Premium Essay

Auditing: a Practical Approach

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kateiv78
Words 1267
Pages 6
8.1. Explain the purpose of (a) prevent controls and (b) detect controls. Why would it be important for an entity to have both types of controls?
In order to prevent, detect and correct material misstatement the auditor performed the procedures called Test of Controls. There are two types of controls: Prevent Controls and Detect Controls.
Prevent Controls can be applied to each transaction during normal processing in order to avoid errors. When planning controls, an auditor should take in consideration all possible scenarios (What can go wrong WCGWs) which would result in an error. By designing effective controls the auditor can prevent and correct detected errors as soon as possible.
Detect Controls help to discover an error or fraud that may have occurred during transaction processing and to correct those errors. Detect controls usually applied outside the normal flow of transactions to groups of transactions that have been processed already.
Controls over transaction should include both prevent and detect controls in order to be effective because without prevent controls, detect controls may not be able to identify and correct an error.
8.2. Explain the difference between automated and manual controls.
Manual Controls are controls that do not depend on the client’s IT system for their operation. There are few companies that do not use any sort of IT system in processing transactions now days, so manual controls will still use some sort of IT-produced information from third parties.
Automated Controls mostly rely on the client’s IT software. The main concern here is to identify how much of reliance a control places on IT and whether or not the client has effective IT general controls.
8.4. What are the four types of tests of controls? Explain them and comment on the reliability of the evidence obtained from each.
There are four types...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Insurance Test

...Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, 13e (David) Chapter 9 Strategy Review, Evaluation, and Control 1) Most strategists believe that an organization's well being depends on evaluation of the strategic-management process. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 286 Topic: The Nature of Strategy Evaluation Objective: 9.02 Explain why strategy evaluation is complex, sensitive, and yet essential for organizational success. 2) Adequate, timely feedback is important to effective strategy evaluation. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 287 Topic: The Nature of Strategy Evaluation Objective: 9.02 Explain why strategy evaluation is complex, sensitive, and yet essential for organizational success. 3) Too much emphasis on evaluating strategies may be expensive and counterproductive. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 287 Topic: The Nature of Strategy Evaluation Objective: 9.02 Explain why strategy evaluation is complex, sensitive, and yet essential for organizational success. 4) Strategy evaluation should have a long-run focus and avoid a short-run focus. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 287 Topic: The Nature of Strategy Evaluation Objective: 9.02 Explain why strategy evaluation is complex, sensitive, and yet essential for organizational success. 5) According to Richard Rumelt, consonance and consistency are mostly based on a firm's external assessment. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 288 ...

Words: 7145 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Continuous Accounting

...Continuous Auditing Jessica Hunt Accounting 510 Dr. Yining Chen December 3, 2014 Intorduction Generally auditing: is performed months after the business activities have actually occurred, based on a sampling approach, and includes reviewing of systems of approvals and reconciliations as well as policies and procedures. This method has been realized to provide auditors with only a narrow scope of evaluation and doesn’t really provide much value because of its lack of timeliness. Furthermore it has become evident that a need for timely and ongoing assurance over the effectiveness of risk management and control systems is crucial. This along with the environment of rising risks, and regulatory activity and compliance costs (complying with section 404 of the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act) makes this an optimal time to consider a new approach. Continuous auditing is a method used to perform control and risk assessment automatically on a more frequent basis (Coderre 2005). It enables auditors to continually gather from processes data that supports auditing activities (Deloitte 2010), and allows auditors to provide written results on the subject matter using one or a series of reports issued simultaneously (ISACA 2002). Continuous auditing leverages technology and opens database architecture to enable auditors to monitor a company’s systems over the internet using sensors and digital agents. Discrepancies between the records and the rules defined in the digital agents are......

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cambodia Accounting

...Cambodia ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING May 15, 2007 Contents Executive Summary Preface Abbreviations and Acronyms I. Introduction II. Institutional Framework III. Accounting Standards as Designed and as Practiced IV. Auditing Standards as Designed and as Practiced V. Perception of the Quality of Financial Reporting VI. Policy Recommendations EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Cambodia with reference to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). This assessment is positioned within the broader context of the Cambodia’s institutional framework and capacity needed to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting Cambodia is putting in place an institutional framework with regard to accounting, auditing, and financial reporting practices. However, institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules still exist. The accounting and auditing statutory framework suffers from inconsistencies among different laws. Although the national accounting standards and auditing standards are based on IFRS, and ISA, respectively, they appear outmoded and have gaps in comparison with the international equivalents. There are varying compliance gaps in both accounting and auditing......

Words: 17152 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay


...THIS ARTIcLE OUTLINES AND ExPLAINS THE cONcEPT Of AUDIT RISK, MAKINg REfERENcE TO THE KEY AUDITINg STANDARDS WHIcH gIVE gUIDANcE TO AUDITORS AbOUT RISK ASSESSMENT. 01 TEcHNIcAL audit risk RELEVANT TO AccA QUALIfIcATION PAPERS f8 AND P7 AND This article outlines and explains the concept of audit risk, making reference to the key auditing standards which give guidance to auditors about risk assessment. Identifying and assessing audit risk is a key part of the audit process, and ISA 315, Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement Through Understanding the Entity and Its Environment, gives extensive guidance to auditors about audit risk assessment. The purpose of this article is to give summary guidance to CAT Paper 8, Paper F8 and P7 students about the concept of audit risk. All subsequent references in this article to the standard will be stated simply as ISA 315, although ISA 315 is a ‘redrafted’ standard, in accordance with the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) Clarity Project. For further details on the IAASB Clarity Project, read the article by Lisa Weaver, examiner for Paper P7, in the August 2009 issue of Student Accountant. WHAT IS AUDIT RISK? According to the IAASB Glossary of Terms1, audit risk is defined as follows: ‘The risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated. Audit risk is a function of......

Words: 2185 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ob Motivation Application

...KENYA METHODIST UNIVERSITY BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING ACCT 432: AUDITING 1 COURSE OUTLINE GENERAL OBJECTIVE To introduce students to the concept of the audit of financial statements and the issues surrounding the audit of such statements EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to; a) b) c) d) e) f) Explain what is an audit and the qualifications and duties of an auditor Understand the legal and professional rules governing the audit and the auditor Able to design an adequate internal control system Able to design an audit plan and an audit program to conduct an audit Able to audit a computerized client Able to design an audit report Week Topics Content Time (Hours) Definition of auditing 3 Distinction between auditing and accounting Objectives of an audit Types of audits Appointment of an auditor Qualifications of auditors 6 1 GENERAL ENVIRONMENT AUDIT 2-3 THE LEGAL PROFFESIONAL AND Week Topics Content Time (Hours) Rights of auditors Dismissal and duties of auditors REQUIREMENTS AUDITOR 4 OF AN CONDUCTING AN AUDIT 5-6 ERRORS, FRAUD AND OTHER IRREGULARITIES 7 INTERNAL SYSTEMS CONTROL 8 9-10 CAT AUDIT EVIDENCE General audit steps 3 Accepting an audit engagement Letter of engagement Planning an audit Types of errors 6 Fraud Detection, correction and prevention of errors and fraud Role of the auditor in......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Asic Case Study

...The Code of Ethics states the principles and expectations governing the behavior of individuals and organizations in the conduct of internal auditing. It describes the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioral expectations rather than specific activities. Fundamental Principles The Code of Ethics mandates that internal auditors behave and practice with integrity, objectivity, professional competence and due care, confidentiality and professional behaviour. These are the fundamental principles of professional ethics and all members of the professional accounting bodies are to comply with these principles (APES 110, S.100.4). Purpose of the Code of Ethics Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. A code of ethics is necessary and appropriate for the profession of internal auditing, founded as it is on the trust placed in its objective assurance about governance, risk management, and control. The Code of Ethics extends beyond the definition of internal auditing to include two essential components: * Principles that are relevant to the profession and practice of internal auditing; * Rules of Conduct that describe behavior norms expected of internal auditors. These rules are an aid to interpreting the Principles into practical applications and are intended to guide the ethical conduct of internal auditors. The Code of Ethics...

Words: 1507 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Continuous Auditing

...Introduction Technology plays a vital role in continuous auditing activities. As an automatic method, continuous auditing’s responsibility is to perform auditing activities more frequently which including control and risk assessments. With the aim of helping to automate the identification of anomalies or exceptions, analyze models, test controls and review trends, “Continuous” in this aspect of continuous reporting and auditing serves as the financial information’s real-time ability to be shared and checked. Continuous auditing presents that the financial information’s integrity can be evaluated at any given-point-time; as a result, financial information’s inefficient, frauds and errors could able to be verified constantly. In the other hand, we could consider continuous auditing as a very detailed audit. 1 Historical development of continuous auditing As a kind of audit method, it theoretical sources is from the traditional auditing method. The traditional auditing theory is the basis of analyzing the continuous auditing. Most of the auditing is a format of statutory audit, but not all the auditing is required by the statutory from the beginning. Under the freedom of market environment, we should strengthen research on audit risk, explore ways of audit risk management and control, continue to improve audit quality, and reduce audit risk. “In fact, the concept of “continuous auditing” has been around since the late 1980s. But the urgency that Sarbanes-Oxley has......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Independence of Internal Auditing in China

...The independence of internal auditing in China Term Paper Advanced Auditing  February, 15 * The independence of internal auditing in China Abstract China’s rapid economic growth boosted its accounting system that has evolved at a singular rate. The national government encourages foreign investors to participate in the domestic capital market actively. The government also strictly supervises the different national economic activities; as a result, the credibility of the auditing system plays a important role. Chinese government as well as some firms seek reliable and independent internal audit services. This paper will examine some factors which may cause lack of independence in Chinese internal audit systems, the difference between the internal auditing in China and in western countries. Based on interviews and questionnaires, suggestions are made for future improvement on the internal audit system in China. Key words: internal auditing, audit independence I INTRODUCTION The globalization of economy, complexity of business and allegations of fraudulent financial reporting have recently sharpened the ever-increasing attention to internal controls and internal auditing. (Karagiorgos et al., 2009) The role of internal auditing is also evolving as reflected in the following definition ‘an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...| |UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN (UTAR) | | |FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE (FBF) | | |Bachelor of Commerce (Hons) Accounting | Unit Plan | | | | | |Unit Code & |UBAF 2023 AUDITING | | |Unit Title: | | | | | | | |Course of Study: |Bachelor of Commerce (Hons) Accounting | | | | | | ......

Words: 2089 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Auditing Introduction Letter

...Auditing Introduction Letter University of Phoenix ACC 546 Auditing Introduction Letter To: Management of Apollo Shoes From: Martin & Associates, CPA Re: Auditing and Assurance Services Thank you for the opportunity to present the benefits and services that our firm offers. This letter is intended to explain the benefits of each option, our role in providing the available assurance services, and the qualifications required to meet the standard for the services offered. Martin & Associates has been serving our clients for ten years with a strong emphasis on the auditing and assurance services. Our firm takes pride in building trusting relationships, while performing an effective audit to aid in the success of our clients. First and foremost we must understand what auditing and assurance services are. According to Wikipedia, “The general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, enterprise, project, or product. The term most commonly refers to audits in accounting, but similar concepts also exist in project management, quality management, and energy conservation.” When it comes to accounting audits are performed to establish the validity and reliability of information that is being reviewed, in addition to provide an assessment of the internal control system. The main goal of an audit is to express an opinion on the information that is being reviewed based on work that is being done on a test basis. Our......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Enhanced Audit Tool-Hand Hygiene 1

...Auditing with the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene tool HHC auditing is the established outcome measure for assessing the effectiveness of a hand hygiene program within the National Hand Hygiene Initiative. HHC is a valid and reliable measure within the acute care sector, in both public and private hospitals throughout Australia. | Generally, the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene audit tool is ideally suited to facilities that have the greatest staff/patient activity and interaction. This results in higher numbers of ‘Moments’ being audited in shorter time periods. | Auditing facilities where there is little staff/patient activity and interaction will result in a small number of moments being observed (i.e. non-acute, primary care, mental health settings) and resources required to undertake auditing may be better utilised measuring other aspects of a hand hygiene program (e.g product placement and availability surveys, education etc). | Currently HHA do not recommend routine HHC auditing with the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene audit tool as an outcome measure in the non-acute, primary care or mental health setting. | All facilities should be aware of their jurisdictional requirements when planning measurements of their hand hygiene program. A number of assessment tools are available below which can be used or modified as desired. | HHC audits should only be undertaken by HHA trained and validated HHC auditors. | Annual Auditor Validation The National Hand Hygiene Initiative......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...NEED TO ADD THE TITTLE • Research Paper Topic: • What are Auditors’ Responsibility Today to Detect Fraud; include how do these responsibilities fit into the professional practices of: external auditors, Certified Public Accountants in public practice and Internal Auditors and what has changed in these areas in recent years? For standards or articles use the following items as they relate to your paper to help organize your paper. Statements on Auditing Standards (SAS), especially all those statements relating to fraud, Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Sarbanes-Oxley Act , etc. (SOX, Sarbox); International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing (Standards), European Confederation of Institutes of Internal Auditing (ECIIA), Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) , Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)and its standards, and professional articles or books as primary sources. • • • • PLEASE HELP ME OUT EDITING THIS PAPER, SENTENCE STRUCTURE, ADD SENTENCES IF NEEDED I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO AN A PAPER AFTER THIS PROOF READING Thank you in advance please help • Auditors’ Responsibility to detect Fraud today Public companies are required by the SEC to prepare and issue financial statements that made a fair presentation of the companies’ performance. The SEC also stipulates that the companies whose......

Words: 2508 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...Introduction Auditing is an independent, objective assurance & consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. Auditing is globally recognized. It is counter check to accounting data so that any error, mistake or fraud can be easily detected through the technique of auditing. It is the primary source of advice on efficiency, effectiveness and overall economy of an establishment. Auditing starts its journey where accounting end. In today’s society the exercise of an auditor’s to the economic and ethical leadership sets the bounding standard or in other words equips an auditor in such a way that recognizes him as a reliable body. With the growing conscious recognition of the importance of financial data in the ordering of everyday business and economic life, the need of basic economic facts is providing a constantly enlarging opportunity for the accounting profession. The auditors' reports have an especial capacity to fulfill the need for reliable and authoritative financial material not only because of the reputation or prestige of the certified statements, but also because of the significance generally attached by the business man to the functions of the auditor and his reports. These functions, and the scope of these reports, have in the......

Words: 6792 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Role of Auditors

...Many people are familiar with the role of the ethics in the auditing profession which basically is integrity and objectivity for the auditors. This essay addresses dimension of the ethics in the profession of auditing main demands for them in the profession is to assess the integrity and the ethical value of their customers or clients. This is indeed very difficult task for the auditors in practice and demands a deep and robust understanding the value of ethics, ethical infrastructure with their products. According to roger D, martin auditors face ethics issues from two perspectives among which one is well known and other being known and appreciated by the people who are familiar with auditors knowing their work and responsibility. The prospective of this is to deal among the ethical foundation of the auditing profession and to show the integrity and get appreciated with the job they do. This indicates ethics prospective as seeking within their profession on how to manage and achieve their targets with no difficulty. The other prospective, which the auditors face, is to understand and get the solution for the current and new clients. This is generally referred as an assessment, which demands a complete attention and understanding of ethics, ethical infrastructure and the solution of that infrastructure. This essay will give a complete picture on why ethics is important to the auditors and how significant is the contribution of auditors is to the effective corporate......

Words: 1470 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


... Towards Reducing the Audit Expectation Gap: Possible Mission? The auditing profession believes that the increase in litigation and criticism against auditors may be due to the audit expectation gap. The audit expectation gap is defined as the difference between what the public expects from an audit and what the audit profession accepts the audit objective to be. The audit expectation gap is critical to the auditing profession because the greater the unfulfilled expectations of the public, the lower the credibility, earning potential and prestige associated with the work of auditors. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the possible solutions that can be taken to narrow the gap. The study found the proposed solutions in the literature are unlikely to be implemented in view of the practical issues identified. Hence, the proposed solutions are only likely to be effective on theoretical grounds. It is hoped that this paper will provide some insights into proposed solutions which will enable the audit expectation gap to be reduced in a comprehensive and effective manner. E xternal auditing plays an important role in contributing to the effectiveness and efficient functioning of business operations, the capital markets, and the economy by adding credibility to financial statements (Rezaee, 2004). The reliability of auditing functions and the professionalism of the auditing profession was, however, called into question after......

Words: 3811 - Pages: 16