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Assurance Quality

In: Computers and Technology

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PSP, UN PROCESO DE SOFTWARE PERSONAL
Jorge Orlando Herrera Morales Universidad del Quindío Programa de Ingeniería de Sistemas y Computación joherrera@uniquindio.edu.co
Este articulo trata sobre el proceso PSP. En primer lugar, trata sobre los procesos de desarrollo, su definición y la forma en que son utilizados para el desarrollo de software. Se aborda luego el proceso de software personal o PSP, analizando las características más sobresalientes y su relación con el TSP y CMMI.

1.

INTRODUCCION

En los últimos tiempos, el software se ha convertido en un elemento de vital importancia en las organizaciones, de ahí que sea igualmente relevante conocer metodologías prácticas que faciliten su desarrollo. El proceso de desarrollo a su vez, ha sido concebido como una serie de etapas que hay que cursar, normalmente empezando por el análisis de requisitos, pasando luego por el análisis del sistema, diseño, implementación, pruebas, implantación y mantenimiento; todos estos pasos, buscando obtener un producto de calidad que satisfaga las necesidades de clientes y usuarios [1]. Al principio de la Ingeniería de software, este se desarrollaba siguiendo las etapas anteriores de manera estrictamente secuencial, lo que hacía que el producto se viera en un periodo bastante tardío y que la entrega del mismo fuese más lenta. Paulatinamente, fueron apareciendo otros modelos que proponían ciclos cortos que aceleraban la producción sin menoscabar en la calidad. Estos procesos de desarrollo hacían hincapié en elementos como los riesgos, la arquitectura, los requisitos, etc. pero no profundizaban en los procesos y en las personas, lo cual generaba vacios en la calidad del producto final. Con el tiempo, se crearon otros modelos que buscaron llenar estos vacios y fue así como aparecieron modelos como CMM, CMMI, TSP Y PSP. En los años 80, el Instituto de Ingeniería de Software SEI estableció una clasificación de las capacidades de los contratistas para uso del departamento de defensa de los Estados Unidos [2]. El objetivo era restringir las licitaciones de los contratistas del gobierno a

aquellos con las capacidades especificadas. De este modo, apareció CMM o modelo de madurez y capacidad como una herramienta de clasificación proporcionando metas particulares par a las organizaciones. Muchas compañías actualmente, utilizan CMMI para medir sus esfuerzos de mejora de sus procesos y en lugar de describir una organización como “Buena” o “excelente” para desarrollar software, se puede ser más concreto y establecer que la organización se encuentra en nivel 3 CMMI. CMMI clasifica a las organizaciones en uno de los cinco niveles siguientes: Nivel 1: Inicial Nivel 2: Repetible Nivel 3: Definido Nivel 4: Administrado Nivel 5: Optimizado No obstante, debido a que gran cantidad del software existente hoy en día es desarrollado no por compañías sino por pequeños equipos de desarrollo y en algunos casos por individuos, se hizo necesario establecer, al igual que para las organizaciones criterios de desempeño que pudiesen clasificar las aptitudes de los equipos de desarrollo y de individuos. Es así como en los 90’s aparecen TSP (Proceso de software en equipos) y el proceso de software personal o PSP. A la par con los procesos de desarrollo, en la Ingeniería de software ha venido evolucionando la medición, tanto del producto como del proceso, con el fin de incrementar la calidad y productividad en el

desarrollo de software. La medición constituye una disciplina fundamental para cualquier Ingeniería, razón por la cual la Ingeniería de software no es ajena a ella. La necesidad de medir se hace evidente cuando queremos comparar, entender, monitorizar, controlar, predecir y probar el software que estamos construyendo. Así, encontramos que en los procesos de desarrollo se establecen programas de métricas que permitan analizar las variables antes mencionadas. PSP identifica una serie de métricas que permiten medir las aptitudes de los Ingenieros de software como individuos.

y C++ como lenguajes de programación sobre un total de 62 programas con alrededor de 25000 líneas de código que le ayudaron a modelar una versión Madura de PSP.[4]

De las experiencias anteriores, Humphrey concluyó que los principios de la administración de procesos que desarrolló Deming y Juran eran totalmente aplicables tanto al trabajo de los ingenieros de software de manera individual como a ingenieros enfocados al trabajo en equipo, los resultados: PSP y TSP [4].

2.

PSP 2.2. Principios de PSP El diseño de PSP se basa en los siguientes principios de planeación y de calidad.[5] · Cada ingeniero es esencialmente diferente; para ser más precisos, los ingenieros deben planear su trabajo y basar sus planes en sus propios datos personales. · Para mejorar constantemente su funcionamiento, los ingenieros deben utilizar personalmente procesos bien definidos y medidos. · Para desarrollar productos de calidad, los ingenieros deben sentirse personalmente comprometidos con la calidad de sus productos. · Cuesta menos encontrar y arreglar errores en la etapa inicial del proyecto que encontrarlos en las etapas subsecuentes. · Es más eficiente prevenir defectos que encontrarlos y arreglarlos. · La manera correcta de hacer las cosas es siempre la manera más rápida y más barata de hacer un trabajo. [5]. 2.3. Niveles de PSP

El proceso de software personal fue creado para proveer a los individuos de un marco de trabajo implementando la aplicación de mejores prácticas con miras a incrementar la calidad del software que dicho individuo está desarrollando. PSP es una herramienta de auto mejoramiento que le ayuda al individuo a controlar, administrar y mejorar la forma en que trabaja. Esta es una razón de peso para que PSP sea aprendido por los profesionales informáticos en etapas tempranas de su formación [3].

Cuando un Ingeniero de software utiliza PSP puede planear y dar seguimiento a su trabajo, puede utilizar un proceso bien definido y medible, estableciendo metas mensurables y con la posibilidad de rastrear estas metas para determinar cuales se han alcanzado. PSP le muestra a los profesionales del desarrollo de software como manipular la calidad desde el principio del proyecto, como analizar los resultados de las tareas que se van realizando y como utilizar los resultados del proyecto actual para mejorar en el siguiente [3].

2.1.

Origenes de PSP

El creador de PSP fue Watts Humphrey, quien inicialmente desarrollo CMM destinado a las organizaciones de software, pero quedo en el vacio como mejorar el proceso de desarrollo y las habilidades de los individuos cuando los proyectos son pequeños. Además, de tiempo atrás se ha argumentado que la calidad de un software se encuentra condicionada a la calidad del peor de sus componentes y que la calidad de los componentes está condicionada por el individuo que los desarrollo; por estas razones, Humphrey decide crear el proceso de software personal entre 1989 y 1992. Inicialmente creo cerca de 15 versiones de PSP y utilizo PASCAL

PSP provee un marco de proceso de evolución similar al que posee CMMI, incluso trata parcialmente 12 de las 18 áreas de proceso claves o kpa de CMMI [6]. Para desarrollar software con calidad, cada componente individual también debe contar con procesos definidos de calidad. La estrategia total de PSP es cerciorarse de que todos los componentes individuales se desarrollen con calidad. PSP logra esto proporcionando un marco de proceso

persona ya definido, que el programador pu al uede utilizar Este marco es: r. · Desa arrollar un plan para cada proyecto y/o p compon nente. · Regis strar su tiempo de desarrollo. · Regis strar sus defecto os · Conse ervar sus datos en informes del proyecto s d · Utiliz sus datos pa planear los proyectos y/o los zar ara s o compon nentes futuros. . · Anali sus datos para desarrollar sus procesos con izar p r más cal lidad con el fin de mejorar su desempeño. n u En la siguiente figur se muestra un diagrama que ra contien los niveles PSP, se muest que cada nivel ne tra n tiene sus propios re s equisitos. Cabe recalcar que el e e proceso se puede personalizar ag o p gregando o bien, b quitand componente según las ne do es ecesidades de cada c individ duo.

B BIBLIOGRAFI IA [1 Ingeniería de software, un enfoque practico. 1] P Pressman Roge McGraw Hil 5ta Ed. er. ll [2 Ingeniería de software orientada a objetos. 2] e B Bruegge Bernd, Dutoit Allen. Prentice Hall. , [3 Introducción al proceso so 3] n oftware persona Watts al. H Humphrey, Add dison Wesley [4 J.J. Peláez, E Modelo de C 4] El Capacidad de M Madurez y su Enfoque al Proceso Perso de Softwa (PSP). l onal are C Capítulo 2. Proc ceso Personal d Software. de h http://www.pue e.udlap.mx/~tes sis/lis/pelaez_r r_jj/capitu lo o2.pdf [13 Julio 2005]. o [5 Carnegie Mellon Universit What is PSP? 5] ty. h http://www.sei.cmu.edu/tsp/ps sp.html [24 Jun 2006] nio

[6] Velasco, P I. (2003). “PSP: Una alternativa para mejorar los procesos del software”

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