Free Essay

Attitude Change Model

In: Business and Management

Submitted By blaine
Words 874
Pages 4
Attitude Change Models

In general, attitude change models all have three phases. First, consumers’ attitudes are measured based on the existing and similar products. Then, secondly, consumers are given the new product and, after use, attitudes are measured again. Then, using the data gathered, we can translate the attribute measure into purchasing probability and correct that probability with awareness and availability factors. The final outcome is the prediction of purchasing probability.

For collecting the preferences, there are two main models. First is the COMP and the second is Silk and Urban. The procedures are the same and the difference is the estimation methods they use to collect the preference data.

COMP - Linear Modeling Procedure
COMP uses the linear model to collect consumer preferences and states the importance of each attribute. The attribute measure of the product under test equals to: (Preference of measured product)/(Sum of the preferences for All Products)

Silk and Urban- Logit Modeling Procedure
Silk and Urban doesn’t use the linear modeling method but instead uses the logit model. Consumers’ preferences are measured from a constant sum paired comparison task in which consumers allocate a fixed number of chips among each pair of products in their consideration set. Then we can translate the result into ratio-scaled preferences.
To forecast the purchase probability, Silk and Urban define it as the multiply of unadjusted purchase probability and consideration percent. Unadjusted purchase probability is the result of preference analysis and the consideration percent, which is the percent of consumers who will consider the new product, is the estimation made by manager based on the product types. For new brand or product, the consideration percent is an estimate and, for existing brand, the consideration percent can be obtained from the market and past data.

The main advantages of this model are:
Avoid some of the laboratory effects. That the attitudes are measured in real world not in laboratory can prevent the system biases.
Intervening effects such as awareness and availability are incorporated directly in the model which makes the results more reliable and accurate.
Product characteristics or consumer perceptions are readily incorporated in the model through the preference analysis.
Easy to translate into actionable decision. Since attitude change models use the preference analysis concept, manager can easily find out which attribute to improve and know the outcome.

The disadvantages of the model are:
As the preference analysis, it’s an indirect measure. The prediction depends on the accuracy and completeness of the model used to estimate choice behavior from the measured attitude.
Attitude change models assume the product enters into an existing category to compare the prior and after preferences change to estimate the purchasing probability. So, if there is no existing category fits the product or there is no right reference product in the market, the use of attitude change models are limited and the results are doubtful.
The main limitations associated with this approached are mentioned below:

Need references
Because of the assumptions that attitude change models have, the tested product needs to have existing or similar references in the market. If not, the prior test result is valueless because consumers maybe can’t even relate the new product with the others as providing the same function or being in the same consideration set. Also, the preference result can mislead the manager to the wrong direction and the consideration percent that manager estimate can depart far from the real situation.

Costs of trials can’t be too high
Here we measure the attitude change after consumers use the product, so products for trial can’t be too high if the value of pretest can’t cover the costs.

Trial period can’t be too long
The benefits of the product should be able to be sensed by consumers in short time otherwise the timeline will be too long and lost the opportunity.
The attitude change model is appropriate for forecasting for different types of products:

Consumer package goods
Based on the limitations mentioned above, attitude change models are suitable for consumer package goods because in this industry most categories are defined and company can easily find reference products to compare with the new product. Also, the product benefits can be sensed by consumers quickly and managers don’t have to estimate the availability or awareness since the in this mature market the data is easy to collect.

Consumer durables
In this industry, managers have to be careful of using attitude models since the trial costs of some of the products in this industry are too high and the benefits of the products can’t be found in short period. But, if these issues can be solved, attitude change analysis is valuable to use. Consumers spend more time on, are more careful of, and are less impulsive of choosing durable goods. Attitude change measurements can effective tell the purchasing probability, the attributes needed to be improved, and the expected results of improvements.

Service industry
For existing service or service improvement, attitude change models are perfect fit. For innovative service, consumers may not have enough references to compare. In this case attitude change models can still provide valuable information but we need to incorporate other measurements to better estimate the purchasing probability.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Attitude

...5/22/2015 Attitudes Attitudes What are Attitudes? • The attitude “object” • Attitudes are a learned predisposition • Attitudes have consistency • Attitudes occur within a situation Tricomponent Attitude Model A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Muliattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive Component • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. • A consumer belief is a psychological association between a product or brand and an attribute or feature of that product or brand 1 5/22/2015 The Tricomponent Model • Affective Component • A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. • Purchase decisions are continually influenced by affective response • It is comprised of both our knowledge of stimuli and our evaluations of them Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Multiattribute Attitude Models • Conative Component • The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object....

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Adapting to Change: the Value of Change Information and Meaning-Making

...Change information was included as a contextual change resource and meaning-making as a personal change resource. The research design allowed for examining longitudinal relationships by capturing data (1) before (Time 1), (2) during (Time 2), and (3) after change implementation (Time 3). We expected adaptability before and during change implementation to predict adaptive attitudes and adaptive behavior...

Words: 9768 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Attitudes

...Chapter 7 – Attitudes The Power of Attitudes Attitude: A lasting, general evaluation of people, (including oneself), objects, or issues. • Is lasting because it tends to endure over time • It is general because it applies to more than a momentary event • Can be very product-specific behaviours (Crest toothpaste rather than Colgate) • Can be toward more general consumption-related behaviours (how often they should brush their teeth) Attitude Object (A0): Anything toward which a person has an attitude, whether it is tangible or intangible. The Functions of Attitudes Functional Theory of Attitudes: Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person; that is, they are determined by a person’s motives. • Developed by psychologist Danial Katz Attitude Functions 1. Utilitarian Function a. Related to the basic principles of reward and punishment b. Develop attitudes based on whether these products provide pleasure or pain c. Ads that stress straightforward product benefits appeal to the utilitarian function 2. Value-expressive Function a. Express the consumer’s central values or self-concept b. Product attitude not because of its objective benefits c. Of what the product says about him/her as a person d. Highly relevant to lifestyle analyses, where consumers cultivate a cluster of activities, interest and opinions to express a particular social identity 3. Ego-defensive Function a....

Words: 3636 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Consumer Behaviour and High Involvement Products

...Within the report a more specific example is used when comparing consumers’ attitudes towards Windows operating systems and Apple Macintosh operating systems and what would drive them to purchase either of the two. The report investigates the computer operations market as a whole but concentrates on the computer markets two main players; Windows and Apple. Apple currently holds 3.2% of the global market as a whole whereas Windows holds a massive 55%. The report conducted both Primary and Secondary research. For secondary research, Mintel Reports were analysed as well as News Reports and Academic texts. Primary research involved holding focus groups and holding one on one interviews. Online polls were also created but this was only used as a guide towards consumers’ attitude towards either of the products. To support the findings from primary and secondary research, the results will be tested using theoretical models in order to determine consumer purchasing behaviour towards the highlighted products. Research will be conducted in order to determine consumers’ attitudes towards Windows and towards Apple and this shall be done via interviews and focus groups. Windows reinforces these positive attitudes through the use of the 4Ps. Windows currently reinforce their already strong following and ensure their consumers that they have purchased the right product for them....

Words: 8202 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Gender

...Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, May 1997 v36 n9-10 p551(22) Advertising's effects on men's gender role attitudes. Jennifer Garst; Galen V. Bodenhausen. Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation We posited that media images of men influence the gender role attitudes that men express soon after exposure to the images. A total of 212 men (87% European American, 7% Asian or Asian American, 3% African American, and 3% other) viewed magazine advertisements containing images of men that varied in terms of how traditionally masculine vs. androgynous they were and whether the models were the same age or much older than the viewers. Men who had initially been less traditional espoused more traditional attitudes than any other group after exposure to traditionally masculine models, although they continued to endorse relatively nontraditional views after exposure to androgynous models. These findings suggest that nontraditional men's gender role attitudes may be rather unstable and susceptible to momentary influences such as those found in advertising. Full Text: COPYRIGHT 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation In the average American household, the television is turned "on" for almost seven hours each day, and the typical adult or child watches two to three hours of television per day. It is estimated that the average child sees 360,000 advertisements by the age of eighteen (Harris, 1989)....

Words: 7988 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Consumer

...SUGENTHEERAN KOMANNAYAR (28380) GAYTHRI KUPUSAMY (26347) SELF PERCEPTION THEORY Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. It asserts that people develop their attitudes by observing their behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. The theory is counterintuitive in nature, as the conventional wisdom is that attitudes come prior to behaviours. Furthermore, the theory suggests that a person induces attitudes without accessing internal cognition and mood states. The person reasons their own obvious behaviours rationally in the same way they attempt to explain others’ behaviours. The self perception theories is categories into three parts which is, Foot-In-The-Door technique There is both foot-in-the-door phenomenon and foot-in-the-door technique. As you can guess, the technique is used to get the phenomenon. The phenomenon is the tendency for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a small request. As you can then imagine, the technique is used to get compliance from others (to get them to behave in a way you want) in which a small request is made first in order to get compliance for a larger request. For example, someone might want you to give to give 5 hours of your time a week for the three months as a volunteer to a charity (a big request). But to get you to agree to this big request, they first ask you to volunteer for 1 hour one time and one time only....

Words: 1685 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ishamela

...Attitudes and Attitude Changes (Ch 7) Attitudes: relatively enduring overall _______________ of products | | Attitude models | ABC Approach: approach that suggests that attitudes encompass one’s _______, _____________, and _______________ (or beliefs) toward an object | | | Hierarchy of effect approach: attitude approach that suggests that affect, behavior, and cognition form in a ________________ order | | High Involvement:Low Involvement:Experiential:Behavioral: | | Methods for measuring attitude | Attitude-toward-the-object model: Compensatory attitude model that considers three key elements including ______________ consumers have about salient attributes, the ____________ of the __________ that an object possesses the attribute, and _______________ of the particular ______________.N I=1 Ao=Σ(bi)(ei)bi= ei= N= | | Attitude-Behavior Consistency: extent to which strong relationships exists between ________________ and actual _____________________. | | Behavioral intention model: model developed to improve on the ATO model, that focuses on behavioral ____________, subjective _________, and ______________ toward a particular ______________B≈BI=w1 (Abehavior)+w2(SN)B=BI=Abehavior=SN=w1, w2= empirical weights | | | Attitude change approach | Persuasion: attempt to ___________......

Words: 922 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Discuss the Relationship Between Persuasion and Attitude Change

...Discuss the relationship between persuasion and attitude change? Persuasion is the use of appeals to reasons, values, beliefs, and emotions to convince a listener or reader to think or act in a particular way. We face persuasive advertisements particularly on a daily basis; from the television to magazines. To explain the psychology of persuasion there are various models; the Hovland-Yale model and the elaboration likelihood model. The Hovland-Yale model states that there several factors that will affect how likely a change of attitude through persuasion is, after all behavioural change cannot occur without attitude change also having taken place. The three most prominent factors are the source, the message and the audience. Hovland et al found that source characteristics played an important role in determining the persuasive nature of any communication. The theory states that people more likely to be persuaded when a source presents itself as credible. For example, people were more likely to be persuaded when hearing the information from an expert. This was supported by Bochner and Insko study, where they found that people were more likely to trust a sleep expert than a non-sleep expert, on matters surrounding sleep. The creditable sources were more influencing towards the audience, where with the non-expert source the audience tried to find ways of discrediting the communicator. The Hovland-Yale model says the content of the message is an important factor....

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Consumer Behavior

...An attitude is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. 2. The functional theory of attitudes was initially developed to explain how attitudes facilitate social behavior. 3. The knowledge function of attitudes applies when a person is in an ambiguous situation and needs order, structure, or meaning. 4. Which of the following attitude functions is associated with a focus on particular social identities and lifestyles (e.g., “What sort of man reads Playboy)? Value-expressive 5. What do the “A, B, Cs” of the ABC model of attitudes stand for? Affect, behavior, and cognition 6. According to the basic of ABC model of attitudes, _____ refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. Cognition 7. What is the first step in the standard learning theory hierarchy approach? Cognition 8. The _____ hierarchy assumes the consumer does not initially have a strong preference from one brand over another. Instead, he acts on the basis of limited knowledge and then forms an evaluation only after the products has been purchased or used. Low-involvement 9. According to the _______ hierarchy, the consumer considers purchases based on an attitude of hedonic consumption (such as how the product makes him or her feel or the fun its use will provide). Experiential 10. Researchers agree that there are various levels of commitment to an attitude....

Words: 1824 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Reasoned Action

...Use the example of “The Gap” to distinguish between the multi-attribute attitude model and the theory of reasoned action. How could each model contribute to the development of a more effective marketing strategy at The Gap? This review and applications question forces students...

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

A Token Economy Is an Intensive.

...Explain any 15 theories of learning, showing clearly how they can be applied to make learning effective Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. 1. Behaviorism theory Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to the understanding of human and animal behavior. Behaviorism combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and psychological theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested experimentally It assumes that the behavior of a human or animal is a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli. Thus, although behaviorists generally accept the important role of inheritance in determining behavior, they focus primarily on environmental factors. 2. Cognitivism theory Cognitivists argued that the way people think impacts their behavior and therefore cannot be a behavior in and of itself. Cognitivists later argued that thinking is so essential to psychology that the study of thinking should become its own......

Words: 3547 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Human Behaviour

...Structure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Introduction Models to Understand Human Behaviour Implications for the Organisation Personality Determinants of Personality Type and Trait Approaches to Personality Theories of Personality Importance of Personality Attitudes Attitudes and Organisation Values Socialisation's Influence on Personality, Values and Attitudes Schein Socialisation Model Summary Self-Assessment Questions Further Readings 4.1 INTRODUCTION It is very essential to understand human behaviour in today's world as the existence of the organisation depends op the employees/individuals. Without understanding human behaviour it is very difficult to work in an organisation. In order to understand human behaviour let us see how the perception of human being has changed from time to time. All organisations are composed of individuals, with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, aspirations and abilities. The main reason to understand behaviour is that individuals are different. No two individuals are similar. In the early studies, theories of organisation and management treated people as though they were the same; scientific management was based on the similarities among workers, not the differences. In contrast, modern theories of human behaviour are based upon the differences among people and how those differences can affect the organisation....

Words: 7370 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Factors Affecting Adoption of Green Consumerism

...Purpose and Scope of the Study This study is an attempt to understand the attitude consumers have towards green consumerism particularly with reference to their purchase and consumption patterns and give suitable suggestions based on the findings to enable them to be more environments’ friendly. This Study also is an attempt to explore the problems faced by consumers in adopting green consumerism and reach out to them for solution. This concept is gaining more importance day...

Words: 2274 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Objectives

...Structure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Introduction Models to Understand Human Behaviour Implications for the Organisation Personality Determinants of Personality Type and Trait Approaches to Personality Theories of Personality Importance of Personality Attitudes Attitudes and Organisation Values Socialisation's Influence on Personality, Values and Attitudes Schein Socialisation Model Summary Self-Assessment Questions Further Readings 4.1 INTRODUCTION It is very essential to understand human behaviour in today's world as the existence of the organisation depends op the employees/individuals. Without understanding human behaviour it is very difficult to work in an organisation. In order to understand human behaviour let us see how the perception of human being has changed from time to time. All organisations are composed of individuals, with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, aspirations and abilities. The main reason to understand behaviour is that individuals are different. No two individuals are similar. In the early studies, theories of organisation and management treated people as though they were the same; scientific management was based on the similarities among workers, not the differences. In contrast, modern theories of human behaviour are based upon the differences among people and how those differences can affect the organisation....

Words: 7370 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Change Management Models

...I have done the research and I will explain the follows descriptive models: Force Field Analysis-Kurt Lewin Kubler-Ross Five Stage Model Stephen Covey: 7 Habits Model Kotter’s 8-Step Model With descriptive models, the role of the Organizational Development practitioner is to illuminate “what is” for the client, and “what could be”. Within descriptive models, contingency theorists would argue that the Organizational Development practitioner facilitates change only, not focus. The client determines the direction of change and the Organizational Development practitioner helps the client get there. Literature Change...

Words: 2442 - Pages: 10