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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Improving of effective communication skills help us better understand a person or situation and enable us to resolve differences, build trust and respect, and create environments where creative ideas, problem solving, affection, and caring can flourish. As simple as communication seems, much of what we try to communicate to others and what others try to communicate to us, gets misunderstood, which can cause conflict and frustration in personal and professional relationships. By learning these effective communication skills, you can better connect with your spouse, kids, friends, and coworkers. In simply, its activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving peoples information. The successful communication include, basic four skills such as Listing, speaking Reading and writing. 2. As officers in security forces and police department, it is necessary to enhance abovementioned communication skills for betterment of our self and others. From the above mentioned skills conversation skills is important to work in any environment. There for learning of conversation skills very important as we communicate with each verbally and non-verbally. CONVERSATION 3. Conversation is the essence of interpersonal communication. In many scholarly views they are equivalent and among no scholars the words conversation and interpersonal communication often men the same thing. Conversation occurs when two or three people exchange messages, weather face to face, over the telephone, through apartment walls, or on internet. STAGES OF CONVERSATION PROCESS 4. There are five stages of conversation process Opening

Feed forward


5. The opening. The first step is to open the conversation, usually with some kind of greeting. Greetings can be verbal or nonverbal and are usually both. Verbal greetings include, for example, verbal salutes ("Hi," "Hello"), initiation of the topic (The reason I called ") making reference to the other ("Hey, Joe, what's up?"), and personal inquiries ("What’s new?" " How are you doing?")Openings are also generally consistent in tone with the main part of the conversation, a cheery "How ya doing today, big guy?" is not normally followed by news of a family death.In opening a conversation, consider two general guidelines. Fist, be positive. Lead off with something positive rather than something negative. Say, for example, "I really enjoy coming here" instead of "Don't you just hate this place?" Second, don't be too revealing; don't self-disclose too early in an interaction. If you do, you risk making the other person feel uncomfortable.
6. Feed forward. At the second step there's usually some kind of feed forward. Here you give the other person a general idea of what the conversation will focus on. "I" ve got to tell you about Jack," "Did you hear what happened in class yesterday?" or "We need to talk about our vacation plans.”Feed forward may also identify the tone of the conversation ("I'm really depressed and need to talk with you")
7. Business. The third step is the "business," the substance or focus of the conversation This is obviously the longest part of the conversation and the reason for both the opening and the feed forward. Business is a good term to use for this stage, because it emphasizes that most conversation - whether face-to-face, on the phone, or via e-mail - are goal directed.The business is conducted through an exchange of speaker and listener roles. Usually, brief (rather than long) speaking turns characterize the most satisfying conversations.
8. Feedback. The fourth step is the reverse of the second. In feedback you reflect back on the conversation to signal that as far as you're concerned, the business is completed: "So you may want to send Jack a get-well card," "Wasn't that the craziest class you ever heard of?" or "I'll call for reservations while you shop for what we need."Of course, the other person may not agree that the business is completed and may therefore counter with, for example, "But what hospital is he in?" When this happens, you normally go back a step and continue the business.
9. Closing. The fifth and last step, the opposite of the first step, is the closing, the good-bye. Like the opening, the closing may be verbal or nonverbal but is usually a combination of both. Most obviously, the closing signals the end of accessibility just as the opening signaled access. The closing usually also signals some degree of supportiveness; for example, you express your pleasure in interacting, as in "Well, it was good talking with you.” The closing may also summarize the interaction.
10. The defining feature of conversation is that the roles of speaker and listener are exchanged throughout the interaction. You accomplish this exchange, or conversational management, by using a wide variety of verbal and nonverbal cues to signal conversational turns - the changing (or maintaining) of the speaker or listener role during the conversation. The majority of today's e-mail lacks this frequent exchange of roles between sender and receiver; the exchanges take place with hours, days, or even weeks intervening between the sending and the responding Such feedback lacks the immediacy that's common in face-to-face conversation - though, again, with video and voice capabilities, this distinction may fade.
11. Combining the insights of variety of communication researchers thre are conversational turns in terms of speaker cues and listener cues.
12. Speakers regulate the conversation through two major types of cues. Those are Turn-Maintaining Cues and Turn-Yielding Cues.
13. Turn-Maintaining Cues. Turn-Maintaining cues are designed to enable a person to maintain the role of speaker and may be communicate in a variety of ways audibly inhaling breath to show that the speaker has more to say
a. Continuing a gesture or series of gestures to show that the thought is not yet complete
b. Avoiding eye contact with the listener so as not to indicate that the speaking turn is being passed along
c. Sustaining the intonation pattern to indicate that more will be said
d. Vocalizing pauses to prevent the listener from speaking and to show that the speaker is still talking.
14. In most cases you expect the speaker to maintain relatively brief speaking turn over the speaking role to the listener willingly. People who don’t follow those unwritten rules are likely to be evaluated negatively
15. Turn-Yielding Cues. Turn-yielding cues tell the listener that the speaker is finished and wises to exchange the role of speaker for the role of listener. They tell the listener to take over the role of speaker. For example, you may at the end of a statement add some cue such as “okay?” or “right?” which ask one of the listeners to assume the role of speaker. You can also indicate that you’ve finished speaking by dropping your intonation, by a prolonged silence, by making direct eye contact with a listener, by asking some question, or by nodding in the direction of a particular listener.
16. As a listener you can regulate the conversation by using three types of cues those are turn requesting cues, turn denying cues, and back channeling cues.
17. Turn Requesting Cues. Turn-Requesting cues let the speaker know that you would like to say something and take turn as speaker. Sometimes you can do this simply by saying, “I’d like to say something,” but often it’s done more subtly through some vocalized er or um that tells the speaker that you would now like to speak. The request to speak is also often made with facial and mouth gestures. Frequently a listener will indicate a desire to speak by opening his or her eyes and mouth wide as if to say something, by beginning to gesture with a hand, or by leaning forward.
18. Turn Denying Cues. You can use turn denying cues to indicate your reluctance to assume the role of speaker’, for example, by intoning a slurred “I don’t know” or by giving some brief grunt that signals you have nothing to say. Often people accomplish turn denying eye contact with the speaker or by engaging in some behavior that is incompatible with speaking – for example, coughing or blowing their nose.
19. Back channeling cues. People use back channeling cues to communicate various type of information back to the speaker without assuming the role of the speaker. You can send a variety of messages with back channeling cues. You can indicate your agreement or disagreement with the speaker through smiles or frowns, gestures of approval or disapproval, brief comments such as “uh huh”.
20. To develop conversational competence or effectiveness, we need to look at interpersonal skills on two levels. On one level are the skills of effectiveness, such as openness and supportiveness. On other level, however, are skills that guide us in regulating our openness and our supportiveness. They are skills about skills, or metaskills.
21. Because each conversation is unique, the qualities of interpersonal competence, can’t be applied indiscriminately. You need to have metaskills to know how the skills themselves should be applied. You should be mindful, and culturally sensitive.
22. Mindfulness. After you’ve learned a skill or a rule, you often apply it without thinking; you apply it mindlessly, without considering the unique aspects of each situation. Instead, conversational skills need to be applied in accordance with the concept of mind- fullness and mindlessness.
23. Flexibility. You can best understand the concept of flexibility by examining specific communication situations and thinking about the way you would act in each. The following self-test, “how flexible are you in communication?”Will help you with this introspection.
24. Cultural Sensitivity. In applying the skills for interpersonal effectiveness, be sensitive to the cultural difference among people. Effectiveness in intercultural setting, according to Kim, requires that you be
a. Open to new ideas and to differences among people
b. Flexible in ways of communicating and in adapting to the communication of people who are culturally different
c. Tolerant of other attitudes, values, and ways of doing things
d. Creative in seeking varied ways to communicate 25. In another study, persons were more likely to be competent in intercultural communication when they had a high positive self concept and when they were appropriate self-disclosers, high self-monitors, behaviorally flexible, highly involving, adaptable and culturally aware. SKILLS IN CONVERSATIONAL COMPETENCE 26. The skills of conversational competence discussed here are openness, empathy, positive, immediacy, interaction management, expressiveness, and other-orientation. Most effective communicator is the person who is flexible and who adapts to the individual situation.
27. Openness. Openness embraces three aspects of interpersonal communication. First you should be willing to self-disclose to reveal information about yourself. A second aspect refers to your willingness to listen and react honestly to the messages and situations that confront you. Third openness call for owning feelings. To be open in this sense is to acknowledge that the feelings and thoughts you express are yours and that you bear the responsibility for them.
28. Empathy. When you empathize with someone, you're able to experience what the other is experiencing from that person's point of view. Empathy does not necessarily mean that you agree with what the other person says or does. You never lose your own identity or your own attitudes and beliefs. To empathize is to feel the same feelings in the same way as the other person does. (To sympathize, on the other hand, is to feel for the individual - to feel sorry for the person) Empathy, then, enables you to understand, emotionally and intellectually, what another person is experiencing.
29. Positiveness. You can communicate positiveness in interpersonal communication in at least two ways. First, you can state positive attitudes. Second, you can "stroke" the person with whom you interact. People who feel negative about themselves invariably communicate these feelings to others, who then return the positive feeling for the general communication situation. A negative response to a communication is sure to break down. Positiveness is most clearly evident in the way you phrase statements Consider these two sentences
a. You look horrible in stripes.
b. You look your best, I think, in solid colors.

30. Immediacy. The term immediacy refers to the joining of the speaker and listener, the creation of a sense of togetherness. The communicator who demonstrates immediacy conveys a sense of interest and attention, a liking for and an attraction to the other person. Here are a few ways immediacy may be communicated nonverbally and verbally:
31. Interaction Management. The effective communicator controls the interaction to the satisfaction of both parties. In effective interaction management, neither person feels ignored or on stage. Each contributes to the total communication interchange. Maintaining your role as speaker or listener and passing back and forth the opportunity to speak are interaction management skills. If one person speaks all the time and the other listens all the time, effective conversation becomes difficult if not impossible. Depending on the situation, one person may speak more than the other person. This imbalance, however,should occur because of the situation and not because one person is a ” talker ” and another a “ listener.”
32. Expressiveness. Expressiveness communicates genuine involvement in the interpersonal interaction. The expressive speaker plays the game instead of just watching it as a spectator. Expressiveness is similar to openness in its emphasis on involvement.It includes taking responsibility for your thoughts and feelings, encouraging expressiveness or openness in others, and providing appropriate feedback. Do recognize, however, that here too wide cultural difference sexist. For example. In the United States women are expected to participate fully in business discussions and to smile, laugh, and initiate interactions. These behaviors are so expected and seemingly so natural that it seems strange even mentioning them. But in many other countries.

33. Other Orientation. Some people are primarily self – oriented and talk mainly about themselves, their experiences, their interests, and their desires. They do most of the talking, and they tend to pay little attention to verbal and nonverbal feedback from the other person. Other orientation is the opposite of self – orientation. It involves the ability to communicate attentiveness and interest in the other person and in what is being said Without other orientation each person pursues his or her own goal instead of cooperating and working with others to achieve a common goal.


34. In conversation you may anticipate a problem and seek to prevent it. Or you may discover that you said or did something that will lead to disapproval, and you may seek to excuse yourself Here we’ll look at one example of a device to prevent potential conversational problems ( the disclaimer ) and one example of a device to repair conversational problems ( the excuse ). The purpose of these examples is simply to illustrate the complexity of these processes and not to present an exhaustive listing of the ways in which conversational problems may be prevented repaired


35. Suppose, for example, you fear that your listeners will think your comment is inappropriate in the present context, or that they many rush to judge you without hearing your full account, or that they may wonder if you’re not in full possession of your faculties. In these cases, you may use some form of disclaimer. A disclaimer is a statement that aims to ensure that your massage will be understood and will not reflect negatively on you Think about your one use of disclaimers as you read about these five types .

CHAPTER TWO THE MOVIE BRAVEHEART 1. The movie Braveheart takes place in Scotland in the 13th century. The main subject is Scotland’s fight for independence, but there are also other subjects like love and faithfulness. The main caracter is William Wallace, who gets the whole Scotland to fight with him against the Englishmen. 2. Williams’s father and brother died fighting against the Englishmen when he was a little child. He was taken care of by his uncle and travelled around Europe with him until he was about 20 years old. Then he returned to his originally home place. Here William fell in love with a girl, Murron, and they got married secretly. They kept it secret because Longshanks gave all the English nobles the right to rape all new-married women before the husband could touch them, and William didn’t want to share Murron with any English noble. Unfortunately Murron almost got raped, and then killed by the English soldiers. William, with revenge in mind, attacked the English soldiers. He and the rest of the village managed to kill all the soldiers. 3. William created an army, and they fought against the Englishmen. They won, and William got the title Sir for his work. Afterwards they burned an English garnison and told the ones who survived: “I am William Wallace, and the rest of you will be spared. Go back to England, and tell them there that Scotland's daughters and her sons are yours no more. Tell them Scotland is free.”Then they invaded York, and took over the city. They also sendt the head from the dead master of York to Longshanks. King Edward of England sends his son’s wife, Princess Isabella, to York to give William an offer he couldn’t refuse; money and land. Isabella and William talked in private and William said that he couldn’t take her offer. She asked about his wife, and he told her what happened to her. When Isabella came back to London, the king told everybody that they would send troops to destroy Scotland when William was not there. Isabella sendt her maid to York with a letter to warn William.

4. William and his army went back to Scotland to prepare themselves for a new battle. William got three of the nobles in the area with him, including Sir Robert Bruce that admired
5. William for his courage and strong will. When they came to the battlefield, the nobles abandoned William and his army alone with the Englishmen. They lost, but William survived. The most shocking experience for William was that Bruce had changed side and joined the Englishmen. 6. William went to meet Bruce, but he got captured by some English soldiers. Bruce tried to help him, but he didn’t manage. William didn’t beg for mercy, and he got tortured, and then executed. His last word was when he shouted “freedom”. 7. The film finishes off with Robert the Bruce saying: “In the year of our Lord 1314, patriots of Scotland, starving and outnumbered, charged the fields at Bannockburn. They fought like warrior poets. They fought like Scotsmen. And won their freedom.”


8. William. William is the main character in this film, the person who fights against the Englishmen. William was a man who fought for his land with body and mind. He never gave up his dream of a free Scotland. He was from an early age interested in the fight for independence, and when his father and brother died in a battle against the Englishmen, his dream of independence grew stronger.William was six and a half feet tall and had long brown hair. He wore a kilt like a normal Scottish man, and his clothes and hair was dirty.William fell in love with Murron the moment he saw her. He looked her up the minute he got to the village, and asked her out on a horse ride in the rain. This shows that William was a direct person, and wasn’t shy to ask Murron out.When William had married Murron, he didn’t originally want to fight against the Englishmen. He wanted to settle down, and get children. Unfortunately Murron got killed and his hate against the Englishmen rose.William fell in love with Isabella because he saw the strength in her that he had seen in Murron. He told Isabella about his wife “I see her strength in you”.

9. Murron. Murron is one of the most important persons in Braveheart because she’s the reason why William started to fight against the Englishmen. Murron was one of the women in the village where William lived. She had brown hair and always a smile on her face. She had known William her whole life, but she didn’t fell in love with him before he came back from his journeys around the world. Originally, Murron was a quiet and a little bit shy, but she loosened up a bit when she fell in love with William.Murron was a bit shy, but she was also a strong person who said what she meant all the time. She had a strength that William admired her for. She was killed because of the crime of being in love and because she got married secretly.

10. Sir Robert Bruce. Robert the Bruce lived like a king. He had fine and clean clothes and much land. For him, the clothes and land meant nothing. He admired William very much, and he could gladly give all of his land away for the strength and will for freedom William had. The only person who stood in his way was his father. The only person he listened to, except himself, was his father. His father was the one who made him change side to the Englishmen’s, and when he saw the disappointment in Williams’s eyes, he never listened to his father again. He led the Scots to victory when William was dead. I think he is important in this film because his caracter tells me that I should listen to myself, and don’t let anyone else take for example important decisions for me. He led the Scots to victory with following words before the battle:“You have bled with Wallace, now bleed with me.”

11. Edward the King. King Edward was also known as Edward Longshanks. He is important in this film because he was the one who were fighting against William, the one who stood against him and captured him in the end. He was old and had grey hair. Longshanks was a ruthless king. He did everything to stop William, since he also sacrificed his own men, lots of them, to get rid of William. For example when Longshanks ordered the archers to shoot on the Scots, when he also would hit his own men, to kill William. Every threat to him and his power and land made him do anything to stop what may come. He died right after William, and he was glad to know that William was dead.

12. The French Princess. Princess Isabella was sent from France to marry the prince of England, and had an important role in Williams’s life. She had long brown hair, and was very pretty. She was a strong person. Isabella fell in love with William because of his passion for Scotland and because he was so in love with his dead wife that he fought like a hero. After she had met William in York Isabella decided to help him. She was so upset when William was about to be tortured and then executed, that she offered him a drink that would ease his pains before he got tortured. Her plan when Longshanks died was to be queen and don’t let her husband rule England. She even said that to Longshanks when he was dying and lost his power of speech:You see, death comes to us all. But before it comes to you, know this. Your plot dies with you. A child who is not of your line grows in my belly. Your son will not sit long on the thrown, I swear it.

CHAPTER THREE CONVERSATION ANALYSIS Robert the Bruce (narrator): I shall tell you of William Wallace.Historians from England will say I am a liar, but history is written bythose who have hanged heroes. The king of Scotland had died without a son,and the King of England, a cruel pagan known as Edward the Longshanks, claimed the thrown of Scotland for himself. Scotland's nobles fought him,and fought each other over the crown. So Longshanks invited them to talksof truce, no weapons, one page only. Among the farmers of that shire wasMalcolm Wallace, a commoner with his own lands. He had two sons: John andWilliam. Malcolm: I told you to stay. (Turn yielding cues) William: Well, I finished my work. Where are we going?(Feedforward).(Turn Denying Cues)

Malcolm: MacAndrews. He was supposed to fess up when the gathering wasover. William: Can I come? (Turn requesting cues) Malcolm: No. Go home, boy. (Back channeling cues) William: But I want to go. Malcolm: Go home William or you'll the back of my hand. John: Follow him, William. (Above dialogues between young William and Malcolm disclosed the directness of William andhe wanted toforward his request in a truthfulway.)

Malcolm: MacAndrews; MacAndrews. Great Jesus! William: Ah! (screams) (Young William witnesses the bodies of those murdered by the English dangling from the barn roof, I seethe villains as murderers of children. I feel this as very sad moment of the movie. ) Malcolm: It's all right! William! (Turn yielding cues) John: William!(Turn yielding cues) Malcolm: It's all right. Easy lad. Dead Page Boy: William! (in Wallace's house) Campbell: We fight them! MacClannough: Every nobleman who had the will to fight was at that meeting.We cannot beat an army. Malcolm: We do not have to defeat them. Just fight them. Now who's with me? Positiveness– should posess positive attudes Campbell (among others): I am, Wallace.(Turn requesting cues) MacClannough: Alright, alright..(Turn Denying Cues) Malcolm: Ay.(Back channeling) Malcolm: Where do you think you're going? (Turn yielding cues) William: I'm going with you. Malcolm: Oh, you're going with, hey? And what are you going to do? William: I'm gonna help. (Turn requesting cues)

Malcolm: Hey, and a good help you'd be, too. But I need you to stay hereand look after the place for me while I'm away. William: I can fight! (Turn yielding cues)

Malcolm: I know. I know you can fight. But it's out wits that make us men.See you tomorrow. John: Ha!(Back channeling) Hamish: English! William: Get down! (Back channeling) Hamish: With your father and brother gone, they'll kill us and burn thefarm. William: It's up to us, Hamish. Both boys: Ahhhh! (Throw rocks) --------------------------------------------------------------------- William: Da? Da? (Back channeling) Campbell: William, come here lad. (Funeral) Priest: (speaks Latin) Argyle: William, I am your uncle, Argyle.(Turn – Requesting Cues) You have the look of your mother. (Feed forward) Argyle: We'll stay here tonight. Tomorrow you'll come home with me. (Business). (Turn – Requesting Cues) A sense of family commitment is suggested by the warm glow illuminating William and his uncle as they eat together. The strong father-son relationships of William.

William: I don't want to leave. (Turn yielding cues)

Argyle: You didn't want your father to die either, did ya? But it happened.Did the priest give a poetic benediction? "The Lord blesses thee and keeps thee"? William: It was in Latin. Argyle: You don't speak Latin? Well that's something we shall have toremedy, isn't it. Argyle: The Lord blesses thee and keeps thee. The Lord causes his light toshine on thee. The Lord lifts up his continence upon thee. And give theepeace. Amen. Dead Malcolm: Your heart is free. Have the courage to follow her. Cultural sensitivity: in order to havecorrect understanding of this act we should have an impression about others cultures. (Campbell plays bagpipes) William: What are they doing? (Turn yielding cues)

Argyle: Saying goodbye in theirown way. Playing outlawed tunes on outlawed pipes. It was the same for me and your daddy, when our father was killed. (William looks at sword) Argyle: First, learn to use this (mind), then I'll teach you to use this (sword). --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert the Bruce (narrator): Many years later, Edward the Longshanks, King of England, supervised the wedding of his eldest son, who would succeed himto the throne. As bride for his son, Longshanks had chosen the daughter ofhis rival, the King of France. It was widely whispered that for theprincess to conceive, Longshanks would have to do the honors himself. Thatmay have been what he had in mind all along. Longshanks: Scotland, my land. The French will grovel to anyone with strength, but how will they believe our strength when we cannot rule the whole of our own island? Longshanks: Where is my son?(Opening) Isabella: Your pardon, my Lord. He asked me to come in his stead. Longshanks: I sent for him and he sends you? Isabella: Shall I leave, my Lord? Longshanks: If he wants his Queen to rule when I am gone, then by all means stay, and learn how. Please. (Feedforward) Longshanks: Nobles. Nobles are the key to the door of Scotland. Grant our nobles lands in the north. Give their nobles estates here in England, and make them too ready to oppose us. Advisor: But sire, our nobles will be reluctant to uproot. New lands mean new taxes, and they are already taxed for the war in France. Longshanks: Are they? Are they? The trouble with Scotland is that it's full of Scots. Perhaps the time has come to reinstitute an old custom. Grant them prima noctes. First night, when any common girl inhabiting their lands is married, our nobles shall have sexual rights to her on the night of her wedding. If we can't get them out, we breed them out. That should fetch just the kind of lords we want to Scotland, taxes or no taxes. (Business) Advisor: A most excellent idea, sire. (Backchanneling Cues) Longshanks: Is it? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert the Bruce (narrator): Now in Edinburgh, gathered the council ofScottish nobles. Among these was Robert, the 17th Earl of Bruce, theleading contender for the crown of Scotland. Robert the Bruce: I hear that Longshanks has granted prima noctes.(Feed forward) (Turn requesting cues)

Craig: Clearly meant to draw more of his supporters here. Robert the Bruce: My father believes that we must lull Longshanks intoconfidence by neither supporting his decree nor opposing it. Craig: A wise plan. And how is your father? We missed him at the council. Robert the Bruce: Ah. His affairs in France keep him long overdue, but hesends his greetings. And he says that I speak for all the Bruces, and forScotland. (Turn yielding cues) --------------------------------------------------------------------- William: (rides home and smells air)(Non Verbal Communication) (wedding celebration; music playing) They also gather together for happy occasions like the wedding, in which the open air setting, the music, the dancing, and the natural clothing are all reminiscent of the celebrations held bythe heroes.The lively music, the dancing, and the close-ups of smiling faces construct the heroes as a sociable crowd who,even when times are hard, know how to enjoy themselves. William: You dropped your rock. (Turn requesting cues) Hamish: Test of manhood. William: You win.(Back channeling Cues) .(Turn Denying Cues)

Hamish: Call it a test of soldiery, then. The English won't let us trainwith weapons, so we train with stones. (Turn maintaining Cues) William: Well, a test of a soldier is not in his arm, it's here (mind).(Empathy) Hamish: No, it's here (arm) (Back channeling)

(Hamish hits William) William: Hamish? Hamish: Uh huh. (Back channeling cues) (drumming, rock throwing contest) Campbell: Here you go, son. Show him how. Come on! Haha, my boy! William: That's a good throw.(Immediacy) Hamish: Ay. Ay, it was.(Turn maintaining cues) William: I was wondering if you could do that when it matters. As it, as ismatters in battle. Can you crush a man with that throw? Hamish: I could crush you, like a worm. William: You could?(Positiveness) (Turn yielding cues)

Hamish: Ay. (Back channeling)

William: Well then do it. Would you like to see him crush me like a worm? .(Turn – Requesting Cues) Crowd: Ay! (Back channeling)

William: Then do it..(Turn denying cues)

Hamish: You'll move. William: I will not.(Turn Denying Cues) (Turn yielding cues) Campbell: He'll move. (Hamish misses, William hits Hamish) Campbell: Fine display, young Wallace. William: You alright? You look a widdy bit shaky. (Turn yielding cues) Hamish: I should have remembered the rocks. William: Ay, you should have. Get up you big heap. It's good to see youagain. (Closing) Hamish: Ay, welcome home. (Turn maintaining cues) This dialogue shows the mindfulness of William which is a Meta skill in communication. Girl: William, will you dance with me? .(Turn – Requesting Cues)

William: Of course I will. (Back channeling Cues) (Turn yielding cues)

(Horses ride in) English lord: I have come to claim the right of prima noctes. As lord ofthese lands, I will bless this marriage by taking the bride into my bed onthe first night of her union. Scottish man: By God, you will not! Lord: It is my noble right.(Shows the culture of that time in Scotland between land and the commoners) (They ride off with bride). Smythe: Ha ha. Ha ha. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (raining, outside of Murron's house) William: Good evening, sir. (Opening conversation. Turn requesting) MacClannough: Ah, young Wallace. Grand soft evening, huh? William: Ay, is that. I was wondering if I might have a word with yourdaughter. (Forwards his business of the conversation) MacClannough: What do you want to have a word with her about?
(Turn yielding cues) William: Well, ah, Murron, would you like to come and ride with me on thisfine evening?
(Turn yielding cues) Mrs. MacClannough: In this? You're out of your mind. William: Oh, it's good Scottish weather, madam. The rain is fallin'straight down, well slightly to the side like. Mrs. MacClannough: She cannot go with you. William: No? (Turn maintaining cues)

Mrs. MacClannough: No the no, anyway. William: No the no. MacClannough: No the no. We'll see you later..(Turn denying cues)

Murron: 'O the weather's just fine. It's hardly raining. (Turn maintaining cues)

Mrs. MacClannough: Did you no hear what I said? Now get--Murron. It's youshe takes after. William: How did you know me after so long? (Turn requesting cues)

Murron: Why, I didn't.(Feedback) William: No? (Turn maintaining cues) Murron: It's just that I saw you staring at me and I didn't know who you were. William: 'O sorry, I suppose I was. Are you in the habit of riding off inthe rain with strangers? Murron: It was the best way to make you leave. William: Well, if I can ever work up the courage to ask you again, I'llsend you a written warning first. Murron: 'O it wouldn't do you much good. I can't read. William: Can you not? (Turn yielding cues) Murron: no. William: Well that's something we shall have to remedy, isn't it. Murron: You're going to teach me to read, then? William: Ah, if you like. (Turn yielding cues) Murron: Ay. William: In what language? Murron: Are you showing off now? William: That's right. Are you impressed yet? Murron: No. Why should I be? William: (in French) Yes. Because every single day I thought about you. Murron: Do that standing on your head and I'll be impressed. William: My kilt may fly up but I'll try. Murron: You certainly didn't learn any manners on your travels. William: I'm afraid the Romans have far worse manners than I. Murron: You've been to Rome? William: Ay, my uncle took me on a pilgrimage. Murron: What was it like? William: (in French) Not nearly as beautiful as you. Murron: What does that mean? William: Beautiful. But I belong here. (This dialogue is an example of openness and empathy where both respect each other and speak honestly this is a very needed skill in communication which is to be successful) Mrs. MacClannough: Murron, come in now. --------------------------------------------------------------------- William: Sir, I know it was strange of me to invite Murron to ride lastnight, but I assure you I-- Campbell: MacClannough's daughter is another matter. I've come to fetch youto a meeting. William: What kind of meeting? Campbell: The secret kind. MacClannough: Your meetings are a waste of time, Campbell. Campbell: Your father was a fighter, and a patriot. William: I know who my father was. I came back home to raise crops, and Godwilling a family. If I can live in peace, I will. MacClannough: You say you want to stay out of the troubles? William: Ay. MacClannough: If you can prove it, you may court my daughter. Until you prove it, my answer is no. William: No?(Turn Denying cues) MacClannough: No Wallace, no. (Turn Denying cues) William: Didn't I just prove it? MacClannough: No. (Turn Denying cues) William: No? MacClannough: No. This is too an open conversation where Murrons express his views directly --------------------------------------------------------------------------- William: Of coarse, running a farm is a lot of work, but that will all change when my sons arrive. Murron: So, you've got children? William: Well not yet, but I was hoping that you could help me with that. Murron: So you want me to marry you, then? William: Well, that's a bit sudden but alright. Murron: Is that what you call a proposal? William: I love you. Always have. I want to marry you. Is that a yes? Murron: Ay, that's a yes. (Back channeling)

William: We best hurry. He'll be waiting. Murron: Wait. William: Where are you going? William: What's that? (Turn yielding cues)

Murron: You'll see. William: Father. William: I will love you my whole life; you and no other. Murron: And I you; you and no other forever. Priest: (speaks Latin) William: When am I gonna see you again? Tonight? (Turn yielding cues)

Murron: I can't. William: Why not? (Turn yielding cues)

Murron: My dad's gotten suspicious. William: Not as suspicious as you (?). When? (Turn requesting cues)

Murron: Tonight.

William: Tonight? (Turn yielding cues)

Murron: Ay. (Back channeling)

--------------------------------------------------------------------- Smythe: Look lively, sergeant. Smythe: Where are you going lassie? Oo, that looks heavy. Let me help you. Murron: That's fine. (Turn yielding cues) Smythe: 'O, you remind me of my daughter back home. Smythe: Hello lassie. Soldier: Keep going, Smythe. (lots of screaming) Smythe: Ah, you bitch. An English soldier, who was earlier shown to relish in the taking of a bride due to the prima nocte law, watches Murrin as she walks by. The English soldiers trap her and intend to rape her. Tongue close up is intended to repulse the audience William: Are you alright? (Turn yielding cues) Murron: Ay. (Back channeling)

William: Can you ride? (Turn yielding cues) Murron: Ay. Smythe: Come back here, you bastard. William: Meet me at the grove. Ride. Smythe: They're getting away. William: Murron? Murron? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Magistrate: All of you know full well the great pains I've always taken never to be to strict, to rigid, with the application of our laws. And as a consequence, have we not learned to live together in relative peace and harmony? Ha? And this day's lawlessness is how you repay my leniency. Well you leave me with little choice. An assault on the king's soldiers is the same as an assault on the king himself. (He kills Murron) Magistrate: Now, let this scrapper come to me. (William saves his wife but she is captured soon after and killed as an example to the others. Above actions highlight the callous, gratuitous nature of English violence. This act remarks the beginning of the film after this act people tends to feel and unfair rule) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Soldier: There. (points at William) (fighting starts) Magistrate: Corporal, summon archers on the tower, now. Hamish: Hold still, father. Campbell: Ahh, boy! (William kills Magistrate) Campbell: MacClannough, MacClannough! Crowd of Scotsmen: MacClannough, MacClannough, WALLACE, WALLACE! (This act marks the courage of a Scottish man and his love and genuineness for his dead wife. These are the tinted action of the movie which constructs the spectators live within the movie.) --------------------------------------------------------------------- (Murron's Funeral) Priest: (speaks Latin) Mrs. MacClannough: (crying) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Campbell: What cha waiting for, boy? Hamish: Here. You can do it. I'll hold him down. Morrison: Here. You can do it. I'll hold him down. Campbell: Ay, straight in, boy. I know it seems like a waste of good whiskey, but indulge me. AHHH. Hamish: Hold him! Hold him! Scottish man: Let him go. Sorry. Campbell: That will wake you up in the morning, boy. Watch guard: There's somebody coming. Arm yourselves. Hamish: There's somebody coming. Campbell: MacGregors, from the next clan. MacGregor: We heard about what was happening, and we don't want you armidants thinking you can have your fun without us. William: Go home. Some of us are in this. We can't help that now. But you can help yourselves. Go home. MacGregor: We'll have no homes left when the English garrison from the castle comes through and burns us out. And they will. William and Campbell: Welcome! --------------------------------------------------------------------- (William's army enters, dressed as English patrol) English soldier: Patrol returning, my Lord. English Lord: So, what news? (Turn yielding cues)

(William hits Lord) English Lord: I have dispatched 100 soldiers to Lanark. They will bereturning now..(Turn denying cues)

William: Were they dressed like this? Actually, it was more like 50. Make it quick. Morrison: Do you remember me? Lord: I never did her any harm. It was my right. Morrison: Your right? Well I'm here to claim the right as a husband. William: I am William Wallace, and the rest of you will be spared. Go backto England, and tell them there that Scotland's daughters and her sons areyours no more. Tell them Scotland is free. Burn it. (Show the purpose or business of communication and a clear and a strong manner. William also in watchful of situation.) --------------------------------------------------------------------- (in English castle) Longshanks: Scottish rebels have routed one of my garrisons and murderedthe noble lord. Prince: I heard. This Wallace is a brigand, nothing more. Longshanks: And how would you deal with this brigand? Prince: Like any common thief. Have the local magistrate arrest him andpunish him accordingly. Longshanks: Leave us. Wallace has already killed the magistrate and takencontrol of the town. Stand up. Stand up. In the morning, I depart forFrance to press our rights there, and I leave you here to quell this littlerebellion, understood? Is it? One day you will be a king. At least try toact like one. Prince: Get away from me. I will need my military council. Nicolette: (in French) I hope your husband goes to Scotland and meetsWallace and then you'll be a widow. English soldier: After them. English leader: No point resisting. You're outnumbered and trapped. Now where are the rest of you? Where's Wallace? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert: Father? Leper: Ah, come in, come in. (The opening) Robert: A rebellion has begun. (Turn yielding cues) Leper: Under whom? Robert: A commoner named William Wallace. Leper: We will embrace this rebellion. Support it from our lands in the north. I will gain English favor by condemning it, and ordering it opposed from our lands in the south. Sit down. Stay a while. Robert: This Wallace, he doesn't even have a knighthood, but he fights with passion and he inspires. Leper: And you wish to charge off and fight as he did. So would I. (Turn yielding cues) Robert: Well, maybe it's time. (Turn maintaining cues)

Leper: It is time to survive. You're the 17th Robert Bruce. The 16 beforeyou passed you land and title because they didn't charge in. Call a meetingof the nobles. (This dialogue discloses the Williams act on a third person view.) Robert: But they do nothing but talk. Leper: Rightly so. They're as rich in English titles and lands as they arein Scottish, just as we are. Admire this man, this William Wallace. Uncompromising men are easy to admire. He has courage, so does a dog. Butit is exactly the ability to compromise that makes a man noble. Andunderstand this: Edward Longshanks is the most ruthless king ever to sit inthe thrown of England. And none of us, and nothing of Scotland will remain,unless we are as ruthless. Give in to our nobles. Knowing their minds isthe key to the thrown. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Prince: Wait. Wait. Look. This is right and this is left. Carry on. Carryon. Nicolette: (in French) When the king returns, he will bury them in thosenew clothes. Scotland is in chaos. Your husband is secretly sending an armynorth. Isabella: (in French) How do you know this? Nicolette: (in French) Last night I slept with a member of the War Council. Isabella: (in French) He shouldn't be telling secrets in bed. Nicolette: (in French) Englishmen don't know what a tongue is for. Isabella: (in French) Ah. This Scottish rebel, Wallace. He fights to avengea woman? Nicolette: (in French) I nearly forgot. A magistrate wished to capture him,and found he had a secret lover. So he cut the girl's throat to temptWallace to fight, and fight he did. Knowing his passion for his lost love,they next plotted to take him by desecrating the graves of his father andbrother, and setting an ambush at the grave of his love. He fought his waythrough the trap and carried her body to a secret place. Now that's love,no? Isabella: Love? I wouldn't know. (Turn Denying cues)

--------------------------------------------------------------------- William: You know, eventually Longshanks will send his whole Northern Armyagainst us. Campbell: Heavy cavalry, armored horse; shake the very ground. Hamish: They'll ride right over us. William: Uncle Argyle used to talk about it; how no army had ever stood upto a charge of heavy horse. Hamish: So what'll we do? (Turn Denying cues) Campbell: Run, hide, the highland way. William: We'll make spears. Hundreds of them. Long spears, twice as long asa man. Hamish: That long? William: Ay. (Turn maintaining cues)

Hamish: Some men are longer than others. Campbell: Your mother's been telling stories about me again, ah? --------------------------------------------------------------------- Guard: Volunteers coming in. Faudron: William Wallace, we've come to fight and to die for ya. William: Stand up, man. I'm not the pope. Faudron: My name is Faudron, and my sword is yours. I brought you this. Guard: We checked them for arms. Faudron: I brought you this. My wife made it for ya. William: Thank you. Stephen: (laughs) Him? That can't be William Wallace. I'm prettier thanthis man. Alright Father, I'll ask him. If I risk my neck for you, will Iget a chance to kill Englishmen? Hamish: Is your father a ghost or do you converse with the Almighty? Stephen: In order to find his equal, an Irishman is forced to talk to God.Yes, Father. The Almighty says don't change the subject; just answer thefooking question. Hamish: Mind your tongue. Campbell: Insane Irish. Stephen: (pulls dagger on Campbell) Smart enough to get a dagger past yourguards, old man. William: That's my friend, Irishman. And the answer to your question isyes; if you fight for me you get to kill the English. Stephen: Excellent. Stephen is my name. I'm the most wanted man on myisland, except I'm not on my island, of coarse. Mores the pity. Hamish: Your island? You mean Ireland. Stephen: Yeah. It's mine. Hamish: You're a madman. Stephen: I've come to the right place, then. (everyone laughs) --------------------------------------------------------------------- (Faurdontrys to kill Wallace, but Stephen saves him) Stephen: Sure didn't the Almighty send me to watch your back? I didn't likehim anyway. He wasn't right in the head. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Hamish: William, it's our runners. Morrison: The English are devising an army towards Scotland. William: Will the nobles rally? Runner: Robert the Bruce and most of the others will not commit to battle.But word is spread, and highlanders are coming down on their own. Morrison: Ay, in flocks of hundreds and thousands. William: Are you ready for a war? Mornay: Well, what news? Horseman: We're outnumbered, at least 3 to 1. Mornay: How many horse, then? Horseman: 300, maybe more. Mornay: 300 heavy horse? Lochlan: We must try to negotiate. Short soldier: What are they talking about? Tall soldier: I can't hear, but it doesn't look good. The nobles willnegotiate. If they do a deal, then we go home. And if not, we charge. Mornay: 300 heavy horse; we have no chance. Short soldier: I didn't come here to fight so they can own more lands; thenI have to work for them. Tall soldier: Nor me. Alright lads. I have no time for these bastards; letsgo home. Lochlan: Stop men. Do not leave. Wait until we've negotiated. Short soldier: William Wallace? Tall soldier: Can't be. Not tall enough. Stephen: The Almighty says this must be a fashionable fight. It's drawn thefinest people. Lochlan: Where is thy salute? William: For presenting yourselves on this battlefield, I give you thanks. Lochlan: This is our army. To join it you give homage. William: I give homage to Scotland. And if this is your army, why does itgo? Tall soldier: We didn't come here to fight for them. Short soldier: Home. The English are too many. William: Sons of Scotland, I am William Wallace. Short soldier: William Wallace is 7 feet tall. --------------------------------------------------------------------- William: Yes, I've heard. Kills men by the hundreds, and if he were herehe'd consume the English with fireballs from his eyes and bolts oflightning from his ass. I am William Wallace, and I see before me an armyof my countrymen here in defiance of tyranny. You have come to fight asfree men, and free men you are. What would you do without freedom? Will youfight? (Turn yielding cues)

Tall soldier: Fight against that? No, we will run, and we will live. William: Ay, fight and you may die, run and you'll live. At least a while.And dying in your beds many years from now, would you be willing to tradeall the days from this day to that for one chance, just one chance to comeback here and tell our enemies that they may take our lives, but they'llnever take our freedom. (Back channeling)(This conversation show the positiveness , expressiveness, mindfulness, immediacy which are skills required for a enhanced communication. Both verbal and nonverbal skills are used to address the gathering is excellent.) (cheeringfor English lord: They seem quite optimistic to me. Maybe they do want tofight. Cheltham: Confrontation might be a foregone conclusion, my lord. But nonethe less, I think we should deliver the king's terms. Lord: The king's terms will never live up to them. Cheltham: My lord, I think--. Lord: Alright, offer them the terms. Craig: They're coming out. Shall we go and meet them? (Turn yielding cues)

Stephen: Fine speech. Now what do we do? William: Just be yourselves. Hamish: Where are you going? (Turn yielding cues)

William: I'm going to pick a fight. * Hamish: Well, we didn't get dressed up for nothing. Cheltham: Mornay, Lochlan, Craig. Here are the king's terms. Lead this armyoff field and he will give you each estates in Yorkshire, includinghereditary title, from which you will pay--, from which you will pay him an annual duty--. William: I have an offer for you. (Turn yielding cues)

Mornay: Cheltham, this is William Wallace. Cheltham: From which you will pay the king an annual duty--. William: I said I have an offer for you. Lochlan: You disrespect a banner of truce? (Turn yielding cues)

William: From his king? Absolutely. Here are Scotland's terms. Lower yourflags, and march straight back to England, stopping at every home to begforgiveness for 100 years of theft, rape, and murder. Do that and your menshall live. Do it not, and every one of you will die today. (Turn requesting cues)

Cheltham: You are outmatched. You have no heavy cavalry. In two centuriesno army has won without--. William: I'm not finished. Before we let you leave, your commander mustcross that field, present himself before this army, put his head betweenhis legs, and kiss his own ass. Mornay: I'd say that was rather less cordial that he was used to. (Turn yielding cues)

William: You be ready and do exactly as I say. On my signal, ride roundbehind our position and flank them. Mornay: We must not divide our forces. William: Do it, and let the English see you do it. Mornay: They'll think we've run away. William: Take out their archers, and I'll meet you in the middle. Mornay: Alright. (Back channeling)

Priest: (speaks Latin) English Lord: Insolent bastard. I want this Wallace's head on a plate.Archers. (Scots scream) Stephen: The Lord says He can get me out of this mess, but He's pretty sureyou're fooked. Ah! (Turn yielding cues) (Scots scream) William: Ride! (A direct conversation between the two parties and one party fails there business because they did not receive the expected feedback.) Lord: See, every Scot with a horse is fleeing. Our cavalry will ride themdown like grass. Send the horse; full attack.
William: Hold! Hold! Hold! Now! (Back channeling)

(lots of screaming) Lord: Send the infantry. Cheltham: My Lord? (Turn yielding cues)

Lord: You lead them. (lots of fighting) Lord: Retreat! (Turn yielding cues)

William: Alright. William: (screaming) Scottish army: (screaming) WALLACE! --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Craig: I knight thee Sir William Wallace. Sir William, in the name of Godwe declare and appoint thee guardian and high protector of Scotland and thyCaptains as aides-de-camp. Stand and be recognized. Robert: Does anyone know his politics? Craig: No, but his weight with the commoners can unbalance everything. TheBalliols will kiss his ass so we must. Balliol supporter: Sir William, Sir William. Inasmuch as you and yourcaptains hail from a region long known to support the Balliol clan, may weinvite you to continue your support and uphold our rightful claim. (screaming) William: Gentlemen!, Gentlemen! Balliol supporter: Now is the time to declare a king. Mornay: Wait! Then you are prepared to recognize our legitimate succession. Balliol supporter: You're the ones who won't support the rightful claim. Mornay: Those were lies when you first wrote them. Balliol supporter: I demand recognition of these documents. Craig: Gentlemen! Please, Gentlemen! Wait! Sir William, where are yougoing? William: We have beaten the English, but they'll come back because youwon't stand together. Craig: Well what will you do? William: I will invade England and defeat the English on their own ground. Craig: Invade? That's impossible. William: Why? Why is that impossible? You're so concerned with squabblingfor the scraps from Longshank's table that you've missed your God givenright to something better. There is a difference between us. You think thepeople of this country exist to provide you with possession. I think yourpossession exists to provide those people with freedom. And I go to make sure that they have it. (William shot against blue sky as is his sword in the shape of the cross suggesting the vengeance has been had. The grey clouds have lifted and the Scots celebrate there win. However , the expression on his face remains grave suggesting the fight is far from over. Wallace is constructed as a folk hero. in the film he is characterised as a commoner, but in reality William Wallace was a wealthy man. He is man of the people. He belongs to that category of men who are driven by passion, isealism and an heroic impulse which is in direct contrast to their opponents who are self - seeking, mean and merciless.) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert: Wait! I respect what you said, but remember that these men have lands and castles. It's much to risk. William: And the common man who bleeds on the battlefield, does he riskless? Robert: No, but from top to bottom this country has no sense of itself. Itsnobles share allegiance with England. Its clans war with each other. If youmake enemies on both sides of the border, you'll end up dead. William: We all end up dead; it's just a question of how and why. Robert: I'm not a coward. I want what you want, but we need the nobles. William: We need them? Robert: Ay. William: Now tell me, what does that mean to be noble? Your title gives youclaim to the thrown of our country, but men don't follow titles, theyfollow courage. Now our people know you. Noble, and common, they respectyou. And if you would just lead them to freedom, they'd follow you. And sowould I. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Royal Governor of York: Damn it! The sodomite my cousin the prince tells mehe has no troops to lend and every town in Northern England is begging forhelp. Soldier: Wallace rides! Governor: To which town? Soldier: To here my Lord. Governor: Bring the food and provisions inside, double the wall guards,seal the gate, now! Soldier: Quickly, bring in the provisions, seal off the gate, NOW! Soldier: Sir, we can get you out if you leave now. Governor: I am not about to tell my Uncle I've lost him the greatest cityin Northern England. William: Come on! Scottish soldiers: AAAHHH! (lots of cheering, gate on fire) --------------------------------------------------------------------- (back in London) Soldier: Make way for the King. Philip: It's not your fault. Stand up to him. Prince: I will stand up to him and more. Longshanks: What news of the North? Prince: Nothing new, Your Majesty. We've sent riders to speed any word. Longshanks: I heard the word in France, where I was fighting to expand yourfuture kingdom. The word, my son, is that our entire Northern Army has beenannihilated. And you have done nothing. Prince: I have ordered conscriptions. They are assembled and ready todepart. Soldier: Excuse me, sire, but there is a very urgent message from York. Longshanks: Come. Leave us. Soldier: Yes, sire. Prince: Wallace has sacked York. Longshanks: What? Prince: Wallace has sacked York. Ah! Philip: Sire, thy own nephew. What beast could do such a thing? Longshanks: If he can sack York, he can invade lower England. Philip: We would stop him! Longshanks: Who is this person who speaks to me as though I needed hisadvise? Prince: I have declared Philip my High Counselor. Longshanks: Is he qualified? Philip: I am skilled in the arts of war and military tactics, sire. Longshanks: Are you? Then tell me, what advice would you offer on thepresent situation? (Longshanks kick's Philip out the window) Philip: AAAHHH! (Longshanks kicks Prince) Longshanks: I shall offer a truce and pie him off. But who will go to him?Not I, huh, if I fell under the sword of that murderer that might be myhead in a basket. And not my gentle son. The mere sight of him would onlyencourage the enemy to take over the whole country. So who do I send? Whomdo I send? --------------------------------------------------------------------- William: I'm dreaming. Murron: Yes you are, and you must wake. William: I don't want to wake. I want to stay here with you. Murron: And I with you. But you must wake now. Wake up, William. Wake up.William, wake up. Campbell: William, a royal entourage comes, flying banners of truce, withthe standard of Longshanks himself. Isabella: I am the Princess of Wales. I come as the king's servant and withhis authority. William: To do what? Isabella: To discuss the king's proposals. Will you speak with a woman? Isabella: I understand you have recently been given the rank of knight. William: I have been given nothing. God makes men what they are. Isabella: Did God make you the sacker of peaceful cities, the executionerof the king's nephew, my husband's own cousin? William: York was the staging point for every invasion of my country. Andthat royal cousin hanged innocent Scots, even women and children, from thecity walls. Oh, Longshanks did far worse the last time he took a Scottish city. Hamilton: (in Latin) He is a bloody murdering savage. And he's tellinglies. William: (in Latin) I never lie. But I am a savage. (in French) Or inFrench if you prefer. (in English) You ask your king to his face, ask him,and see if his eyes can convince you of the truth. Isabella: Hamilton, leave us. Hamilton: My lady? Isabella: Leave us. Now. Let us talk plainly. You invade England, but youcan not complete the conquest so far from your shelter and supply. The kingdesires peace. William: Longshanks desires peace? Isabella: He declares it to me, I swear it. He proposes that you withdrawyour attack. In return he grants you title, estates, and this chest of goldwhich I am to pay to you personally. William: A lordship and titles. Gold. That I should become Judas? Isabella: Peace is made in such ways. William: Slaves are made in such ways. The last time Longshanks spoke ofpeace I was a boy. And many Scottish nobles, who would not be slaves, werelured by him under a flag of truce to a barn where he had them hanged. Iwas very young, but I remember Longshank's notion of peace. Isabella: I understand you have suffered. I know about your woman. William: She was my wife. We married in secret because I would not shareher with an English Lord. They killed her to get to me. I have never spokenof it. I don't know why I tell you now except I see her strength in you.One day you'll be a queen, and you must open your eyes. You tell your kingthat William Wallace will not be ruled, and nor will any Scot while I live. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Longshanks: Ah, my son's loyal wife returns unkilled by the heathen. So heaccepted our bribe? Isabella: No, he did not. Longshanks: Then why does he stay? My scouts tell me that he has notadvanced. Isabella: He waits for you at York. He says he will attack no more towns orcities, if you are man enough to come and face him. Longshanks: Did he? The Welsh bowmen will not be detected arriving so fararound his flank. The main force of our armies from France will land hereto the north of Edinburgh. Conscripts from Ireland will approach from thesouthwest to here. Prince: Welsh bowmen,troops from France, Irish conscripts. Even if youdispatch them today they will take weeks to assemble. Longshanks: I dispatched them before I sent your wife. So our little rusesucceeded. Thank you. And while this upstart awaits my arrival in York, myforces will have arrived in Edinburgh behind him. You spoke with this Wallace in private? Tell me, what kind of man is he? Isabella: A mindless barbarian, not a king like you, my lord. Longshanks: You may return to your embroidery. Isabella: Humbly, my lord. Prince: You brought back the money, of coarse. Isabella: No, I gave it to ease the suffering of the children of this war. Longshanks: haha! That's what happens when you send a woman. Isabella: Forgive me, sire. I thought that generosity might demonstrateyour greatness to those you mean to rule. Longshanks: My greatness will be better demonstrated when Wallace returnsto Scotland and finds his country in ashes. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Hamish: William, there's riders approaching. Personal escort of theprincess. You must have made an impression. William: Ay. Hamish: I didn't think you were in the tent that long. William: (in French) Miss. Nicolette: (in French) A message from my mistress. William: (in French) Thank you. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Stephen: It's true. The English ships are moving up from the south. I don'tknow about the Welsh yet, but the Irish have landed. I had to see it withme own eyes before I could believe it. Hamish: What the hell are the Irish doing fighting with the English? Stephen: I wouldn't worry about them. Didn't I tell you before, it's myisland. William: Hamish, ride ahead to Edinburgh and assemble the council. Orderit. Hamish: Ay. William: Your island? Stephen: My island! --------------------------------------------------------------------- Mornay: This time our only option is to negotiate. William: My army has marched for more days than I can remember, and westill have preparations to make. So I'll make this plain. We require everysoldier you can summon. Your personal escorts, even yourselves. And we needthem now. Craig: With such a force of raid against us, it is time to discuss otheroptions. William: Other options? Don't you wish at least to lead your men onto thefield and barter a better deal with Longshanks before you tuck tail andrun? Robert: Sir William. Craig: We can not defeat this army. William: We can. (Turn maintaining cues)

Robert: Sir William. William: And we will. We won at Stirling, and still you quibble. We won atYork and you would not support us. If you will not stand up with us nowthen I say you're a coward. (Hamish swings axe) William: And if you are Scotsmen, I am ashamed to call myself one. Robert: Please, Sir William. Speak with me alone. I beg you. Robert: Now you've achieved more than anyone ever dreamed, but fightingthese odds it looks like rage, not courage. William: It's well beyond rage. Help me. In the name of Christ helpyourselves. Now is our chance, now. If we join, we can win. If we win, wellthen we'll have what none of us have ever had before: a country of our own. You are the rightful leader, and there is strength in you. I see it. Uniteus. Unite us. Unite the clans. Alright. In above conversation highlited the positiveness, mindfulness,immediacy which are skills needed for at the particular instant. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert: This cannot be the way. Leper: You said yourself, the nobles will not support Wallace. So how doesit help us to join the side that is slaughtered? (Turn yielding cues) Robert: I gave him my word. Leper: I know it is hard. Being a leader is. Now son, son, look at me. I cannot be king. You, and you alone can rule Scotland. What I tell you, youmust do. Not for me, not for yourself, but for your country. (Turn denying cues)(Positiveness and minfullness)

--------------------------------------------------------------------- Soldier: Make way. Coming through. Make way lads. Hamish: The Bruce is not coming, William. William: He'll come. Mornay and Lochlan have come. So will the Bruce. Longshanks: Quite a lovely gathering. Wouldn't you agree? General: The archers are ready, sire. Longshanks: Not the archers. My scouts tell me their archers are miles awayand no threat to us. Arrows cost money. Use up the Irish. Their dead costnothing. And send in the infantry and cavalry. General: Infantry, cavalry, advance. --------------------------------------------------------------------- (Irish advance and shake hands with the Scottish Army) Longshanks: Irish! William: Glad to have you with us. Watch this. General: Mornay, Lochlan? Longshanks: I gave Mornay double his lands in Scotland and matching estatesin England. Lochlan turned for much less. Archers. General: I beg your pardon, sire. Won't we hit our own troops? Longshanks: Yes, but we'll hit theirs as well. We have reserves. Attack. General: Archers. Longshanks: Send in our reinforcements. General: Send in the rest. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Longshanks: Bring me Wallace. Alive if possible. Dead, just as good. Sendnews of our victory. Shall we retire. (William hit by arrow) General: Protect the king. Robert: AAAAAAAAHHHHHHHH! (William sees that Robert has duble crossed him. He is shocked) Robert: Get up! Get up! Get him out of here. Stephen: Jesus! Robert: Go! Stephen: Ah! --------------------------------------------------------------------- Campbell: I'm dying. Let me be. Hamish: No, you’re going to live. Campbell: I've lived long enough to live free; proud to see you become theman you are. I'm a happy man.
(Turn yielding cues) (Hamish cries) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Leper: I'm the one who's rotting but I think your face looks graver thanmine. Son, we must have alliance with England to prevail here. You achievedthat. You saved your family, increased your land. In time, you will have all the power in Scotland. Robert: Lands, titles, men, power, nothing. Leper: Nothing? Robert: I have nothing. Men fight for me, because if they do not, I throwthem off my land and I starve their wives and their children. Those men whobled the ground red at Falkirk, they fought for William Wallace, and hefights for something that I've never had. And I took it from him when Ibetrayed him and I saw it in his face on the battlefield, and it's tearingme apart. Leper: Well, all men betray. All lose heart. Robert: I don't want to lose heart. I want to believe as he does. I willnever be on the wrong side again. --------------------------------------------------------------------- (Mornay's dreaming) Mornay: (crying) Ah! (Wallace kills him and jumps out window) Scottish noble: Lord Craig, is it true about Mornay? Craig: Ay, Wallace rode into his bead chamber and killed him. More aliability now then ever he was. And there's no telling who'll be next. Robert: Maybe you, maybe me. It doesn't matter. Craig: I'm serious, Robert. (Turn yielding cues)

Robert: So am I. Haha! (Back channeling)

(Lochlan drops on table) Craig: Search the place. Noble: Lochlan. --------------------------------------------------------------------- (Common towns people talking) Common Scot: William Wallace killed 50 men. 50 in one. Commoner #2: 100 men, with his own sword. Commoner #3: Cut through them like Moses through the Red Sea. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Longshanks: His legend grows. It will be worse than before. Hamilton: He rallies new volunteers in every Scottish town. And when hereplenishes his numbers, -- Longshanks: They're sheep, mere sheep. Easily dispersed if we strike theshepherd. Very well. Take a flock of your finest assassins and set ameeting. Hamilton: My lord, Wallace is renowned for his ability to smell an ambush. Longshanks: If what Lord Hamilton tells me is correct, he warmed to ourfuture queen and would trust her. So we'll dispatch her with the notionthat she comes in peace. Hamilton: My Lord, the princess might be taken hostage, or her life be putin jeopardy. Longshanks: My son would be most distressed by that. But if she were to bekilled, we would soon find the King of France a useful ally against theScots. You see, as king, you must find the good in any situation. Assassin: It's William Wallace sure. And he's given up his sword. Be ready.(lots of screaming, hut is burned) William: My lady. I received your message. This is the second time you'vewarned me of danger. Why? Isabella: There will be a new shipment of supplies coming north next month.Food and weapons, they will-- William: Why do you help me? Why do you help me?(Turn requesting cues) Isabella: Because of the way you are looking at me now. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Stephen: Just when we thought all hope was lost, our noble saviors havearrived. Off with hoods. Craig: Sir William, we've come to seek a meeting. William: Well, what's the point? You've all sworn loyalty to Longshanks. Craig: An oath to a liar is no oath at all. Every man of us is ready toswear loyalty to you. William: So let the council swear it publicly. Craig: We cannot. Some scarcely believe you are alive. Others think youpay the Mornay's wages. So we to Edinburgh. Meet us two days from now.Give us your pardon and we'll unite behind you. Scotland will be one. William: One? You mean us and you. Craig: No, I mean this. It's the pledge of Robert the Bruce. Hamish: You do know it's a trap. Tell him. Stephen: I think if the Bruce wanted to kill you he'd have done it alreadyat Falkirk. William: Ay. Stephen: I know, I saw. Hamish: I ain't leaving him aside. What about the others? The schemingbastards couldn't agree on the color of shit. It's a trap, are you blind? William: We've got to try. We can't do this alone. Joining the nobles isthe only hope for our people. You know what happens if we don't take thatchance? Hamish: What? William: Nothing. Hamish: I don't want to be a martyr. William: Nor I. I want to live. I want a home, and children, and peace. Hamish: Do ya? William: Ay, I do. I've asked God for these things. It's all for nothing ifyou don't have freedom. Hamish: That's all a dream, William. William: A dream? Just a dream? What we've been doing all this time; we'velived that dream. Hamish: You dream isn't about freedom. It's about Murron. You're doing thisto be a hero because you think she sees you. William: I don't think she sees me. I know she does. And your father seesyou, too. (Hamish hits William) Stephen: Jesus?! Shall I come with you. William: No, I'll go alone. Stephen: I'll see you after. William: Right. Stephen: Sooner rather than later, I hope. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Craig: He won't come. Robert: He will. I know he will. Guard: My Lord, he approaches. (Robert sees trap) Robert: NO! Craig: Stay out of it, Robert. Robert: Get Away! Get Away! Craig: The Bruce is not to be harmed. That was the arrangement. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert: Father! You fookingbastard. Why? Why? (Turn yielding cues)

Leper: Longshanks required Wallace. So did our nobles. That was the prizeof your crown. Robert: Die! I want you to die. (Turn yielding cues)

Leper: Soon enough I'll be dead. And you'll be king. Robert: I don't want anything from you. You're not a man, and you're not myfather. Leper: You are my son, and you have always known my mind. Robert: You deceived me. (Turn requesting cues)

Leper: You let yourself be deceived. In your heart, you always knew whathad to happen here. At last, you know what it means to hate. Now you'reready to be king. Robert: My hate will die with you. Above conversation the father and the son also show the high level of interaction --------------------------------------------------------------------- Executioner: William Wallace, you stand intained of High Treason. William: Against whom? Executioner: Against your king. Have you anything to say? William: Never in my whole life did I swear allegiance to him. Executioner: It matters not. He is your king. Confess, and you may receivea quick death. Deny, and you must be purified by pain. Do you confess? Doyou confess? Then on the morrow you shall receive your purification. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Guard: Your Highness. Isabella: I will see the prisoner. Guard: We've got orders from the king that no one-- Isabella: The king will be dead in a month and his son is a weakling. Whodo you think will rule this kingdom? Now open this door. Guard: Majesty: Come on, back on your feet. (Guard kicks William) Isabella: Stop it. Leave me. I said leave me. William: My lady. Isabella: Sir, I've come to beg you to confess all and swear allegiance tothe king, that he might show you mercy. William: Will he show mercy to my country? Isabella: Mercy is to die quickly, perhaps even live in a tower. In time,who knows what could happen. William: If I swear to him, then all that I am is dead already. Isabella: You will die. It will be awful. William: Every man dies, not every man really lives. Isabella: Drink this. It will dull your pain. William: No. It will numb my wits, and I must have them all. For if I'msenseless or if I wail, then Longshanks will have broken me. Isabella: I can't bear the thought of your torture. Take it. William: Alright. (They kiss, and William spits it out) Isabella: I have come to beg for the life of William Wallace. Prince: You're quite taken with him, aren't you. Isabella: I respect him. At worst he was a worthy enemy. Show mercy, Ogreat king, and win the respect of your own people. Even now you areincapable of mercy. And you. To you that word is as unfamiliar as love. Prince: Before he lost his powers of speech he told me his one comfort washe would live to know Wallace was dead. Isabella: You see, death comes to us all. But before it comes to you, knowthis. Your plot dies with you. A child who is not of your line grows in mybelly. Your son will not sit long on the thrown, I swear it. --------------------------------------------------------------------- (crowd cheers) William: I am so afraid. Give me the strength to die well. Common man: Here he comes! (Turn yielding cues)

(crowd throws food at him) Executioner: Now behold the awful prize of treason. You will fall to yourknees now. Declare yourself the king's loyal subject, and beg his mercy,and you shall have it. (Turn maintaining cues)

(no response) Executioner: Rope. Stretch him. That's it, stretch him. Pleasant, yes? Riseto your knees, kiss the royal emblem on my cloak, and you will feel nomore. (no response) Executioner: Rack him. Enough? (Turn yielding cues)

(they put William on the cross, and begin disembowelment) (William inserious pain) Executioner: It can all end, right now. Peace. Bliss. Just say it. Cry outmercy. (crowd repeats "mercy")(Turn yielding cues)

Executioner: Cry out. Just say it. Mercy. Hamish: Mercy lad, mercy. Stephen: Jesus, mercy. (Turn yielding cues)

Executioner: The prisoner wishes to say a word. William: FREEEEE-DOMMMMMM!

(William is beheaded) Above actions shows the determination, high moral,, courage, honesty and dignity of a soldier. He did not scared to die but he also did not want to genuflect to the Longs hanks. That all his feelings and qualities are uttered in one word “FREEDOM” the shout rings through the town. Hamish hears it.The shout rings through the town. Hamish hears it. The Princess hears it, at her open window, and touches her tummy, just showing the first signs of her pregnancy. Longshanks and his son seem to hear; the cry still echoes as if the wind could carry it through the ends of Scotland; and Robert the Bruce, on the walls of his castle, looks up sharply, as if he has heard) --------------------------------------------------------------------- Robert (narrator): After the beheading, William Wallace's body was torn topieces. His head was placed on top on London Bridge, his arms and legs sent to the four corners of Britain as a warning. It did not have the effectthat Longshanks planned. And I, Robert the Bruce, rode out to pay homage tothe armies of the English king and accept his endorsement of my crown. English noble: I hope you've washed your ass this morning. It's about to bekissed by a king. Craig: Come. Let’s get it over with. Robert: Stop. You have bled with Wallace, now bleed with me.

Craig: Ah! Hamish: Yea! (Throws sword; sword lands) (Bruce leads men in 1314 to victory Mel Gibson;s voice - Wallace's blessing. Colours blue for Scotland Suggesting free and open space -representing Scotland's freedom The sword is visually set up as a Cross and this is echoed in the Crucifixion visual allusions. The sword is used at the avenging of Murrin. A sword is also used to swear in wallace as one of the Guardians of Scotland. The sword is a vital component of the film, precisely because it still exists. A huge rise in the number of tourists visting Wallace's monument at stirling since the release of 'Braveheart' attests to how this film has touched the audience and this in turn is channeled on to the one reputedly extant item of the time - the sword)

Crowd: WALLACE, WALLACE, WALLACE, WALLACE. AAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHH! (Back channeling) (Scots charge) William (narrating): In the year of our Lord 1314, patriots of Scotland,starving and outnumbered, charged the fields at Bannockburn. They foughtlike warrior poets. They fought like Scotsmen. And won their freedom.

CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION 1. This paper I mainly focused on conversation pattern that has been used throughout the film. It was observed that five conversation process had been adapted most of the part of the film. The maintaining and managing the conversations was excellent in throughout the film. Throughout the analyzing the film I personally enjoyed the film and some time I was feeling very sad and felt me curiosity.
2. What makes “Braveheart” so good? For one, it takes the phrase “war is hell” and makes it “war is really really hell” by showing the most gruesome medieval combat to ever come down the Hollywood pipe. After “Braveheart” changed the way filmmakers looked at not only medieval combat but combat in war movies in general, anything short of making battle scenes as gruesome and as hellish as possible becomes a letdown.
3. Besides its breakthrough treatment of warfare, “Braveheart” also has a very good sense of romanticism, which might seem like a contradiction in a movie about men smashing each other over the head with hammers and slicing off each other’s limbs at will. But “Braveheart” makes it work, mostly because the actors sell their roles so well, and director Gibson is able to translate the script of Randall Wallace (“We Were Soldiers”) to screen by making it accessible and, dare I say it, flesh and blood.
4. The film is really bookended by two love stories, one in the beginning with Wallace and Murron, and a second in the second half with Wallace and Princess Isabelle (Sophie Marceau). The romance between Wallace and Isabelle is unexpected, but works in the confines of the movie. It also gives us a breather by taking us away from the bloodbaths in the battlefield and makes the movie, once again, seem within our reach (we all know about new love, but how many of us have cleaved someone’s head off at the shoulders with a sword?). All the credit goes to Gibson for being able to balance two very opposite themes with near perfection.
5. Such a scene, with the panning cinematography, strong sound effects by the horse Wallace rode in on, powerful musical score, conviction of the character played by actor and director Mel Gibson, and moving dialogue all come together to underscore the powerful film that was created, and demonstrates why the film Braveheart was the recipient of five academy awards.

1. Presses on Interpersonal Communication and Relationship of KDU.
2. Movie “Braveheart”

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...Diagnostic Algebra Assessment Definitions Categories Equality Symbol Misconception Graphing Misconception Definition Concept of a Variable Misconception Equality Symbol Misconception As algebra teachers, we all know how frustrating it can be to teach a particular concept and to have a percentage of our students not get it. We try different approaches and activities but to no avail. These students just do not seem to grasp the concept. Often, we blame the students for not trying hard enough. Worse yet, others blame us for not teaching students well enough. Students often learn the equality symbol misconception when they begin learning mathematics. Rather than understanding that the equal sign indicates equivalence between the expressions on the left side and the right side of an equation, students interpret the equal sign as meaning “do something” or the sign before the answer. This problem is exacerbated by many adults solving problems in the following way: 5 × 4 + 3 = ? 5 × 4 = 20 + 3 = 23 Students may also have difficulty understanding statements like 7 = 3 + 4 or 5 = 5, since these do not involve a problem on the left and an answer on the right. Falkner presented the following problem to 6th grade classes: 8 + 4 = [] + 5 All 145 students gave the answer of 12 or 17. It can be assumed that students got 12 since 8 + 4 = 12. The 17 may be from those who continued the problem: 12 + 5 = 17. Students with this misconception may also have difficulty with the idea that......

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Study Habits

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