who can misuse this card by impersonating the credit card owner.
Reasons of cybercrime
Hart in his work “The Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect them’. Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard them against cybercrime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be said to be: 1. Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The computer has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes it much easier. 2. Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a computer system from unauthorized access is that there is every possibility of breach not due to human error but due to the complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and by pass firewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system. 3. Complex: The computers work on operating systems and these operating systems in turn are composed of millions of codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not possible that there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the computer system. 4. Negligence: Negligence is very closely connected with human conduct. It is therefore very probable that while protecting the computer system there might be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber-criminal to gain access and control over the computer system. 5. Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common & obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further collection of data outside the territorial extent also paralyses this system of crime investigation.
Offences of cybercrime under ICT Act-2006 * Penalty for damage to computer, computer system, etc. (U/S-54) * Punishment for tampering with computer source code. (U?S-55) * Punishment for hacking with computer system. (U?S-56) * Punishment for publishing fake, obscene or defaming information in electronic form. (U/S-57) * Punishment for failure to surrender license. (U/S-58) * Punishment for failure to comply with order. (U/S-59) * Punishment for failure to comply with order made by the Controller in emergency. (U/S-60) * Punishment for unauthorized access to protected systems. (U/S-61) * Punishment for misrepresentation and obscuring information. (U/S-62) * Punishment for disclosure of confidentiality and privacy. (U/S-63) * Punishment for publishing false Digital Signature Certificate. (U/S-64) * Punishment for publishing Digital Signature Certificate for fraudulent purpose etc. (U/S-65)
Penalties of cybercrime under ICT Act-2006 1. Any person commits offence under section(54), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine which may extend to Taka ten lakhs, or with both. 2. Any person commits offence under section (55), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine which may extend to Taka three lakhs, or with both. 3. Any person commits hacking offence under section (56), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine which may extend to Taka one crore, or with both. 4. Whoever commits offence under section (57), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 14 years and with fine which may extend to Taka one crore. 5. Whoever commits offence under section (58), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to Taka ten thousand, or with both. 6. Whoever commits offence under section (59), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to Taka one lakh, or with both. 7. Whoever commits offence under section (60), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine which may extend to Taka five lakhs, or with both. 8. Whoever commits offence under section (61), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine which may extend to Taka ten lakhs, or with both. 9. Whoever commits any offence under section (62), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to Taka two lakhs, or with both. 10. Whoever commits any offence section (63), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to Taka two lakhs, or with both. 11. Whoever commits any offence under section (64), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to Taka two lakhs, or with both. 12. Whoever commits any offence under section (65), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to Taka two lakh, or with both.
Cyber Tribunal
According to section 68 of the Information and Communication Technology Act, 2006 for the speedy and effective disposal of cases under this Act, Government shall establish one or more cyber tribunal. The tribunal shall try only the offences under this Act and the Government shall determine the local jurisdiction of the tribunal. In consultation with the Supreme Court, Government shall appoint on Sessions Judge or Additional Sessions Judge as a judge of Cyber Tribunal
The trial procedure of cyber tribunal shall follow chapter 23 of Criminal Procedure Code, 1898 (trial procedure by the Court of Sessions) so far it is consistent. If the accused is absconded, tribunal can try the case in absentia. In this case tribunal has to circular an order in two Bangla newspaper to appear the accused on a specified date. Cyber tribunal shall apply the provisions of Criminal Procedure Code and it shall have the same power, a Sessions Court empowered to apply in its original jurisdiction. Public prosecutor shall conduct the case on behalf of the Government. Tribunal shall conclude the trial within six months from the date of framing charge. This period may be extended for three months. Tribunal shall pronounce its judgment within ten days after the conclusion of trial which may be deferred for ten days.

Cyber Appellate Tribunal

The Government shall establish one or more cyber appellate tribunal. The appellate tribunal shall be constituted by one chairman and two members appointed by the Government. To be appointed as a chairman of Cyber Appellate Tribunal, he must be either a former judge of the Supreme Court or existing judge of the Supreme Court or is eligible to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court. One of the two members of the tribunal shall be a retired District Judge or employed in the judicial service and the other member must be an experienced and skilled person in information and communication technology. They shall be appointed for 3-5 years. Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have no original jurisdiction. It shall only hear and dispose of appeals from the order and judgment of the Cyber Tribunal and Sessions Court in appropriate cases. The decision of the appellate tribunal shall be final and it shall have the power to alter, amend, and annul the order and judgment of the cyber tribunal. The appellate tribunal shall follow the appellate procedure of High Court Davison of the Supreme Court. Until cyber appellate tribunal is established, appeal may be heard by the High Court Division.

Recent condition of cyber law in Bangladesh
The cabinet approved the draft of the ICT (Amendment) Act-2013 on August 19 proposing to empower law enforcers to arrest any person without warrant and increase the highest punishment to 14 years from minimum 7 years. The government has later promulgated the ICT (amendment) ordinance. According to the Section 57 of the ordinance, if any person deliberately publishes any material in electronic form that causes to deteriorate law and order, prejudice the image of the State or person or causes to hurt religious belief the offender will be punished for maximum 14 years and minimum 7 years imprisonment. It also suggested that the crime is non-bailable. In the original ICT Act-2006, enacted by the BNP-Jamaat government, the maximum punishment was 10 years’ jail term and a fine of Tk 1 crore. And police had to seek permission from the authorities concerned to file a case and arrest any person involved in crimes covered under the law. The roundtable styled ‘ICT (Amendment) Act, 2013
Recommendations
In the view of foregoing detail findings, discussion on the key findings and subsequent conclusions, a number of recommendations have been offered. It is suggested that the offered recommendations are prioritized before going into action. Some recommendations have policy implication and so those should be dealt with cautiously with inclusion of strong policy advocacy strategy in the process. Following recommendations are being offered: * Clear and self-explanatory Standard Operating Procedure to be imposed immediately for the Cybercrime Unit * A comprehensive induction program should be developed for all the concerns of ICT and implement it as pilot basis * A separate Cybercrime Protection Act should be enacted * There must be a clear operating procedure to run Cybercafé and VOIP in Bangladesh. * Develop a security policy and communicate/educate users on your security policy * Implement sound password and encryption * Utilize security software and conduct penetration tests * Develop a network breach disaster plan * Ensure that you have the proper insurance coverage to protect you in case of a security breech

CONCLUSION

Computer crime, or Cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Net crime is criminal exploitation of the Internet. Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) defines Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)". Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise.
Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Activity crossing international borders and involving the interests of at least one nation state is sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions through the International Criminal Court.

Abstract
Cyber crime is emerging as a serious threat. World wide governments, police departments and intelligence units have started to react. Initiatives to curb cross border cyber threats are taking shape. Indian police has initiated special cyber cells across the country and have started educating the personnel. This article is an attempt to provide a glimpse on cyber crime in India.
This article is based on various reports from news media and news portal.

Indian Crime Scene
The major cyber crimes reported, in India, are denial of services, defacement of websites, SPAM, computer virus and worms, pornography, cyber squatting, cyber stalking and phishing. Given the fact that nearly $ 120 million worth of mobiles are being lost or stolen in the country every year, the users have to protect information, contact details and telephone numbers as these could be misused. Nearly 69 per cent of information theft is carried out by current and ex-employees and 31 per cent by hackers. India has to go a long way in protecting the vital information.
[The Hindu, Saturday, Oct 27,2007].
Symantec shares the numbers from its first systematic survey carried out on the Indian Net Security scene: The country has the highest ratio in the world (76 per cent) of outgoing spam or junk mail, to legitimate e-mail traffic. India's home PC owners are the most targeted sector of its 37.7 million Internet users: Over 86 per cent of all attacks, mostly via 'bots' were aimed at lay surfers with Mumbai and Delhi emerging as the top two cities for such vulnerability.

New Delhi: The number of cyber crimes in India may touch 3,00,000 in 2015, almost double the level of last year, causing havoc in the financial space, security establishment and social fabric, a study said.
At present, the number of cyber crimes in India is nearly around 149,254 and is likely to cross the 300,000 by 2015 growing at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 107 percent. According to the study, every month sees 12,456 cases registered in India.
During 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, the total number of cyber crimes registered were 13,301, 22,060, 71,780 and 62,189 (till May) respectively, it said.

Emerging Cyber Threats in Bangladesh: In Quest of Effective
Legal Remedies

1. Introduction
With the advent of technology human beings are becoming exclusively dependant on automation and we can see its influence on all spheres of our life. The history of automation began when Babbage invented computer and especially a new horizon was opened before us with the invention of network particularly the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Internet has become the backbone of all kinds of communication systems and it is also one of the most important sources of knowledge in the present digitalized world.

It is a network of networks 1 that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.

The internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and to store information easily across the world. They may offer to do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. This free access to network creates previllages to some highly skilled criminals to do illegal deeds in the cyber world. The most common evil doings are crashing a computer system, theft of information contained in electronic form; e-mail bombing, data diddling, financial fraud like unlawful transfer of money by breaking the security code of credit cards, denial of services and virus attack. But the prevention and remedy for these

Present Scenario of Cyber Crime in Bangladesh
Bangladesh does not have enough natural resources and has been trying to achieve the economic development through the utilization of ICT industry.
Over the last few years, many nations have taken advantage of the opportunities afforded by ICT within a policy framework, laid down guidelines and proceeded with the formulation of a national ICT strategy as a part of the overall national development plan. Bangladesh intends to use ICT as the key-driving element for socio-economic development. - 118 -
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The present government has also declared the vision-2021 i.e. within 2021 this country will become Digital Country and the per capita income will be equal to a middle income country. But the government as well as other concerns should consider crimes that may be committed in this world with the expansion of internet and other networks to convert this country into a digital country. The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820. That is not surprising considering the fact that the abacus, which is thought to be the earliest form of a computer, has been in India, Japan and China around since
3500 B.C. The era of modern computers, however, began with the analytical engine of Charles Babbage. In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cyber crime in the world history. A recent survey showed that a new cyber crime is being registered every 10 seconds in Britain. The situation of other countries in the world is almost the same and in some cases it is more critical and miserable. On July 4, 2009 two dozens of websites of South Korea and United States of America’s were under cyber attack and the attack was remarkably successful in limiting public access to victim web sites such as government web sites, treasury department, federal trade commission and secret service.
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They were continuously reporting problems days after the attack started during the July 4 holiday. IT experts believe that about 90 percent of cyber crimes stay unreported. In case of Bangladesh, the situation is getting worsening day by day. The most common cyber attacks and crimes are listed below in Bangladesh:
1. Blackmailing girl by capturing their nude photographs and video on the sly and threatening to expose publicly. Such incidents are caused frequently by their boyfriends and others.
2. A number of community websites have been introduced, which the young girls and boys are using to exchange phone numbers for
Posting hidden videos or even pictures with nudity etc.
3. Hacking in the website of Bangladesh Computer Society, which took place after a few days of a 3 day-long ‘Regional Seminar on Cyber
Crime’ in Dhaka. 4. E-mail threatening the current Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina from a cyber cafe.

5. Hacking into the Internet account of Barisal DC office in 2003 AD, the incident was revealed after the DC office received a heavily bloated Internet bill and lodged a complaint with the Bangladesh Tar and Telephone Board (BTTB).

6. Hacking took place in the website of Bangladesh Rapid Action
Battalion (RAB) in 2008, during the access to www.rab.gov.bd, the website read: "Hacked by Shahee_Mirza."

7. Hacking the mail of BRAC Bangladesh

8. Stealing the transaction report of Dhaka Stock Exchange through

Some New Dimensions as Remedy against Cyber Crime
I) Constitutional Safeguard: Bangladesh is a country of constitutional supremacy. Constitutional provisions against cyber crimes may escort the cyber warfare.

II) Special Wing of Police: For a digital Bangladesh, we need to build a special wing of police to ensure peaceful cyber cloud. Bangladesh can initiate such special police wings as a new armament against hi-tech threats along with other deterrent actions.
III) Cyber Crime Agency by Government:
Considering the present situation of using internet and increasing cyber crime in Bangladesh, Government can also commence such types of agencies. The worth of such agencies is that these will be able to perform multidimensional actions like advancing the internet infrastructure, maintaining the ISPs, fixing the internet using charges, preventing the cyber threats etc.
IV) Watch Dog Group:At present there is no such organization in Bangladesh, but in consideration with the escalating cyber threats, these doggy groups can be one of the vital constituents for developing Bangladesh as an advanced country especially in internet technology. V) Public Awareness: This course is no less important than technological precautionary actions, because most of the time common people become the victims of cyber threats. Like other vital issues, the government should create awareness among the mass people all over the country through different media. Besides, NGOs and other organizations can commence campaign in this regard.

8. Conclusion
At present we are a developing country and trying our best to be a developed one. In order to digitalize Bangladesh there is no alternative to secured technological advancement among which tenable internet using should prevail in priority. Finally, we have to remember that technology is such a thing which is changing its nature and direction every moment and we have to achieve the maximum capability to fight its change in every moment change both in physical and virtual world for a perpetual existence.

OBJECTIVES
•Types of cybercrime with the profile of cyber criminals and victims;•Impact of cybercrime against individuals;•Impact of cybercrime against organizations;•Impact of cybercrime against the Government;•Necessary Legislations in Bangladesh to tackle Cybercrime.
The overall purpose of the study was to identify the impactof cybercrime in Bangladesh with regard totechnological enhancement.

METHODOLOGY
•Literature Review (secondary source of information; journals, reports etc.)•In-depth interviews were made with the Manager and others of Cyber café.• Focus Group Discussion with the students of private university.• Key Informant Interview with the Member of Cybercrime unit.
By design, this is an exploratory type of qualitative study attempts to unearth the in-depth of cybercrime in Bangladesh.

LIMITATIONS
•The duration of the study was very short. More in-depthinvestigation would have resulted better outputs;•Lack of resources has hampered the study to some extent;•Access to information is very difficult. In most cases, concernedpersons were very rigid to share adequate information.
The study has suffered certain limitations as below:
TYPES OF CYBERCRIME WITH THE PROFILE OFCYBER CRIMINALS AND VICTIMS AND REASONS •Types of Cybercrime –Hacking –Virus Dissemination –Software Piracy –Pornography –Credit Card Fraud
•Reasons of cybercrime –Easy to access –Complex –Loss of evidence
TYPES OF CYBERCRIME WITH THE PROFILE OFCYBER CRIMINALS AND VICTIMS AND REASONS •Types of Cybercrime –Hacking –Virus Dissemination –Software Piracy –Pornography –Credit Card Fraud
•Reasons of cybercrime –Easy to access –Complex –Loss of evidence
MPACT OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST INDIVIDUALS •Impacts against individuals –Harassment via e-mails –Cyber-stalking –Pornography –Defamation –E- mail spoofing –Fraud & Cheating
•Impacts against individuals property –Computer vandalism –Transmitting virus/worms –Web jacking –Internet time thefts –Intellectual Property crimes / Distribution of pirated software
IMPACT OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST ORGANIZATIONS
•Unauthorized control/access over computer system•Possession of unauthorized information•Software Pirate and Copyright•Financial Institutions are at risk
IMPACT OF CYBERCRIME AGAINST THEGOVERNMENT
•Cyber terrorism against the government organization•Trafficking
NECESSARY LEGISLATIONS IN BANGLADESH TOTACKLE CYBERCRIME
•ICT ACT 2006•Cyber Appellate Tribunal•Cyber Tribunal
RECOMMENDATIONS
•Clear and self-explanatory Standard Operating Procedure to be imposed immediately for theCybercrime Unit;•A comprehensive induction program should bedeveloped for all the concerns of ICT and implement itas pilot basis;•A separate Cybercrime Protection Act should beenacted;•There must be a clear operating procedure to run Cybercafé and VOIP in Bangladesh.

Short Essay on Cyber Crime – Cyber crime is the latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world. The term “Cyber Crime” has nowhere been defined in any statute or Act passed or enacted by the Indian Parliament.
Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime.
It is rapidly evolving from simple e-mail mischief where offenders send obscene e-mail, to more serious offences like theft of information, e-mail bombing to crashing servers etc.
The types of cyber crimes include pornography, cyber fraud, defamation, cyber stalking, harassment, IPR theft, data hostage, money laundering, phishing, e-mail bombing, cyber war, illegal EFT.
Cyber crime is different and more heinous than conventional crime as in cyber crime; the crime is committed in an electronic medium and here means read is not a requirement but is rather a general rule under the penal provisions of the Information Technology Act. The Indian Parliament considered it necessary to give effect to the resolution by which U.N.
General Assembly adopted Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted by the United Nations Commission on Trade Law. As a consequence of which the Information Technology Act, 2000 was passed. This Act was a welcome step at a time when there was no legislation on this field. The Act has however during its application proved to be inadequate and there are certain loopholes in the Act.
Cyber Crime in the Act is neither comprehensive nor exhaustive. The Information Technology Act has not dealt with cyber nuisance, cyber stalking, and cyber defamation and so on. Cases of spam, hacking, stalking and e-mail fraud are rampant although cyber crimes cells have been set-up in major cities. The problem is that most cases remain unreported due to lack of awareness.
Capacity of human mind is unfathomable. It is not possible to eliminate cyber crime from the cyber space. However, it is quite possible to check them.
The home user segment is the largest recipient of cyber attacks as they are less likely to have established security measures in place and therefore it is necessary that people should be made aware of their rights and duties.
Users must try and save any electronic information trail on their computers, use of anti-virus software, firewalls, use of intrusion detection system etc. and further making the application of the laws more stringent to check crime.

Cyber crime
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The rapid growth of the internet and computer technology over the past few years has led to the growth in new forms of crime-dubbed cyber crime- throughout the world. Based on statistics on the various forms of cyber crime and other evidence which form of cyber crime pose the most serious threat to individuals and business? What concrete steps should government take to protect individuals’ n companies from cyber criminal? What can individual and business do to protect themselves against cyber crime?

Word count:725 words
Introduction
Types of Cyber Crime
Ways to fight cyber crime by individuals.
Ways to fight cyber crime by government
Conclusion

Introduction
About two years ago I received a mail that I won a lottery worth 10 million dollars and out of curiosity and excitement I unwrapped it but was disappointed .But then about a couple weeks later though I did not receive the prize money but I received all sorts of bills that had to be paid. My father received bills for many different things such as electronics, clothes, and other items that had been purchased under our account on the Internet. My father was so pissed off because he thought that my brother or I had purchased all those items. So we called the Company and found that our computer had been hacked into. And the so called hacker purchased items on our account number. And we found that the hacker gained entry by a message that I had opened. So we ended up paying only few thousands. This is called cyber crime but I prefer to call it cyber terrorism that has attacked us from our computer screens and made our lives miserable.

Types of Cyber Crime
Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on the internet using computer as a tool and we innocents are the target. There are various forms of cyber crime like Spamming. I am sure all of us has encountered unwanted product advertisements. PIRACY is also a serious threat that involves illegal reproduction and distribution of software applications, games, movies and audio CDs which is causing a huge monetary loss to entertainment industry world wide
Hacking is also a serious crime by a hacker who is simply a talented computer user who misuse his vast knowledge . Virus attacks that say “I love you” enters our computer and destroys all the computer information are also a serious threat. Computer frauds , thefts and harassments through social networking sites like orut and facebook are also daggering our lives. Undoubtedly we cannot single out only one crime that is posing maximum threat but all forms of crimes are equally posing a serious threat to both business and individuals.
Ways to fight cyber crime by individuals.
To fight back the individual and businessman should be proactive, not reactive We do not have to remain at the receiving end of crime forever. The fight against cyber crime starts in our very own home .We should not reply any e-mail from unknown persons, we should learn to report spam mails to the e-mail servers .We should not upload our personal information on social networking sites or our account details on other such sites. Also the use antivirus soft wares can be a great help to fight against viruses and worms.
Ways to fight cyber crime by government
The author of the "Lovebug" virus remains free because his nation did not have cyber crime laws. The "AnnaKournikova" virus caused billions of dollars in damage, but the individual who distributed it received only 150 hours of community service as a penalty Cybercrime is not “armed robbery”, not “pen and paper crime” and should not be handle as such. Fighting Cybercrime requires intelligent knowledge and that has to be IT intelligence. What I mean is this, men of the regular Police force should not be allowed to investigate crimes committed over the internet. IT experts should be recruited into law enforcement agencies to assist in the fight.At this hour when cyber crime is growing in leaps and bounds with growing technology the government need to strengthen criminal penalties against computer crimes; work to harmonize laws against cyber crime internationally; and improve coordination among law enforcement authorities in different jurisdictions.
Conclusion
There will always be new and unexpected challenges to stay ahead of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists but we can win only through partnership and collaboration of both individuals and government. There is much we can do to ensure a safe, secure and trustworthy computing environment. It is crucial not only to our national sense of well-being, but also to our national security and economy.

Problem Solving Report http://www.scribd.com/doc/27042582/Cybercrime-and-its-Impact-in-Bangladesh The crime in which the computer is die target.
This includes such offences as theft of intellectual property, theft of marketing information or blackmail based on information gained from computerized files. These crimes cause sabotage of intellectual property, marketing, pricing, personal data and programmes with the intent to impede a business or create chaos in a business operations. There are many kinds of cyber crime such as computer targeted crime, hacking, pheraking etc.
Crime in which the computer is targeted, various important dates are stolen that may be related with intellectual property, marketing information, personnel data. In case of Hacking, a Hacker who is technically sophisticated computer user, who enjoys exploring computer system and programmers.
He also seeks to extend to the maximum his knowledge in this field. A hacker generally illegally introduced into computer systems and takes away valuable information relating to highly secrecy. Whereas phreaking is the action of pirating telephone networks. This is also related to computer hacking.
The parliament of India has passed the first cyber law, the Information Technology Act, 2000, which provides legal infrastructure for controlling the crime. The objective of this act is to provide legal recognition for transaction carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication such as electronic commerce which involves the use of electronic filling of documents with the government agencies.

Cybercrime and Its Impact in Bangladesh Preface
Cyber and technology related crime is on the increase and current trends indicate that itwill be a significant issue in Bangladesh. It has already been seen that a glomming threatbecomes visible in the arena of information technology. Recently the hacking of RABwebsite and e-mail threats of former prime minister are example for few of them.In contrast, cybercrime is becoming a threat to government itself. Due to lack of necessary legislation to tackle such type of crime, cyber criminals are almost in the safeside to commit such crime. In the Information and Communication Technology Act.2006, there are several clauses against cybercrime. But this Information andCommunication Technology act is not the concert one. By enacting this act, there is achance to become safe side after committing crimes. So, considering these facts acomprehensive Cybercrime Protection Act should be imposed.This report incorporates the impacts of cybercrime in Bangladesh especially focuses onthe area of Personal life, Workplace as well as Policy making Bodies or thinkers. Webelieve the report would help all relevant concerns and especially policy makers.

Prevention of cyber crime: Prevention is always better than cure. It is always better to take certain precaution while operating the net. A should make them his part of cyber life. Saileshkumar Zarkar, technical advisor and network security consultant to the Mumbai PoliceCyber crime Cell, advocates the 5P mantra for online security: Precaution, Prevention, Protection, Preservation and Perseverance. A netizen should keep in mind thefollowing things- 1. To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing any information pertaining to one. This is as good as disclosing your identity to strangers in public place. 2. Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and chatfriends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographs. 3. Always use latest and up date anti virus software to guard against virus attacks.

4. Always keep back up volumes so that one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination. 5. Never send your credit card number to any site that is not secured, to guard againstfrauds.6. Always keep a watch on the sites that your children are accessing to prevent anykind of harassment or depravation in children. 7. It is better to use a security programme that gives control over the cookies and sendinformation back to the site as leaving the cookies unguarded might prove fatal. 8. Web site owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. Puttinghost-based intrusion detection devices on servers may do this. 9. Use of firewalls may be beneficial. 10. Web servers running public sites must be physically separate protected frominternal corporate network

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