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Assurance of Learning Exercise 4

In: Business and Management

Submitted By JCVL
Words 2990
Pages 12
Group Assurance of Learning Exercise 4
October 5, 2014
Business 400_B06
Group Members:

Juan Valdez Lopez
Tram Trinh
Brandon Weadon
David Welborn
Micah Whitley
Heather Younger

Ex. 7C (1 business)
Southwest Airlines chart

Southwest Airlines is a company using the divisional structure by units based on their role; there are four shortcomings for this type of structure that affect Southwest Airlines. * Lack of Teamwork: Southwest Airlines areas may have difficulties working with other functional areas. There is often a perception that they are competing with other functional areas for resources and a lack of understanding of what other areas do for the company. * Difficult Management Control: As Southwest Airlines grows larger; the functional areas can become difficult to manage due to their size. * Ignorance of Organizational Objectives: Functional areas may become distracted by their own goals and focus on them, rather than on overall company objectives. * Hurdle in Complete Development: As Southwest Airlines using divisional structure; this system is a hurdle in the way of the complete development of the employees. Each employee specializes only in a small part of the whole job.
Microsoft Shortcomings * Selfish Attitude: Microsoft has many divisions. Every division tries to display a better performance, sometimes even at the cost of other divisions; this shows their selfish attitude. Consequently, it hits the interest of the concern as a whole. * Silos: All skills are compartmentalized by division. Therefore, it can be difficult to transfer skills or best practices across the organization. It is also more difficult to cross-sell products and services between the divisions.

Ex. 7C (1 business)

Hershey Foods chart

Hershey Foods is a company using the divisional structure by geographic area. This type of structure is appropriate for organizations whose strategies need to be tailored to fit the particular needs and characteristics of customers in different geographic areas (David & David, 2015, p.217). Using this structure, Hershey Foods encounters four shortcomings: * Not the appropriate structure: The geographic areas for candy consumption are pretty the same worldwide. As mentioned, this type of structure is good if the company needs to tailor particular needs of customers. Consumption patterns for candy are quite similar everywhere so the needs don’t have to be tailored. Instead, Hershey should focus on product structure because the company produces, and sells three types of products worldwide: (1) chocolate, (2) no chocolate, and (3) grocery. * Limited resource allocation: Every president in each particular area has limited vision tightly to his/her geographic area. Therefore, the broaden resource allocation can not be achieved. This may include research study, technology adoption, and product development. * Managing Conflict: Managing conflict can happen when different presidents in different areas have contradicting opinions about products and consumption patterns. It may cause limitation in improving current products or developing new products because they cant reconcile their opinions. Besides, competition between areas may become so intense that it is dysfunctional and leads to limited sharing of ideas and resources for the common good of the company.

* Costly structure: This type of structure can be costly for Hershey. For instance, functional specialists are needed centrally to coordinate divisional activities. Managers for each area must be well qualified and therefore, require higher salary. Sending qualified managers from the U.S to different regions in the world can be costly for the company as well, not to mention the company has to compensate for them and their families to live comfortably in different countries where they have to work.

Microsoft is using divisional structure by product. This structure is most effective for implementing strategies when specific products or services need special emphasis (David & David, 2015, p.217). There are few shortcomings for this type of structure. * Cost: Like other divisional organizational structures, divisional structure by product can be costly because it requires a more skilled management force specializing in each product or service. Besides, the resource allocation may be time consuming and costly due to high demand of each product department with equal priority. * Avoidance: Every divisional product department has its own policy and managerial style. If the company ever decides to change or implement different policies or strategies, it will encounter some conflicts between divisions. Each division will tend to ignore the problem and wait until other divisions solve it, or not willing to change and take longer time to implement new policies.

Ex. 7D: Belief, Metaphor, Language, and Values

Belief is defined as “An understanding of a particular phenomenon” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). In simpler terms, belief is something we have faith in to be true. Being a Christian university, there are certain things that Liberty believes to be true that others may not. In the mission statement section of Liberty’s website, a powerful quote can be found that shows those beliefs; “God, the infinite source of all things, has shown us truth through scripture, nature, history, and above all, in Christ” (
Metaphor, according to the text is “Shorthand of words used to capture a vision or to reinforce old or new values” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). When looking for examples to Liberty, one needs to look no further than Liberty’s motto, which is “Knowledge Aflame”. Obviously knowledge is not a tangible thing and could never catch fire, but those words represent something deeper. According to the website, the motto is meant to show, “that knowledge has validity only when viewed in the light of Biblical Truth” (
Language is, “The manner in which members of a group communicate” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). Language is especially important with LU Online because of how we communicate. There is actually a student expectations document that must be read before every course; it contains rules on communication between students. Body language and facial cues are lost when conversing over the Internet, so it is extra important to choose the right words in discussion boards, emails, and more.

Values are, “Life-directing attitudes that serve as behavioral guidelines” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). Liberty was founded on and operates around Biblical values. In my fourth year, I can honestly say that every class, no matter what subject, has been rooted around those values. Something that is seen all around Liberty’s website, magazines, merchandise, etc. is, “Training Champions for Christ”. That shows the values that University hopes to instill.
Ex. 7D: Symbol, Story, Legend and Saga

Symbol is defined by David and David as “any object, act, event, quality, or relation used to convey meaning” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). The symbol that Liberty University uses to convey the message that they want to portray is the cross of Jesus Christ. Liberty’s statement of purpose says this: “Through its residential and online programs, services, facilities, and collaborations, the University educates men and women who will make important contributions to their workplaces and communities, follow their chose vocations as callings to glorify God, and fulfill the Great Commission” (, 2014). While providing education for students, Liberty University is also focused on teaching the truths of Scripture, with that ultimate symbol being the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ on the cross for our sin. Story is defined by David and David as “A narrative usually based on true events” (David & David, 2015, p.95). The story of Liberty University began in 1971, when founder Jerry Falwell, Sr. “challenged his congregation at Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, VA to establish a Christian college whose students would ‘go out in all walks of life to impact this world for God’” (, 2014). Over the course of the past 40 years, Liberty University has grown to over 100,000 students in total enrollment. Liberty currently stands as the United States’ seventh largest university, and the world’s largest Christian university. Liberty’s founder Jerry Falwell passed away in 2007. Since that time, his son, Jerry Falwell, Jr. has become president of the university and continues to build the university and continue the vision that was set forth by his father four decades prior. Legend is defined by David and David as “a handed-down narrative of some wonderful event, usually not supported by facts” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). According to the timeline posted on the Liberty website, the first annual Winterfest was held, with more than 5,000 attendees (, 2014). Winterfest is an event in which many Christian speakers and bands come to Liberty University and share the Gospel of Jesus Christ. During this inaugural event, over 250 decisions were made for Christ ( David and David define saga as “a historical narrative describing the unique accomplishments of a group and its leaders” (David & David, 2015, p. 95). As stated previously, Jerry Falwell, Jr. took over for his late father in 2007. Since that time, enrollment has increased from 9,600 to nearly 13,000 residential students and from 27,000 to more than 90,000 online students (, 2014). According to Liberty’s site, Liberty’s net assets increased from approximately $100 million in 2007 to over $1 billion in 2012 as a result of increasing support from donors, responsible fiscal management, and almost unprecedented enrollment growth (, 2014). In the midst of all the success that Falwell has brought to Liberty University, the university is still considered one of the more affordable private universities in the nation.
Ex. 7D: Hero/Heroine (Dr. Elmer L. Towns)
When I first heard about Liberty University, I was blown away by its size and the amount of degree programs offered. It does not take extensive research to discover that the late Dr. Jerry Falwell founded Liberty, as Lynchburg Baptist College (LBC), in 1971. Today, as of May 2013, Liberty University has an annual enrollment of 13,800 residential students and over 100,000 online students; these statistics make Liberty University, the largest private, nonprofit university in the nation, the largest university in Virginia, and the largest Christian university in the world (, 2013). Liberty is a successful organization, to say the least. Jerry Falwell was undoubtedly an amazing leader and visionary. Nevertheless, I chose to write about another founder of Liberty University, Dr. Elmer L. Towns.
As stated above, Dr. Towns was actually the co-founder of Liberty University. In fact, he was the only full-time teacher that worked for Liberty (LBC) in 1971 (, 2013). Dr. Towns was a pillar in the foundation of Liberty University, teaching for 42 years. Living in a time when it is difficult to find people who will commit to anything, Elmer Towns stands out as the epitome of a solid rock. Although he stayed committed to the calling of God for his life at Liberty, he has also managed to teach for 111 other theological seminaries/colleges nationwide and abroad ( 2013). Additionally, Towns has written more than 170 books, 8 listed in the Christian Booksellers Best Selling List” (, 2013).
When I first transferred to Liberty I was a little disappointed that I had to take additional (Liberty University) courses: Bible, Theology and Apologetics. I was actually interested in taking these courses. However, the thought of taking additional courses did not necessarily excite me. Nevertheless, once I was exposed to Dr. Towns, I was grateful to the Lord! The teaching style of Dr. Towns is practical, yet passionate and biblically profound. His inspirational teaching matches the level of dedication he exemplified for 42 years at Liberty.
In 2013, at the age of 80, Towns finally took his first sabbatical. The purpose of this sabbatical was for Dr. Towns to “Write books, travel, and spend time with his family” (, 2013). I am grateful that I took courses with Dr. Towns as my professor. I am thankful for the legacy this godly educator has left behind. A hero is someone that accomplishes an act of courage/bravery for the sake of others. Moreover, according to our text, heroes/heroines are “Individuals greatly respected” (David, 2015). I consider Dr. Elmer L. Towns to be more than a Liberty University hero, but a hero of the Christian faith at large. He has stood the test of time (in the face of adversity) and encouraged others to be champions for Christ.
Ex-7D: Folktale, Myth, Ceremony, Rite and Ritual
Folktale is defined as “a tale or legend originating and traditional among a people of folk, especially one forming part of the oral tradition of the common people” (Dictionary, 2014). This being said Liberty University is a very young school, and therefore does not have too many if any folktales. Jerry Falwell, a local preacher, founded Liberty in 1971. Jerry Falwell has been a part of Lynchburg, VA. For many years and there are many stories that I heard growing up of him, but I would not consider them folktales, I would just consider it pure gossip. Folktales normally take hundreds of years to mature and it is therefore very hard to consider Liberty University having any folktales given its young age.
Myth is defined as “an idea or story that is believed by many people but that is not true” (Merriam-Webster, 2014). Taking this into account in 2012 Bill Maher a popular television host who often makes political comments stated that Liberty University was not in fact a real school, due to its religious beliefs. (Post, 2012). Although, this allegation is completely unwarranted many people will actually believe Bill Maher due to his status and popularity. Liberty University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. Liberty is also accredited by different accreditations depending on your studies. Almost all of the schools are accredited, making Liberty University a real school. There are other myths associated with Liberty University being a private school. These myths include the idea that private schools are less affordable than public school. According to Liberty University the listing price is not the price many families end up paying due to merits, need based grants, and other tuition assistance grants (Staff, 2009).
Liberty University is rich with ceremonies, but the most interesting ceremony I found was the Ad Fontes Ceremony. This ceremony started in “August 2006 with the inaugural class of third-year law students” (University, 2014). Liberty gets a red stone that is up on the top of Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. Since, the Ten Commandments is the bases for most of our laws this is very important for the law students. Jerry Falwell is the first person to touch the stone, which indicated Liberty’s law school, is linked to Moses, the original lawyer. Then all the third year law students touch the stone and then pledge to “be part of a tradition to transmit the rule of law to future generations.” (University, 2014). This is a great ceremony for the law students; it reminds them of the creator of the first laws and what it truly means to become a Christian lawyer.
Rite is defined as “a prescribed form or manner governing the words of actions of a ceremony.” (Merriam-Webster, Rite, 2014). One of the rites of passage that is famous at Liberty University is the fact that Liberty University gets Republicans and/or conservative leaders to always deliver the commencement address. Some of the more famous commencement leaders are Mitt Romney, Chuck Norris, John McCain, and Glenn Beck (Tashman, 2012).
Ritual is defined as “a formal ceremony or series of acts that is always performed in the same way” (Merriam-Webster, Ritual, 2014). Liberty University has several rituals, which goes along with rites, and ceremonies. Liberty has the Ad Fontes ceremony, which is done the same way every time. Liberty has just opened up a state of the are College of Osteopathic Medicine in doing so they gave their first class of students the first White Coat Ceremony at Liberty University. This ritual is done the same way with little variation depending on the school. (Menard, 2014). Graduation ceremonies at most Colleges and Universities have a set way that everything is set up and done. Which would make graduation ceremonies a ritual as well. Liberty even though it is a relatively new University has a lot of ceremonies, rites, and rituals that will continue for many years to come.

David, F. R., & David, F. R. (2015). Strategic management: A competitive advantage approach, concepts and cases (15th ed.).
Dictionary. (2014, September 29). Folk tale. Retrieved from
Menard, D. (2014, August 2). First class of medical students takes oath at white coat ceremony. Retrieved from
Merriam-Webster. (2014, September 29). Myth. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster:
Merriam-Webster. (2014, September 29). Rite. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster:
Merriam-Webster. (2014, September 29). Ritual. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster:
Post, H. (2012). Bill Maher: Liberty University is not a real school. Retrieved from Huffington Post:
Staff, U. A. (2009). Liberty offers special WRAP session for families. Retrieved from
Tashman, B. (2012, April 19). Mitt Romeny to Liberty University. Retrieved from
University, L. (2013). Chancellor Falwell announces Towns will step down for sabbatical. Retrieved from University, L. (2013). Dr. Elmer Towns. Retrieved from University, L. (2014). About Liberty. Retrieved September 29, 2014. Retrieved from University, L. (2014, September 29). The Ad Fontes Ceremony. Retrieved from Liberty University:

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...Credit Points Prerequisites Corequisites Co-badged status Unit Description 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 List of changes since first version was published Learning Outcomes Assessment Tasks Class Test Assessed Coursework Group Projects (3) Final Examination 4 5 6 6 6 6 8 Unit Schedule Delivery and Resources Classes Prizes Required and Recommended Texts and/or Materials Technology Used and Required Teaching and Learning Strategy 9 11 11 11 11 11 12 Policies and Procedures Academic Honesty Grades Grading Appeals and Final Examination Script Viewing Special Consideration Policy Student Support UniWISE provides: 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 Student Enquiry Service Equity Support IT Help 14 14 14 Graduate Capabilities Problem Solving and Research Capability Learning Outcome Assessment Task 15 15 15 15 Engaged and Ethical Local and Global citizens Learning Outcome Assessment Task 15 15 15 Discipline Specific Knowledge and Skills Learning Outcome Assessment Task 15 16 16 Critical, Analytical and Integrative Thinking Learning Outcome Assessment Task 16 16 16 Research and Practice Policy on Group Projects Page 2 of 20 17 18 General Information Convenor and teaching staff Unit Convenor: Jan Zwar Email: Phone: 61 2 9850 8491 Office: E4A 420 Consultation Hours: 4-6 pm Tuesday, or by appointment. You can email me to arrange an appointment. Lecturer: Monica Ren Email: Office: 02- 9850 8504......

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