Free Essay

Augustine as Mentor

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By rharvey324
Words 1294
Pages 6
Book Review


Augustine as Mentor

CHHI 520D18 LUO (Fall 2013)

Church History I

Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary

Reed E. Harvey (ID# 24867788)

December 16, 2013

Determine whether the mentoring approach used by Augustine, an Early Church Father is yet relevant for today’s church.


I. Introduction …………….……………………….………………………………….…4
II. Brief Summary ……….…………………………………………….………………...4
III. Critical Interaction ………………………………………………………………….6
IV. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………7
Working Bibliography …………………………………………………………………...9

I. Introduction This review will provide a summarization and critical interaction with the text: Augustine as Mentor authored by Edward L. Smither. Smither is associate professor of Church History and Intercultural Studies at Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary. Other areas of scholarly interest include the Early Church, evangelical missions among Arabs and the history of missions. The thesis of this text is, “that Augustine effectively mentored spiritual leaders and set them apart for needed ministries in the church.” II. Brief Summary Smither sets the table for this text through an in-depth analysis and look at mentoring in the first century. Special emphasis centered on mentoring done by Jesus with the Disciples as found in the Gospels and with the Apostle Paul from the book of Acts and Paul’s epistles. Smither’s summarized definition of mentoring is “a master, expert, or someone with significant experience is imparting knowledge and skill to a novice in an atmosphere of discipline, commitment, and accountability. The writer asserts there are eight characteristics of mentoring that comprise the model of early Christian mentoring. From the foundation laid in chapter one, the second chapter covers four key characters who graced the Christian movement in the third and fourth centuries. These leaders are Cyprian of Carthage, Pachomius of Egypt, Basil of Caesarea and Ambrose of Milan. Smither expands on the evolution of each leader and insights on their mentoring point of emphasis. The third chapter raises the question – who mentored Augustine? The writer argues in favor of the influence of Augustine’s mother Monica who although she was uneducated, modeled piety and prayer and raised him as a Christian. Mention is made of Alypius and Nebridius who shared his journey into faith and continued association with Augustine throughout his ministry. Then there are spiritual leaders such as Ambrose and Simplicianus who imparted into Augustine’s life through their life example, speaking ability and the basic resolve that a mentor should still be a learner. Lastly, there is Valerius whom Augustine revered as a father. Valerius ordained him, involved him in local ministry and finally released Augustine to the work of ministry. The fourth chapter delves into Augustine’s approach to mentoring which centered largely on monastic activity. It is here his greatest efforts to provide mentoring occurred through a framework of practical teaching and life application. The fruit of these efforts notes that, “Other churches therefore began earnestly to ask and obtain bishops and clerics from the monastery that owed its origin and growth to this memorable man…” From the hub of the Augustinian monastic incubator were other spokes of mentoring. This included the equipping and edifying of clergy by letters, writing books – especially Confessions, widely read by the laity as well as the clergy. Through participation with church councils, Augustine served as a theological and exegetical resource for bishops in need of teaching and an effective model for resolving doctrinal controversy. Moreover, Augustine’s comportment during these councils highlighted his wisdom, patience and focus to others. The final spoke comprised personal visits – requiring travel which although Augustine was not fond of whether by land or sea, he yet did as he considered this a necessary part of ministry to carry out council decisions, handle delicate matters and controversy, conduct church visits and visits to friends and those he disciple. The fifth chapter contrasts and compares the framework of mentoring Augustine used with the model described in the first chapter. Hence, the principles deployed by Augustine reflect use of a group context versus individual mentorship, the mentor as disciple, selection,, the mentor-disciple relationship, sound teaching, modeling and involvement in ministry, releasing leaders and resourcing leaders. The epilogue provides a challenge for contemporary Christian leaders to consider the relevance of Augustine’s approach to mentoring. III. Critical Interaction Modeling upright character is one theme woven throughout this book. Highlights include the godly influence of his mother Monica. She was a woman of prayer, tears, spiritual warfare for her son and her husband. This thread continues, as Augustine refers to Ambrose as a “man of God” due to the holy lifestyle of Augustine’s mentor. Accordingly, Augustine maintained high standards for holiness as a requisite for men involved with ministry. A secondary theme is that of spiritual progress characterized by one’s willingness to be teachable. Augustine severally demonstrates this trait by not allowing pride of position block learning and growth from Jerome of Jerusalem. He requested input from Paulinus of Nola while maintaining the posture of a learner. He sought feedback from Aurelius on an initial draft of On Teaching Christianity It is apparent that Augustine understood and embraced that a mentor must be committed to continue to be a disciple. A third theme is a commitment to sound teaching. Augustine’s mother expels him from her house when she learned he had become a Manichean. She was unwilling to compromise; even for her son and one of several stands she makes which impacts Augustine. Augustine upon appointment to the priesthood immediately requested a sabbatical to study the Scriptures. Augustine required training of other bishops and presbyters for preaching and demonstrated his soundness in the Word as he modeled how to deal shrewdly yet graciously with heretics and carrying out the decisions of councils through follow-up visits, letters and books. Augustine believed there was a necessary and natural link between sound teaching and holy living. The fourth and final theme is releasing men for ministry. As Augustine was realizing the potential that Valerius saw in him for ministry, the latter sought to have Augustine appointed as cobishop. Valerius did not feel threatened by Augustine, but rather welcomed the young man’s release into service and responsibility. Likewise, Augustine was willing to deploy his disciples and friends to serve the needs of the church of Africa upon proving themselves as viable candidates he personally knew or at least had a credible reference of commendation. Yet, the book does exhibit a weakness in the repetitiveness of mentoring techniques used by the characters introduced in chapter two who mentored in the fourth and fifth centuries. Of the four characters, Smither cites Ambrose in this chapter, and then information concerning Ambrose resurfaces in chapter three. A similar pattern exists concerning Ambrose’s approach to mentoring where in chapter one there are eight mentoring characteristics mentioned, but are not revisited with depth until the final chapter of the book. Regardless, the material presented is a sound case for applying the Augustine mentoring approach contemporarily. Smither’s proves his thesis, “that Augustine effectively mentored spiritual leaders and set them apart for needed ministries in the church” through the information supplying the practices, methods and standards Augustine used through his approach to mentoring. Because Augustine recognized the worth of upright character, the value of spiritual progress, the need for sound teaching and releasing those trained for ministry, therefore Augustine enjoined many men through mentoring. Smither has shown that the eight elemental characteristics of Augustinian mentoring are timeless and therefore has contemporary relevance.

Working Bibliography

[ 1 ]. Smither, Edward L. Augustine as Mentor (Nashville, TN: B & H Academic, 2008), 2.
[ 2 ]. Ibid., 4.
[ 3 ]. Ibid., 13-23.
[ 4 ]. Ibid., 24.
[ 5 ]. Ibid., 111.
[ 6 ]. Ibid., 124.
[ 7 ]. Ibid., 156.
[ 8 ]. Ibid., 195.
[ 9 ]. Ibid., 204.
[ 10 ]. Ibid., 208.
[ 11 ]. Ibid., 213.
[ 12 ]. Ibid., 93.
[ 13 ]. Ibid., 103.
[ 14 ]. Ibid., 250.
[ 15 ]. Ibid., 223.
[ 16 ]. Ibid., 97.
[ 17 ]. Ibid., 239.
[ 18 ]. Ibid., 240.
[ 19 ]. Ibid., 123.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Augustine as Mentor

...Book Review: Augustine as Mentor: A Model for Preparing Spiritual Leaders “Many pastors today...are struggling in isolation without a pastor to nurture their souls.” The need for all spiritual leaders to have others discipling them is crucial. Smither deeply desires for his readers to gain an understanding on what it truly means to be a disciple. Mentorship starts with a Jesus based plan, Augustine uses this plan in his forty year ministry and Smither captures Augustine’s life with diligence and precision. Smither’s study of Augustine is thoroughly and chronologically sound and filled with numerous early church spiritual leaders but he fails to apply how Augustine and his principles can be used in shepherding the Lord’s flock. Short summary Smither’s text is focused on mentoring spiritual leaders. He does this first by describing mentoring in the first century. With a sincere focus on how Jesus mentored the Twelve and how Paul mentored his coworkers in the mission field. How Jesus mentored is summarized in the following eight mentoring strategies: the group context, mentoring as a disciple, the selecting process, the mentor-disciple relationship, sound teaching, modeling and involving in ministry, releasing to ministry, and resourcing leaders. Jesus’ example of mentorship showed the example in which many third and fourth century church leaders used to guide the spiritual leaders in that generation. Smither uses an extensive list of letters from presbyters, bishops,......

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Augustine as Mentor

...Book Review Augustine as Mentor: A Model for Preparing Spiritual Leaders Liberty University CHHI520- Church History Robert Olsen Edward L. Smither's book entitled Augustine as Mentor: A Model for Preparing Spiritual Leader's was a very eye-opening and very interesting read. The book itself is not just about Augustine himself as a mentor, but it's really somewhat of a user guide on some of the finer points that any leader/mentor (especially in Ministry) can use on their journey in Ministry; it's written almost like a "how to" manual. As far as how the book is written, there's ground work on mentoring in general that's laid and it mixes in some "insights" on Augustine that will be further mentioned as the book progresses. As a matter of fact, it's not until the third chapter where the story really begins on the background and history of Augustine's life and ministry. Through the first chapter, Mr. Smither really goes over the eight main characteristics of mentoring that many spiritual leaders in years past have used (Smither, 13). Those eight are the group, the mentor as disciple, selection, the mentor-disciple relationship, sound teaching, modeling and involving in ministry, releasing to ministry and resourcing leaders. From there they look at several different people who used a very similar style from those who are more "known" (such as Paul and Jesus), to those who aren't like Bishop Basil and the clergy that had......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Impact of St. Augustine's Life

...Of The Requirements For The Course CHHI 520 CHHI-520 HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH I By Dutch Nelson Liberty ID #: L24440559 Lynchburg, Virginia October 7, 2012 Table of Contents Cover Page 1 Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 The Life of Augustine 3 Madaurus 366-370 3 Thagaste 370-371 4 Carthage 371-383 4 Italy 383-387 4 Thagaste 387-390 5 Hippo 390-430 5 Augustine as a Writer 5 Augustine as a Scholar 6 Augustine as a Pagan 7 Augustine and Marriage 8 Augustine’s Journey to Christiainity 9 Augustine as a Christian 10 Augustine as Saint 11 Conclusion 12 Bibliography 14 Introduction Spiritual leaders exemplify themselves by the way they live and the way they impact the lives of others. This normally determines how their congregation and those who hear their word and see their deeds view them. Augustine’s life has not been totally perfect. He like other humans has erred in some way. However, he has had a positive impact on a number of theologians and philosophers (Smith 2008, 1). This paper looks at his life over his 76 years on earth and seeks to provide evidence that Augustine’s life can be used as an example in the preparation of spiritual leaders. The Life of Augustine Augustine’s life dates from 354 to 430. His father (Patricius) was a pagan of Roman decent and a member of the council while his mother (Monica) on the other hand was a Christian. This indicates that he had to deal with contrasting situations very early in his......

Words: 3734 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Hahaha Bitch

...officer. Flagler Palm Coast High School High School Diploma Basic Studies (August 2010 - May 2014) Community Service:  FPC Community Band; Police Athletic League; Palatka Music Center; 21st Century Program Mentor Program; Lifecoast Youth Group Worship Band Experience System of Care Circuit 7 Alumni/Member/Mentor (May 2013 - Present) Attended as a youth in May of 2013. Became an alumni on May 29, 2014. I have attended meetings since then as a mentor and alumni.  Recently nominated as youth board member. 21st Century Program Mentor (December 2012 - May 2013) Mentor at James A. Long Elementary School after-school program. Assisted the youth with homework, aided the 21st century staff and organized activities for the youth. Police Athletic League Player/Coach (March 2012 - July 2012) Played baseball on 16u team and volunteered to coach younger kids between ages of 8-14 at the police athletic league in Bunnell, FL. Skills Work well with kids. Good understanding of SOC7 and good knowledge of electronics, social media and marketing. Activities B.R.O. (Brothers Reinforcing Others) Group for SOC 7 outreach for youth References -Corbett Owens (Personal)                            -Barry Stewart (Professional) Fl. Dpt. of Revenue, St. Augustine, FL.           Putnam County S. O. Palatka, FL. 352-494-4380                                                    Cell - 386-383-9486...

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Narrative and Character Development

...differ little, particularly across their first act structures. Much like the films protagonist Jake Scully your character avatar, Able Ryder, will similarly find him/herself awakening from cryo after a prolonged journey from earth, leaving the ‘ordinay world’ and answering the ‘call to adventure’ within the exotic forests of Pandora. The hero archetype Jake is a fully realised character from the films introduction, who during the film’s first act quickly traverses Volger’s first two narrative points through a series of cut scenes and narration. There is no vagueness surrounding Jake’s character, the internal polarities of that character or the ordinary world he is leaving. The remaining narrative points (‘refusal of the call’, ‘meeting the mentor’ and ’crossing the threshold’) inherent in act one are also traditionally...

Words: 1214 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Getting to Know the Church Fathers

...GETTING TO KNOW THE CHURCH FATHERS An Evangelical Introduction JoHanna Gilyard-Woodward History of Christianity 1 CHHI 520 July 20, 2012 Getting to Know the Church Fathers: An Evangelical Introduction By Bryan M. Litfin: BrazosPress, 2007, pp301 softback. Bryan M. Litfin at the writing of this book states that he earns his living as “a professor whose academic expertise is the early church fathers” (p.7). He is a husband and an associate professor of theology at Moody Bible Institute. He summarizes himself by saying that he is one who has been “taught to think like a Christian; taught to think like a scholar; and taught to think like a catholic” (p. 7). Litfin begins and ends this book with an overall theme and challenge to see how the church fathers impacted the Christian church and the life of an individual Christian on the whole. Secondary to the overall theme he lays out three misconceptions with regards to the church fathers, (1) the church fathers were not biblical; (2) the ancient church fathers were Roman Catholics; and (3) the church fathers represent the “fall” of Christianity (pp. 20-25 & pp. 255-257), and through the ten church fathers discussed in his book he seeks to prove how those misconceptions have misled some individuals. As he introduces the church fathers and deals with the misconceptions, he deals with his third theme, the historical events and places of the life of the church father. Each chapter begins by giving a modern day......

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Reformed Apologetics Ministries

...Reformed Apologetics Ministries Monday, March 17, 2014 Historical Examination of Roman Catholic Eucharist Theology Rome claims her view is historical. We will now examine if the early church writers taught transubstantiation of the bread and wine as well as the Mass being seen as an expiatory and propitiatory sacrifice. Rome has erroneously claimed her modern view has always been held by the historic church. At the Council of Trent Rome taught her belief was affirmed by “all our forefathers” (Thirteenth Session, Chapter 1, The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, trans. H. J. Schroeder, [TAN Books and Publishers, 1978], p. 73), that is, church fathers. Trent also claimed, “because that Christ, our Redeemer, declared that which He offered under the species of bread to be truly His own body, therefore has it ever been a firm belief in the Church of God” (Thirteen Session, Chapter 4, The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, trans. H. J. Schroeder, [TAN Books and Publishers, 1978], p. 75). We will therefore test Rome’s claims historically. Rome’s idea ahistorical & based on Aristotelian concepts adopted late by the church. Rome’s doctrine of transubstantiation is dependent on the pagan Aristotle’s philosophical idea of accidents and substance. Modern Rome’s specific view as espoused by the Fourth Lateran Council and the Council of Trent, as well as other papal documents, that the substance of the elements change into the body and blood of Christ, while the......

Words: 9876 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

A Review of Ethics Concepts & Theories

...A Review of Ethics Concepts & Theories Educational Objectives: 1. Explain the type of problem that is addressed by philosophers. 2. Explain how ethical norms help address ethical issues that arise in accountancy. 3. Contrast the views of Mills, Machiavelli and Kant. 4. Describe what is meant by a social contract. 5. Analyze a given situation and tell why it would be appropriate or inappropriate to lie. 6. Explain the views of Kierkegaard and contrast him from other existentialists. 7. Discuss the concept that ethics cannot be based on religion. 8. Explain the use of ethical reasoning and how it can be used in your professional life. Introduction The major ethical principles accepted in the western world follow guidelines and rules that must be universally applied in all situations. These ethical principles are established primarily on the basis of teachings set forth by philosophers throughout the ages, starting with the great Greek thinkers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. As you might expect, there have been many alterations 修改 to these moral principles throughout the years. What was considered ethically correct by some was rejected by others and replaced with their own concept of what constituted moral or ethical behavior. A Comment about Philosophy: Philosophy, unlike science, addresses issues that cannot be solved. In fact, some philosophers state that if a problem can be solved, philosophers will not......

Words: 2657 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Blaise Pascal: Mechanist and Fideist

...In the seventeenth century, European intellectuals developed a new understanding of scientific endeavor, namely to discern natural causes through quantitative measurement. Galileo first challenged the Scholastic supposition that mathematical astronomy was merely ancillary to natural philosophy, and by the middle of the century, both the Cartesian and Newtonian mechanical systems had placed mathematics at center stage, disdaining qualitative physics as irrelevant, unknowable, and misleading. Consistent with their methodology, the mechanists tended to reduce the ontological reality of the natural world to its quantitative aspects, implicitly or explicitly eliminating all categories other than extension, time, space, and motion. In this interpretation, Descartes’ treatment of matter as extension merely formalized an intellectual aesthetic that even his adversaries held in practice. We can easily see this penchant for quantification in Newton’s belief that all physics is mechanical, but we might not expect to find a mania for quantity among those who held a more poetic view of reality. Such an enigma is precisely what we discover in Blaise Pascal, a man who intensely contemplated the ineffable qualitative aspects of human and divine reality, yet remained as thoroughly mechanistic in his treatment of the natural world as Descartes himself. By exploring this dual reality of Pascal’s intellectual life, we can examine how his brand of fideism synthesized the enchanted world of......

Words: 3358 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...Pre-Socratic Period Thales of Miletus Background: Thales of Miletus (fl. c. 585 BC) is regarded as the father of philosophy. Thales of Miletus was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of ancient Greece. Thales was the first of the Greek natural philosophers and founder of the Ionian school of ancient Greek thinkers. Works/Writings/Philosophy:  His is said to have measured the Egyptian pyramids and to have calculated the distance from shore of ships at sea using his knowledge of geometry.  He also predicted an eclipse of the sun. In geometry Thales has been credited with the discovery of five theorems like the one that a triangle inscribed in a semicircle has a right angle. He tried to discover the substance from which everything in nature is made off and suggested water.  Thales is important in bridging the worlds of myth and reason. He initiated the revolutionary notion that to understand the world one needed to know its nature and that there was an explanation for all phenomena in natural terms. That was a giant step from the assumptions of the old world that supernatural forces determined almost everything.  While considering the effects of magnetism and static electricity, he concluded that the power to move other things without the mover itself changing was a characteristic of "life", so that a magnet and amber must therefore be alive in some way (in that they have animation or the power to act). If so, he argued, there is no difference between the living and the......

Words: 17879 - Pages: 72

Free Essay


...introduction 'Earthly life passed before the half, I found myself in a dark forest ... "- With these lines begins one of the greatest and most brilliant works of world literature - "Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri. "This is a poem about the Dante," danteida, "and at the same time, a poem about a man who, descending and ascending the ladder of the universe, cleaned, and acquires perfect knowledge." People at all times sought to know the universe. And he could not. Maybe that's why his "comedy" to this day loved by ordinary readers and critics, and researchers are still hotly debated around her, every day, opening in this work, something new, not yet solved. "" Comedy "- it's poetry, which has become itself the judge, interpreter, and the key to unlocking secrets" - rightly remarked Alexander L. Dobrokhotov in his book "Dante Alighieri". The theme of my work - "The conductors and the twins Dante and their functions in the" Divine Comedy. '"I think for most of its first full disclosure should understand that in general it is a product. First, the genre of "Comedy" - a vision. The entire poem - a "journey to the underworld, this poet in a vision." However, it is worth noting that "in the" Divine Comedy "the central character - not an abstract" I "and Dante with all the features of his personality and life events of the past ... At the same time," Comedy "is a fiction that develops on the literary laws." Dobrokhotov draws our attention to the fact that "the combination of...

Words: 4891 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Leadership Styles

...Signs appear in everyday contemporary societies. Signs are saturated with a lot of meanings and they relate to any language and are there to make us understand things through relating words with concepts like the word ‘silence’ which is a sign of communication that is indicative of meaning and it is ideological, it is also power to talk. Sign theory is an eccentric war of communication. It focuses on the discourse analysis where it focuses on language, power and ideology. Intelligence services are a key component of every state and their mandate is to ensure the security of states and they make use of the sign theory to supply the policy makers with information or intelligence which is fundamental in the policy making process. Evaluation and analysis’ role is to cast information into its proper intelligence framework and in the process minimising being biased. If evaluation and analysis is quality the intelligence given to policy makers will help policy makers to come up with quality policies and if the evaluation and analysis is poor obviously the policy makers will come up with ineffective policies. There are repercussions if intelligence services fail to analyse. Sign theory help in deductive, inductive and abductive types of reasoning. In this discourse I will define the sign theory, evaluation, analysis, four tools of analysis and the implications of sign theory to evaluation and analysis as a process which is scientific, logical, methodological and verifiable. Theory is...

Words: 17243 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay


...Counseling Ethics Christin M. Jungers, PhD, LPCC, NCC is an Associate Professor of Counselor Education at Franciscan University of Steubenville. She obtained her doctoral degree in Counselor Education and Supervision from Duquesne University and has worked in the field as a counselor since 2000. Christin is a licensed professional clinical counselor, as well as a National Certified Counselor. Her clinical work spans a variety of issues and includes counseling with individuals, couples, and families. Currently, she offers pro-bono counseling services in Steubenville and Wintersville, Ohio through the Catholic Diocese of Steubenville. She is the editor of The Counselor’s Companion: What Every Beginning Counselor Needs to Know (co-written with Jocelyn Gregoire), as well as numerous articles. Christin also has conducted trainings abroad in the Seychelles Islands and in Mauritius, which have been aimed at providing consultation to emerging counseling programs. Jocelyn Gregoire, CSSp, EdD, LPC, NCC, ACS has been a Roman Catholic priest for 25 years and has been involved in the counseling field for many years. He is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling, Psychology, and Special Education at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In addition to his doctorate in Education, he holds two other graduate degrees. Through his expertise as a professional counselor, Dr. Gregoire has helped thousands of people across the world in their journeys......

Words: 13374 - Pages: 54

Free Essay


...Page No. 2 Index Swachh Bharat Mission FEB & MARCH, 2015 AUGUST, 2012 Page No. 4 Insurance Sector In India Page No. 5 Bharat Ratna Award Designed by: Chandan Kumar “Raja” For Advertisement Contact at : 9958790414 Join us at Facebook: Follow us at Twitter: CURRENT AFFAIRS National Issues International Issues India & the World Economy Science and Technology Sports Awards & Prizes In The News 6 14 20 23 39 51 58 64 Disclaimer: Editor and Publisher are not responsible for any view, data, figure etc. expressed in the articles by the author(s). Maps are notational . All Disputes are subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of competent courts and fourms in Delhi/New Delhi only. Selected Articles from Various Newspapers & Journals Page No. 67 91 Cyberspace Page No. 93 Regional Rural Banks The Mauryan Empire Model Paper G.S. Paper I 94 117 Join Online Coaching For IAS Pre & Mains Exams Project Mausam and Maritime Silk Route SWACHH BHARAT MISSION Throughout the world around 2.5 billion people do not have toilets to use, out of those 250 crore people 65 crore live in India alone. In order to solve this big challenge government of India has launched “Swachh Bharat Mission” on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and former Prime Minister Lal......

Words: 80076 - Pages: 321

Free Essay

Essential Thinkers

...A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 First American paperback edition published in 2006 by Enchanted Lion Books, 45 Main Street, Suite 519, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Copyright © 2002 Philip Stokes/Arcturus Publishing Limted 26/27 Bickels Yard, 151-153 Bermondsey Street, London SE1 3HA Glossary © 2003 Enchanted Lion Books All Rights Reserved. The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier hardcover edtion of this title for which a CIP record is on file. ISBN-13: 978-1-59270-046-2 ISBN-10: 1-59270-046-2 Printed in China Edited by Paul Whittle Cover and book design by Alex Ingr A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 Philip Stokes A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 ENCHANTED LION BOOKS New York Contents The Presocratics Thales of Miletus . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Pythagoras of Samos . . . . . 10 Xenophanes of Colophon 12 Heraclitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Scholastics St Anselm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 St Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . 50 John Duns Scotus . . . . . . . . . 52 William of Occam . . . . . . . . . 54 The Liberals Adam Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Mary Wollstonecraft . . . . 108 Thomas Paine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Jeremy Bentham . . . . . . . . . 112 John Stuart Mill . . . . . . . . . . 114 Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . 116 The Eleatics Parmenides of Elea . . . . . . . 16 Zeno of Elea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Age of Science Nicolaus Copernicus . . . . . . 56 Niccolò......

Words: 73655 - Pages: 295