Free Essay

Attributes of Being

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Ericjohnson
Words 1802
Pages 8
[University Name]

Metaphysics: The Transcendental Attributes of Being

A research paper submitted to [Professor Name]
In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements For
The course [Course Name]

[Seminary Name]

By
[Student Name]

Place
Date

Introduction While Plato had also covered the notions surrounding the properties of being, Aristotle was the first to bring the term transcendental to the context of the attributes of being. Plato offered valuable insight regarding the four transcendental attributes of being. [1] Aristotle shaped the transcendentals in a specific manner and refined his own perspective. Later philosophers also expanded the discussion surrounding the transcendental attributes of being. These transcendentals become significant in the context of theology because they possess a link with Christian theology and unfold in the form of what man desires. For explicating the four transcendental attributes of being, it becomes significant to first explore the definition of an attribute. An attribute falls under the category of that aspect which does not exist in the form of the embodiment but originates from the same. As regards ‘being’, it can only give rise to what is also being and thus, a ‘being’ cannot spawn attributes or properties while discussing these terminologies in a firm manner. Nevertheless, while approaching the subject in a broader manner, an attribute can be defined for a specific perspective on being as long as it applies to each instance of being and overall entities that fall into the category of being. [2] The four transcendental attributes of being and their explanation follows below:
The First Transcendental: Unity or Oneness One of the transcendental attributes of being accentuates that its count of one and every being is required to possess the fundamental attribute of unity or oneness. A being has to demonstrate a core level of oneness for it to be properly called a being. Furthermore, a being, which has the property of being split within, can go through or be on the receiving end of a refusal. Each being possesses the attribute of being one and demonstrates unity. As far as the function of the expression one is concerned, it brings no element of positivity to the being it is “predicated” but it removes or exempts the notion engulfing several or that of the partition of a being into several. [3] In other words, there exists a certain negative element in this understanding. A being is one when it cannot be several and does not have components within. Moreover, a being does not refer to the property surrounding loneliness. In addition, several distinctive classifications of beings based on the property of oneness also become important to note. The fact that the being is free from division and demonstrates an inability of splitting in the form of a spirit falls under the category of metaphysics. A being comes into the category of physical when natural phenomenon engages in unifying different components in the manner of a whole, such as a human being, a shell or a plant. The same unity fall into the simulated or artificial category when a number of components come together as a result of the expertise or work of man, for instance, a chair, a refrigerator, etc. When several individuals are connected by a specific moral link, this unity falls into the category of moral unity and its examples include a nation or a group of friends. Furthermore, unity may also arise as a resultant of an accident such as several grains of rice lying together and in this case, the unity is accidental. [4] The Second Transcendental: Truth While approaching or observing a being in connection to other instances of beings, humans may perceive the being to be compliant to to the phenomenon of knowledge and consider it to be true or for it to adhere to the truth. Truth is the second transcendental attribute of being. Truth, in this case, falls under the category of an “ontological” or metaphysical form of truth. [5] Truth makes a statement about the compliance of a being to knowledge. Truth in the context of pure knowledge raises the level of a being. The knowledge of God is the criterion or norm that assists in the procedure of weighing every instance of being, and since human beings' knowledge originates from what has been created by God, these act as the criteria that human beings can draw parallels with their knowledge for it to possess a quality of truth.
God is always successful in giving rise to His creations the way in which He models or wishes them to. Furthermore, God’s creations have to comply with or adhere to His knowledge. This line of thought indicates that there is no possibility of existence for a metaphysical fallacy. Truth, based on reasoning, is the primary point of reference or parallelism. For a being to exist in the manner of an entire and complete entity, it has to possess a sense of truth and knowledge of God. The Third Transcendental: Goodness
,
Man may also engage in the practice of approaching or observing each being as fractional to a wish or hunger and assign it the term of good. While approaching the phenomenon of goodness in the context of the transcendental attributes of being, parallels are being drawn to the aspect of desire because goodness possesses the quality of being desirable. [6] Everybody wants himself and others to be good and this raises the demand for goodness to a considerable degree. The quality of a being of being perfect gives rise to its goodness. A being acquires the state of perfection when it successfully manages to possess every component needed by its nature. If a being misses even a single required or underlined quality, others would highlight the being as imperfect instead of perfect. Additionally, the quality of perfection enables a being to be known as good. A being will meet the definition of being sought-after when it can cause perfection in the being that wants it. A being can accomplish this as long as it possesses the quality of being. Every being can be good because goodness can be pursued. Perfection, based on reasoning, exhibits a level of uniqueness from goodness because while perfection considers the being in its existence, goodness views it in the context of or in connection to the being that harbors a desire for it. The Fourth Transcendental: Beauty Beauty comes to attention since it stands distinctive among good entities that provide bliss or satisfaction. Beauty refers to the perfection of an entity in the context of its ability to function as a means of contentment and satisfaction for a spectator. Beauty serves the function of being pleasing to the eye of the beholder and catches and captures his or her attention. Since beauty is desired, it falls into the classification of goodness but is still unique from goodness for a number of reasons. While what is good acts as a source of joy for the one who owns it, what is beautiful is a source of happiness for the one who observes or looks at it. While beauty is mostly viewed or seen, it can also be heard or appreciated in the form of a desirable characteristic. [7] Some categories of beauty make an emphatic statement that physical beauty refers to the quality of perfection in those entities that are natural while intellectual beauty makes a mention of what intellect personifies. Moral beauty appreciates the wonder of morality or one's virtue. Analysis of the Four Transcendentals of Being In light of Aristotle's text, Scotus underlines the query as to whether being and one denote an identical nature. According to Scotus, this query entails some complexities. Scotus underlines a number of four such complications but dedicates his attention mostly to the last which highlights as to whether the one, when it engages in the act of transcendence, exhibits something else instead of "being". [8] In accord with Scotus, this specific doubt engulfs every single transcendent. This line of thought also accentuates that if "one", "true" and "good" are exchangeable with "being", an issues arises when it is a question of approaching the discrepancies between them. [9]

Scotus offers his solution to the aforementioned issue by underlining the notion of "unitive containment". [10] Scotus centers on a number of two issues that have a link with both the “identity” and “non-identity” associated with both one and being. [11] Furthermore, in accord with the perspective of Balthasar, the transcendentals possess the quality of being undividable. If one engages in the act of ignoring or not giving the required amount of significance to one of the transcendentals, it can leave a negative or detrimental impact on the rest. [12] Conclusion In brief, the four transcendental attributes of being signify the desired qualities of that which is being. A being needs to fulfill the qualities of being one, true, good and beautiful for it to exist in the form of a being. When one applies the aforementioned four attributes to human beings, it becomes clear that these attributes act as the foundation of how a human being should be or act because they underline the fundamental prerequisites for a being. By adhering to these attributes a person can fulfill the basic needs of his or her definition.

Bibliography
Aertsen, Jan A. Medieval Philosophy As Transcendental Thought: From Philip the Chancellor (Ca. 1225) to Francisco Suárez. Leiden [etc.]: Brill, 2012.
Coppens, Charles. A Brief Text-Book of Logic and Mental Philosophy. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2005.
Groeschel, Benedict J. I Am with You Always: A Study of the History and Meaning of Personal Devotion to Jesus Christ for Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010.
Heaney, Maeve Louise. Music As Theology: What Music Says About the Word. Eugene, Or: Pickwick Publications, 2012.
-----------------------

[1] Benedict J. Groeschel, I Am with You Always: A Study of the History and Meaning of Personal Devotion to Jesus Christ for Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2010), 79.

[2] Charles Coppens, A Brief Text-Book of Logic and Mental Philosophy (New York: Cosimo Classics, 2005), 21.

[3] Coppens, A Brief Text-Book, 21. [4] Coppens, A Brief Text-Book, 22.

[5] Coppens, A Brief Text-Book, 24.

[6] Coppens, A Brief Text-Book, 25. [7] Coppens, A Brief Text-Book, 27.

[8] Jan A. Aertsen, Medieval Philosophy As Transcendental Thought: From Philip the Chancellor (Ca. 1225) to Francisco Sua[pic]rez (Leiden [etc.]: Brill, 2012), 419.

[9] Aertsen, Medieval Philosophy As Transcendental Philosophy As Transcendental Thought: From Philip the Chancellor (Ca. 1225) to Francisco Suárez (Leiden [etc.]: Brill, 2012), 419.

[10] Aertsen, Medieval Philosophy As Transcendental Thought, 419.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Maeve Louise Heaney, Music As Theology: What Music Has to Say About the Word (Eugene, Or: Pickwick Publications, 2012), 194.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Growing Leaders

...are more about having an influence and being an inspiration to other people while managers’ job is more to control the situation or task by following a process or certain method. The very definition of each word illustrates this point. Leader is defined as someone who can influence others. The definition of a manager is an individual in an organization who directs the activities of others. In this way, leaders are more focused on the long-term development of an organization whereas managers are more focused on the day-to-day operations of an organization. As Buckley stated, “A leader is as much about inspiration as anything else. A manager is more about process.” Anyone in an organization can have leadership qualities and not be in a managerial type position. I also think that it is wholly possible for a manager not to be a leader. What leadership models/theories/issues do you see in this case? List and describe. In this case, the model of transformational leaders is used. Transformational leaders stimulate and inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes. This is seen in there six attributes, specifically motivate and rouse others and strive for excellence. It is also seen in their achievements in leadership development including being among the top 20 companies for leadership according to Hay Consulting Group and Fortune magazine. The trait theories of leadership are seen in the case. The six leadership attributes that M3 identified as essential......

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Positioning Map

...competitors of the company's product and the strength and weaknesses of the company's product in respect of its competing products. It can also help company to identify market segments with specific product requirements where new products may be launched by the company. The image that a brand represents is very important in the luxury division of the motoring industry because consumers are not just buying a luxury car, but the image that a particular car holds. The different brands in the luxury division of the motoring industry are likely to hold different positions within the minds of consumers. I will analyze specifically 5 brands in the luxury vehicle market. These brands are: Volvo, Lexus, Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi. The 4 most important attributes in selecting a brand of luxury vehicle are reliability, safety, comfort...

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

God's Attributes

...TM 266 Basic Christian Doctrines October 7, 2010 Box 479 Word Count: 1,368 When discussing and trying to define God and how He interacts with the world. There are not many ways in which to do so. Grudem tries to find a way to explain this problem by using communicable and incommunicable attributes. In the handouts, incommunicable is defined as absolute and God chooses not to share them with others, communicable is defined as relative and are the attributes that God chooses to share with others. These attributes are how God chooses to communicate who He is with the world and allow us to better understand Him. The incommunicable attributes that I see most in God are His eternity and His omnipresence. When I think of these attributes and God, I feel that I can better comprehend God. By using eternity and omnipresence to get to know God better, I can have a better faith in knowing that He is always with me and He will never leave me. When talking about a God that is eternal, you must understand that means that God had no beginning and will have no end. To explain God’s eternity Grudem states, “To be “infinite” is to unlimited, and this doctrine teaches that time does not limit God or change him in any way.” If God is infinite then time, as it does to humans on earth, does not apply to Him. We see a day as one rotation of the earth and a year as one rotation around the sun, which is defiantly not how God sees time pass. God, on the other hand, can see......

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Attributes of God

...LIBERTY UNIVERSITY THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD AN ESSAY SUBMITTED TO DR. MATT SANDERS FOR MASTER’S OF THEOLOGICAL STUDIES PROGRAM BY MARCUS CAMPBELL MAY 2013 I. Introduction 2 II. Categories of Attributes 2 III. Incommunicable Attributes of God 5 A. Sovereignty 5 B. Aseity 7 C. Immutability 7 D. E. Eternity (Eternality) 9 F. Omnipotence 10 G. Omnipresence 11 H. Infinity 11 I. J. IV. Communicable Attributes of God 12 A. Holiness ...

Words: 4768 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Title Page 1. Introduction 3 1.2. Current Study 5 2.1. Means-end Chain Theory 5 2.2. The laddering technique 6 2.3.1 Recruitment of respondents for individual laddering interview 7 2.3.2 Analysis of laddering data 8 3.1 Attributes, Consequences and Values 9 3.2.1 Results: Marriage Segment 9 3.2.2 Results: Relationship Segment 10 3.2.3. Results: Single Segment 11 4. Discussion and Conclusion 12 References 13 1. Introduction The consumption of alcoholic beverages is an old habit that has been around for thousands of years. It differs in the kind of alcohol consumed from country, culture, social status, age and many other factors. Many studies have been and are still being conducted on the correlation of any of these factors with the consumption of alcohol. According to the latest statistical data from the OECD, the average pure alcohol consumption in Canada was reported at 8.2 litre per capita, compared to the 9.1 litre OECD average (Alcohol Consumption, 2011-2012). Alcoholic beverages are consumed under the main following categories: Beer, wine and spirits. The data provided by Statistics Canada shows a growing preference for wine (3.4% increase in terms of volume sold), while the consumption of beer is currently declining (1.4 % in terms of volume sold). However, beer was still the preferred and most consumed kind of alcohol in 2010 (2,4 billion litres sold). Similar to beer, spirit sales noted a slight decline......

Words: 3517 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Decision Making Project

...Objectives and Attributes Ralph L. Keeney Abstract The fundamental objectives of any decision problem should define why the decision maker is interested in that decision. However, listing a complete set of the fundamental objectives for a decision is not a simple task. It requires creativity, time, some hard thinking, and the recognition that it is important. This chapter offers many suggestions to help do the task well and provides criteria to appraise the quality of the resulting set of fundamental objectives. For an analysis of the alternatives in terms of these objectives, an attribute to measure the achievement of each objective is required. Good attributes are essential for an insightful analysis. This chapter also includes many suggestions to help identify or construct useful attributes as well as criteria to appraise the quality of the resulting attributes. Collectively, the fundamental objectives and corresponding attributes provide the basis for any objective function and for any discussion of the pros and cons of the alternatives. CONTENTS Objectives and Attributes Identifying Objectives Listing Values Specifying Objectives from Values Structuring Objectives Desirable Properties of Fundamental Objectives Advances: Decision Analysis Structure Basic Concepts about Attributes Desirable Properties of Attributes Unambiguous Comprehensive Direct Operational Understandable Page 2 of 45 Ch 08 060502 V06 A Decision Model for Selecting Attributes......

Words: 12160 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

The Impact of Country Attributes on Country Images

...THE IMPACT OF COUNTRY ATTRIBUTES ON STUDY ABROAD PROGRAM AND TOURISM DESTINATION PURCHASING DECISIONS ABSTRACT Place branding has become a very competitive arena. Despite the interest of researchers and practitioners, the segment of study abroad programs has received limited attention in the literature review. According to the 2008 Global Directions in Language Travel report, in 2008, in the language studies abroad travel market, more than 1.3 million students studied languages abroad. This limited attention is surprising, given that more and more students are studying abroad. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate which country attributes are considered relevant when students choose a place for study. In addition, the study investigates whether these attributes are similar to or different from those contemplated when a country is considered as a tourist destination. The results of this study will provide educators and university administrators with some direction for developing more attractive study abroad program offers. In addition, place marketers and governments can benefit from these results with their efforts to attract more visitors to their countries since the market segment of youth pursuing an education aboard has seen steady growth in recent years. KEYWORDS: Image, Destination, Country, Attributes, Study Abroad 1. INTRODUCTION The tourism industry has experienced robust growth over the last decades. As a result, competition in the global tourism......

Words: 6814 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Caring Paper Ns 300

...Caring Attributes in Nursing Kristen M. Brandner University of Alaska Anchorage Caring Attributes in Nursing My mother was my caretaker after I had knee surgery. She showed me how compassionate caring can be huge in helping me recover quickly and safely. Caring has many attributes, but two that I experienced were compassion and trust. Caring is the foundation of Nursing. It is what the profession is built upon and the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) School of Nursing (SON) encompasses caring attributes within their curriculum. There are many other aspects and qualities that classify a “good” nurse. Being knowledgeable, communicative, attentive, non-judgmental, compassionate, nurturing, and paying attention to detail, are all important. However, displaying caring behavior is one attribute a nurse can implement in order to really reach to a patient and promote a safe and expedient recovery. In April of 2003, when I was 15, I had a horrible ski racing crash in Mammoth Mountain, California. My ACL was a complete tear and I had partially torn my meniscus. A month later, I was scheduled for surgery here, in Anchorage, to have a full ACL replacement via cadaver graft and meniscal repair. The surgery itself, I was not scared for. It was the post-surgery concerns: how long would my recovery take? Would I react to the medication? Would I be able to become active in a timely matter? Timely enough to participate in my ski racing endeavors once again? How was I......

Words: 1497 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Eza Ma Bt3Rf Shi La Tkon 3la Ka2Mt Al2Sdk2 ..

...be appropriate? Null value would be appropriate when a particular entity does not have an applicable value for an attribute. There are two cases for such situations. The first case arises when it is known that the attribute value exists but is missing. An example for cases like such would be if the Height attribute of a person is listed as null. The second case arises when it is not known whether the attribute value exists. An example would be is the HomePhone attribute of a person is null. 3.3 Define the following terms: entity, attribute, attribute value, relationship instance, composite attribute, multivalued attribute, derived attribute, complex attribute, key attribute, value set (domain)? Entity Entity is a “thing” in the real world with an independent existence. It can also be an object with physical existence (i.e. person, car) or conceptual existence (i.e. company, job). Attribute An attribute is a particular property that describes entity (i.e. person name company name). Attribute Value Attribute values are major data stored in the database. Relationship Instance Relationship Instance is an association of entities, where the association includes exactly one entity from each participating entity type. Composite Attribute Composite attribute is an attribute that can be divided into meaningful components. Multivalued Attribute Multivalued...

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Important Attributes of Quality Health Care: Consumer Perspectives - Brief Article

...Important Attributes Of Quality Health Care: Consumer Perspectives - Brief Article IMPORTANT ATTRIBUTES OF QUALITY HEALTH CARE: CONSUMER PERSPECTIVES M H Oermann, T Templine Journal of Nursing Scholarship Vol 32 no 2 (1998) 167-172 Personnel at contemporary health care agencies are identifying patient outcomes to evaluate services and patient care. This research focuses on consumer perspectives of high quality health care. Consumer perspectives or expectations have been found to be based on demographic characteristics, health care experiences, and specific concerns related to consumers' unique health problems. Further, patients evaluate their experiences by comparing their expectations to actual events. Satisfaction occurs when events match expectations. The purpose of this research was to allow consumers to identify important attributes of quality health and nursing care and to examine the relationship of consumer perspectives to health status and selected demographic variables. Method and sample. This exploratory study examined a convenience sample of 239 health care consumers, of which 50% were recruited from homes in neighborhoods of a large metropolitan area (ie, urban and suburban) in the Midwest, and 50% were recruited from waiting rooms of clinics in the same neighborhoods. These participants included 149 women (63.1%) and 87 men (36.9%). These gender totals equal 236, whereas previously stated the sample size was 239. This discrepancy was not addressed in the......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Grudem's Theory Of The Doctrine Of God

...In studying this section, Grudem discusses his theory of the Doctrine of God with discussing the character of God. Grudem begins by stating that there are several methods of categorizing the attributes of God. However, the most common attributes are better known as incommunicable and communicable attributes. The incommunicable attributes of God are "those attributes that God does not communicate to others", and the communicable attributes of God are "those attributes that God does communicate or share with others" (Grudem p. 186). An incommunicable attribute of God would be His unchangeableness; whereas, a communicable attribute of God would be love, knowledge and mercy. In Scripture, God is often known and discovered by His character....

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nursing Attributes, Leadership and Critical Thinking

...Summary Paper Teresa Nabors Southern Nazarene University Nursing Attributes, Leadership and Critical Thinking As many have found over the years, nursing is not a profession cut out for just anyone. The average person cannot juggle twenty things at once, expertly handle emergencies that would send anyone else in a panic frenzy, and all the while remain calm and composed, as an experienced nurse does on a daily basis. What many do not know is that this smooth performance is driven by the nursing attributes, skills, and concepts that are necessary components integrated in the nursing profession of great nurses today. I believe the values of critical thinking, flexibility, strong communication skills, emotional stability, interpersonal communication and advocacy are the hallmark ingredients that distinguish the great nurses from the rest. Nursing is about going beyond the task given and a successful nurse encompasses a degree of these core attributes, as well as understanding the essential knowledge of the necessary concepts of leadership and critical thinking. This paper will discuss the attributes and concepts that I think are necessary in setting nursing apart from just any profession and will reflect on the values and practices that I believe makes me the nurse that I am today . Being a nurse can be tremendously rewarding to the soul, but it also demands much of those who pursue it. Nursing is a highly honored, trusted profession that has been steeped in rich......

Words: 2876 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Leadership Attribute Cycle

...aiming at goal achievement through optimal utilization of followers. Globally the noun is used for divergent purposes in different cultures. Therefore there is no right or wrong explanation of the word ‘’leadership’’. There is however a right way to execute leadership that moderates goal achievement and maximizes follower output. This paper is written in order to explain how leaders should act in different situations in order to be effective. We all have a certain perception of leadership and how to act as the best leader possible. However, leadership is something that is not fixed. A leader should be able to adjust his or her leadership attributes to a group, each individual of that group and the situation in which he or she is operating. It is contingent. The essence of this paper is thus giving clearer insight in which leadership attributes should be applied in variable situations focusing on Success and Failure contexts. ‘’Effective...

Words: 4934 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Market Research

...A successful brand is the most valuable resource a company has. In fact, one authority speculates that brands are so valuable that companies will soon include a “statement of value” addendum to their balance sheets to include intangibles such as the value oftheir brands. Brands are used as external cues to taste, design, qualify, prestige, value and so forth. In other words, consumers associate the value of a product with the brand. For example, the value of Kodak, Sony, Coca-cola, Toyota and Marlboro is indisputable. One estimate of the value of Coca-cola, the world’s most valuable brand, places it at over $35 billion. How does a brand create value to the customer? Why do certain brands have more value than others? Naturally, companies with such strong brands strive to use those brands globally (extend them). The purpose of this paper is to review literature on the core associations ofbrands used to position brands as strategies to create competitive advantages. 1.1 Meaning of a brand and Its Importance A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol! intended to identity the goods or services of either one seller or a group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors (Aaker, 1991; Stanton, 1994, and Kotler, 1996). A brand thus signals to the customer the source ofthe product, and protects both the customer and the producer from competitors who would attempt to provide products that appear to be identical. Ancient history......

Words: 2233 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Phi Ashford

...Necessary Attributes of Open-Mindedness Patricia Hough PHI103: Informal Logic (GSJ1424G) Prof. Andrew Stave June 15, 2014 Necessary Attributes of Open-Mindedness Open-mindedness is deemed as a readiness to give consideration to relevant evidence and argument. After carefully reading the “Open-Minded Inquiry” by William Hare and reviewing attributes, I feel the three most important attributes one needs when facing a problem are fallibility, humility, and veracity. As I carefully evaluate each of these attributes, I will prove that they are necessary and in fact, an asset to a person that possesses a willingness to know but to also learn. As William Hare views the intellectual quality and the essence of this trait, “To be open-minded is… to be critically receptive to alternative possibilities, to be willing to think again despite having formulated a view, and to be concerned to defuse any factors that constrain one’s thinking in predetermined ways” (2003, p.4-5). Fallibility is a philosophical theory that says people can make mistakes even if they think they do not and there is no way they can be certain. In other words, fallibility is the likelihood of making an error or failing at something but possessing an ability to bounce back and learn from it. I feel this attribute is extremely important as it allows one to be okay with making a mistake or failing at something while pushing through and realizing there is always more to know. Nobody is perfect and no one......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3