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Attitudes

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Chapter 7 – Attitudes

The Power of Attitudes

Attitude: A lasting, general evaluation of people, (including oneself), objects, or issues.
• Is lasting because it tends to endure over time
• It is general because it applies to more than a momentary event
• Can be very product-specific behaviours (Crest toothpaste rather than Colgate)
• Can be toward more general consumption-related behaviours (how often they should brush their teeth)

Attitude Object (A0): Anything toward which a person has an attitude, whether it is tangible or intangible.

The Functions of Attitudes

Functional Theory of Attitudes: Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person; that is, they are determined by a person’s motives.
• Developed by psychologist Danial Katz

Attitude Functions
1. Utilitarian Function
a. Related to the basic principles of reward and punishment
b. Develop attitudes based on whether these products provide pleasure or pain
c. Ads that stress straightforward product benefits appeal to the utilitarian function
2. Value-expressive Function
a. Express the consumer’s central values or self-concept
b. Product attitude not because of its objective benefits
c. Of what the product says about him/her as a person
d. Highly relevant to lifestyle analyses, where consumers cultivate a cluster of activities, interest and opinions to express a particular social identity
3. Ego-defensive Function
a. Formed to protect the person, either from external threats or internal feelings
b. Products that will protect their image
4. Knowledge Function
a. A result of a need for order, structure, or meaning
b. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation

• Attitudes can serve more than one function, but in many cases a particular one will be dominant
• By identifying the dominant function a product serves, marketers can...

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