Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis

In: Science

Submitted By Amalia36
Words 1779
Pages 8
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that not only affects the cardiovascular system, but the entire vascular system as well possibly affecting the renal system. Atherosclerosis slows the flow of blood and oxygen through an artery, because of the buildup of plaque and fat clog the vessel. Atherosclerosis comes from the Greek words, Athero means porridge like deposits and Sclerosis means hardening of tissues. So with the fatty deposits and the narrowing and hardening of the blood vessels, Atherosclerosis is a major cause of heart attack and stroke. The process of fat and plaque development is the same no matter what a person’s race, ethnicity, sex, or geographic location is. This paper will describe the disease state, as well as the dietary needs for a person with Atherosclerosis, what dietary limitations are needed for a person with Atherosclerosis, and the proper educational tools for teaching a person with Atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis develops over the course of a person’s life and can begin as early your teenage years. Plaques and fat deposits can begin to develop in childhood. “Small cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries, which feed the heart its vital blood supply, can be found in more than 15 percent of “normal” American teenagers and in 85 percent of people over the age of 50.” (Samaan MD, 2012). An actual cause of the disease is not known, however it is believed that, “damage or injury to the inner layer of the artery”, (Clinic, 2012). One of the causes of Atherosclerosis appears to be fat and plaque retention, which causes chronic inflammation and hardening of sites in the walls of all major arteries. This process can happen to any artery anywhere in your body. Fatty deposits can become fibrous and plaques or blockages begin develop, some of which can rupture, causing thrombosis or stenosis. Thrombosis is the formation

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis

...Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside arteries, limiting or stopping the flow of blood to the organs tissues. The purpose of this paper is to relate the underlining cellular events of atherosclerosis to its pathology and treatment. In this paper I will discuss the causes that influence the events and advancement of atherosclerosis. I will review the risk factors, pathogenesis, signs & symptoms, dietary implications and drug treatments. Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a progressive process that leads to the hardening and thickening of arteries. This is caused by plaque build-up due to the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages (McCance& Huether. 2010). The formation of plaque deposits can slow down or block the flow of blood to other parts of the body, depriving the organs of oxygen. Atherosclerosis is a pathological process that affects the body’s whole vascular system leading to many coronary artery and cerebrovascular diseases Etiology: There are many theories pertaining to the etiology but, studies are still unclear about the direct cause of atherosclerosis (Mallika, Goswami, & Rajappa, 2007). Risk factors There are many risk factors that lead to the progression of atherosclerosis. The risk factors all led to an excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood which can lead to plaque build-up ( Mallika, Goswami & Rajappa, 2007). Here are some atherosclerosis risk factors, increased age, obesity, genetics, Hyperlipidemia; which is high...

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis

...CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS 1 Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Atherosclerosis Basher I. Emtebakh Wright State University Laboratory Research 2, Spring 2013 CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS 2 Abstract Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory process that affects the arterial wall. People of different ages are susceptible to developing the disease. It is considered the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Epithelial injury caused by different risk factors is the initial process of the disease. Nitric oxide liberation, lipid retention, and inflammatory cell proliferation are of significance in the disease pathogenesis. The goal of this review is to better understand the disease process and the role of the atherogenic biomarkers that develop in the affected site during the disease progression. Determining the risk of atherogenic plaque development vulnerability is the main obstacle that faces scientists, followed by making proper diagnosis and choosing treatment. Different imaging techniques, especially the non invasive ones, provide highly useful images to characterize the plaque development. These techniques also contributed to cure many patients at risk of plaque rupture. Prevention and treatment of the disease depend mainly on the proper education of patients and people at risk of developing the disease, and that is done by changing their life style to minimize the risk factors that increase their...

Words: 4999 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis

...ATHEROSCLEROSIS Atherosclerosis Iris Dick-Bacon University of Phoenix HCS 330 January 26, 2009 One of the foremost leaders of mortality in the US is coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis is an abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls caused by fat and fibrin deposits. It is a form of arteriosclerosis, which is the actual thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls. It affects primarily the coronary arteries (arteries that carry blood to the heart, arranged in a crown-like shape around the heart), the aorta, the arteries of the lower extremities, and the arteries that provide blood to the brain. It is a disease that can affect a person at any age, although it usually does not pose a threat until people reach their forties or fifties. This disease strikes many older men and women, as a result from the infamous factors of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus, not to mention others. Thanks to research over the last decade, there is more understanding of the role endothelium plays in the coronary system. Instead of having non-active, diffusion barrier-like qualities, as was once thought, the endothelium serves many critically important functions. At the blood vessel walls, the endothelium synthesizes and releases active substances such as nitric oxide and bradykinin, two potent regulators of vessel function. It is found that the physiologic changes in the endothelium affect the mechanisms responsible...

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis Research Paper

...to the rest of the body, Causes of atherosclerosis include high BP, high fat diet, diabetes, smoking and inflammation. When an artery gets injured or damaged, platelets build up at the injury site. Over time, especially in a high fat diet, cholesterol and plaque build up in the artery also. The buildup of all of these substances results in the artery not being able to pump blood and oxygen to the rest of the body because of the narrowing of the artery. The organs that are connected to these arteries do not get the proper perfusion that they need to function and begin to shut down over time. At...

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Atherosclerosis Research Paper

...Introduction: Atherosclerosis is defined as the hardening or narrowing of the arteries. This is caused by the formation of plaque within arteries, a fatty substance composed of cholesterol, calcium, and fibrin [1]. The formation of plaque within arteries restricts the blood flow through the arteries and to the rest of the body. When excess plaque is built up, a blood clot, or thrombus, may form on the surface or a piece of the plaque may fall off freely into the blood stream. In either case, a heart attack or stroke is likely to occur which are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in today’s world [7]. Atherosclerosis is known to be a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease that may begin development even in early...

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Athersclerosis Term Paper

...Atherosclerosis is when arteries become blocked by cholesterol. High cholesterol is a factor of atherosclerosis. Over time cholesterol deposits build up in arteries and may cause a blockage of blood flow. Two predisposing factors for atherosclerosis are unhealthy eating and lifestyle. Unhealthy eating can bring on excess cholesterol in the body making the condition worse. a healthy lifestyle can help to remove cholesterol from the veins and arteries while an unhealthy lifestyle will create and optimal environment for cholesterol to build up. Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arteriosclerosis, which is basically thickening of artery walls. (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007) This can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure. Atherosclerosis can affect all arteries in the body, but mainly the coronary, carotid arteries, and the aorta. (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007)Half of the deaths in the western world are indirectly caused by atherosclerosis (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007), and although some factors are hereditary others are manageable. The disease is thought to progress in stages. (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007) The first stage is caused by damage to the endothelium. Many things can trigger this damage, but they all lead to the onset of atherosclerosis. Once this happens the body attempts to repair the injured tissues by transporting lipids in the blood. (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007) Unfortunately these cells become so engorged with lipids that they become foam cells. These foam cells...

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sleep

...If you snore, your nightly noises may be a source of aggravation for the people around you, but snoring may actually be harmful to your health. According to a story recently published in the journal Sleep, snoring is associated with a higher risk of carotid atherosclerosis, which is the accumulation of plaque in arteries that supply blood to the brain. The researchers brought in 110 participants, including people who snored and others who didn't. The participants underwent a sleep study, in which their snoring and breathing patterns were measured while they slept. They also underwent ultrasound assessment of their carotid arteries to measure atherosclerosis. People who snored more often were much more likely to have carotid atherosclerosis, but curiously, not atherosclerosis in the arteries in their legs. One of the possible connections between snoring and this health risk is the vibration of the snoring. All that rattling in your throat may vibrate your carotid arteries, particularly a specific spot where plaque often forms. Researchers know that this vibration damages cells in artery walls, which could trigger the early formation of atherosclerosis. This buildup of plaque can then set the stage for a stroke if a blood clot forms on the plaque blocking the artery, or if a piece of plaque breaks loose and becomes wedged in a smaller artery in your brain. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than half of all strokes in the...

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease

...Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease According to Mayoclinic.org ‘Metabolic syndrome’ (also called dysmetabolic syndrome or syndrome X) is defined as ‘a cluster of conditions — increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels — that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.1’ Metabolic syndrome is becoming increasingly common and is now recognised as a major causal factor in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD’s) are any illnesses that involve the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or both - diseases that affect the cardiovascular system.2 Cardiovascular diseases are said to be the number 1 cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause.3 Cardiovascular diseases include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects one may be born with (congenital heart defects), among others.4 Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioural risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol using population-wide strategies.3 As mentioned in the definition, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are 2 main features of metabolic syndrome that can lead to cardiovascular disease. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a blood pressure reading of 140/90 or higher...

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cardiovascular Diseases

...Atherosclerosis and its effects on the structure and function of blood vessels Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is a condition commonly linked with poor diet. Atherosclerosis takes effect when fatty deposits and cholesterol begin to build up in the arterial walls and as a result begin to narrow the passage of blood flow through the artery. When plaque begins to build up in substantial amounts it can result in the complete blockage of the artery/arteries which can be detrimental to health and will be shown by symptoms throughout the body. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the deposition of athermanous plaques which damage, calcify and harden the walls of large to medium sized arteries. As a result blood pressure is increased due to the narrowing/partial blocking of the arteries which can cause cells in blood known as platelets (whose primary function is to clot and prevent bleeding in the event of blood vessel breaks) to stack upon one another which will form a blood clot in the artery, resulting in prevention of blood flow to the vital organs which may result in a heart attack, stroke or death. Common diseases related to Atherosclerosis include, Cardiovascular Disease (When plaque builds up in the coronary arteries effecting the direct blood flow to the heart) Carotid Artery Disease (when plaque builds up in the carotid arteries which supply blood and oxygen to the brain) Peripheral Artery Disease (When plaque builds up in the major arteries of the legs...

Words: 922 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Heart Disease Behavioral Risk Factors

...factors Tobacco Use Tobacco use increases the risk of heart disease and heart attack. Cigarette smoking promotes atherosclerosis and increases the levels of blood clotting factors, such as fibrinogen. Also, nicotine raises blood pressure, and carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that blood can carry. Exposure to other people’s smoke can increase the risk of heart disease even for nonsmokers. Diet Several aspects of people’s dietary patterns have been linked to heart disease and related conditions. These include diets high in saturated fats and cholesterol, which raised blood cholesterol levels and promote atherosclerosis. High Salt or sodium in the diet causes raised blood pressure levels. Physical Inactivity Physical inactivity is related to the development of heart disease. It also can impact other risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, a low level of HDL (good) cholesterol, and diabetes. Regular physical activity can improve risk factor levels. Obesity Obesity is excess body fat. It is linked to higher LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglyceride levels and to lower HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Alcohol Excessive alcohol use leads to an increase in blood pressure, and increases the risk for heart disease. It also increases blood levels of triglycerides which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is a catchall term describing diseases or conditions related to the heart and blood vessels...

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Med Surge 2 Study

...Risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of thoracic and abdominal aneurysms, venous insufficiency, venous stasis ulcers, PAD, acute arterial ischemia. (be sure to know the difference in venous and arterial disease!) PAD (thickening of the artery walls, which results in the progressive narrowing of the arteries of the upper and lower extremities) -risk factors: tobacco use (most important), hyperlipidemia, elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein, diabetes (occurs much earlier), uncontrolled hypertension, increases with age, African Americans, 2 times higher in Mexican/Hispanic American women then white women -PAD is a marker for advanced systemic artherosclerosis** -atherosclerosis is the leading cause** -these patients are more likely to suffer from CAD and cerebral artery disease -artherosclerosis= migration and replication of smooth muscle cell, deposition of connective tissue, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, and accumulation of lipids -clinical symptoms occur when the vessel is 60 to 70 percent occluded Thoracic and Abdominal aortic aneurysms -aneuryisms happen more in men than women, increases with age - most occur as abdominal aortic aneurisms -thoracic= often asymptomatic, chest pain extending into interscapular area (most common symptom), hoarseness, dysphagia -abdominal= often asymptomatic, abdominal pain, back pain, pulsatile mass pre-umbilical and slightly to the left -abdominals a. are caused by artherosclerosis (male gender...

Words: 3456 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Homocysteine and the Cardiovascular System

...build and maintain tissue. High levels of homocysteine have been linked to endothelial damage to the blood vessels. This damage can lead to plaque formation, thus atherosclerosis can ensue (American Heart Association, 2012). Although there are many causes of hyperhomocysteinemia, research has shown that nutritional replacement has helped to lower the level. Folic acid and B vitamins have shown to decrease homocysteine levels and thus help decrease plaque formation. Patients with high levels of homocysteine are instructed to include folic acid and b vitamins in their diet, restrict methionine, and exercise. Homocysteine is an unconventional risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and can also be used as a risk marker (Milani & Lavi, 2008). Homocysteine and The Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular disease involves all the diseases that affect the heart and vessels. There are many different diseases that affect the cardiovascular system. Atherosclerosis is one of these diseases. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of soft, fatty and fibrinous deposits in the arterial vessel walls. These deposits later harden with time. This process can later affect the vascular system resulting in ischemic changes (Huether, McCance, Brashers, & Rote, 2008). The pathophysiology behind atherosclerosis begins with injury to the arterial walls. With this injury come inflammation, fibrin formation, lipid deposits, and plaque formation. The...

Words: 1147 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Effects of Smoking

...The Effects of Smoking The harmful substances in cigarette smoke include:- * Tar * Carbon Monoxide * Nicotine Short Term effects of tar * It settles in the lining of alveoli causing th diffusion distance to increase. * The chemicals in tar cause an allergic reaction. This forces the smooth muscle to contract and narrows the lumen. * It destroys the cilia so mucus cannot be removed. It also makes the goblet cells secrete more mucus. * Bacteria and Viruses build up in the mucus and can block the bronchioles leading to infection. Long Term effects of tar * Smokers cough is an attempt to remove the mucus and bacteria blocking the bronchioles. * However, this cough damages the lining of the airways and alveoli. This is replaced by thicker scar tissue that reduces diffusion pathway and narrows the lumen as it replaces smooth muscle. The flow of air is restricted. * Infections due to the bacteria and viruses in the layer of mucus inflame the airways. This damages the epithelium. White blood cells try to remove the infection they use enzymes like elastase to get in to the airway. This damages the elastic tissue and can lead to bronchioles and alveoli bursting. Effects of Nicotine * It mimics the action of transmitter substances at the synapses. This makes the person feel more alert. * Nicotine causes adrenaline to be released. This raises heart rate, breathing rate and causes constriction of the arterioles. This raises blood...

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Fffffd

...increased risk of getting Cardio vascular disease and are increasingly common with advancing age. As a person gets older, the heart undergoes physiologic changes, even in the absence of disease. The heart muscle of an older person may relax less completely between beats and as a result the pumping chambers become stiffer and may work less efficiently. Cardiovascular disease is a term that describes a disease of the heart or blood vessels. Blood flow to the heart, the brain or body can be due to a blood clot (thrombosis) or the build-up of fatty deposits inside an artery leading to the artery hardening and narrowing (atherosclerosis).The four main types of Cardio vascular disease include * Coronary heart disease – This is when your conary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls.The condition is called atherosclerosis and the fatty material is called atheroma.In time your arteries may become so narrow that they cannot deliver enough oxygen rich blood to your heart.The pain and discomfort when this happens is called angina.If a piece of fatty material breaks off it may cause a blood clot to form.If this blocks your coronary artery and cuts off the supply of oxygen rich blood to your heart muscle , the heart may become damaged this is a heart attack. There are several risk factors for coronary heart diseases these include: Smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, Diabetes, being overweight, family history, and age ...

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cardiovascular Risks

...Cardiovascular disease also called heart disease includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke (“What is Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)?”). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the risk factors associated with a previous client that I cared for in the clinical setting and to include rationale and some behaviors that could reduce these risks. The patient that I will be focusing on is a 56 year old female of polish descent whom I will refer to as I.G. She was admitted to UMC with a chief complaint of left knee pain. Her admitting diagnosis was a left distal femur fracture and has a medical history of congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, glaucoma, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertensive disorder, GERD, and diabetes. She admitted that diabetes runs in her family and she also has a history of smoking and obesity evidenced by her BMI of 32.1. Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus is associated with a reduced life span, largely as a result of cardiovascular disease and most patients die as a result of a thrombotic event. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for CVD. This risk affects women more than men and is influenced by the client’s...

Words: 1669 - Pages: 7